Endometriosis of the cervix is quite rare. Why would endometriosis even develop there, because menstrual flow normally passes through these places? That question is the great mystery of endometriosis, but possible causes are an altered immune response, metaplasia, or genetic defects of the endometrium (see Chapter 4 for more info on the possible causes).
Two symptoms of endometriosis of the cervix are
1 Pain during sex
1 Irregular bleeding, especially after sex
The cervix is often contacted during sex, and endometriosis can make the cervix tender to touch. As a result, women with endometriosis of the cervix often have pain with deep penetration and then bleeding after, or even during, sexual intercourse. These endometriosis lesions on the cervix can also cause irregular spotting or heavy bleeding at any time during the cycle.
Even more unusual is endometriosis of the vagina, which occurs mostly in the top third of the vagina. This occurrence may be due to the fact that section of the vagina develops from the same embryologic tissues as the cervix and uterus. The symptoms are the same as those of the cervix: pain with sex and irregular bleeding.
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