This mosquito-borne viral illness presents with acute onset of fever, headache, myalgias, and conjunctival injection. This is followed by brief remission and recurrence of the preceding symptoms along with hepatitis, albuminuria, jaundice, and in some cases renal failure, shock, and generalized hemorrhages. Laboratory diagnosis of yellow fever is made on finding (1) a fourfold or greater rise in yellow fever titer in patients with no recent history of yellow fever vaccination and in whom cross-reaction to other flaviviruses has been excluded or (2) yellow fever virus antigen or genome in tissue, blood, or other body fluids.
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