Types of Contrast Reactions

Contrast reactions can be divided into three categories: anaphylactoid, chemotoxic, and vasovagal ( Table.294-2). Anaphylactoid reactions occur idiosyncratically, and they mimic allergic or anaphylactic reactions and shock. Anaphylactoid contrast reactions are not true anaphylactic reactions because they have no known consistent pathophysiologic mechanism. They may involve one or more of the following mechanisms: histamine release, complement activation, hapten formation, contact sensitivity, endovascular reactions, and central nervous system factors. However, unlike true immunoallergic or anaphylactic reactions, they do not involve IgE mediation. An increased risk of anaphylactoid contrast reaction is associated with a history of asthma, food or drug allergy, or a previous contrast reaction. Low-osmolality agents are associated with a lower risk of anaphylactoid contrast reaction.

Signs Hyponatremia
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