Tuberculosis is a chronic infection characterized pathologically by formation of granulomas. Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most common site of infection is the lungs, although other organs may be involved. The following criteria must be met for a reportable case of tuberculosis: (1) a positive tuberculin skin test, (2) other signs and symptoms compatible with tuberculosis (abnormal chest radiograph or clinical evidence of current disease), (3) treatment with two or more antituberculosis medications, and (4) completed diagnostic evaluation. Laboratory confirmation can be made by any of the following methods: (1) isolation of M. tuberculosis from a clinical specimen, (2) detection of M. tuberculosis from a clinical specimen by nucleic acid amplification test, or (3) acid-fast bacilli in a clinical specimen when culture has not or cannot be obtained.
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