TABLE 884 Differential Diagnosis of Intrinsic Renal Failure

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) secondary to renal ischemia accounts for the majority of cases of intrinsic renal failure. Nephrotoxins are the second most common cause of ATN, accounting for approximately 25 percent. When the etiologies of ARF were reviewed in a multivariate analysis, a synergistic effect was noted for the combination of ischemic and nephrotoxic ATN.11

Postrenal failure accounts for 2 to 5 percent of all cases of ARF, but has a significantly higher incidence in selected populations ( Table.88.-5). In large surveys of elderly men for symptoms of urinary obstruction, prevalence between 20 to 35 percent has been estimated.12 In young males, renal calculi are the most common cause of obstruction. In young females, cervical carcinoma can cause urinary obstruction. In children, postrenal failure is commonly secondary to congenital malformations such as urethral valves in boys and vesicoureteral reflux in girls.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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