Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more...

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Energy Usage In Food Processing Plants

There is a continuing concern about the energy demand by our food system. It is estimated that 17 of U.S. energy consumption is attributed to the food system (1). This figure includes energy used for production through processing, distribution, out-of-home preparation, and in-home preparation. The food industry requires energy for a variety of equipment such as gas fired ovens dryers steam boilers electrical motors refrigeration units and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. direct fuel use, steam, and electricity. Nearly 50 of energy use is in the form of direct fuel use. Almost 30 of energy is used to process steam and 10 to heat water. Almost 67 of electrical energy consumption is for generating mechanical power to operate conveyors, pumps, compressors, and other machinery. Refrigeration equipment consumes about 17 of electricity lights consume about 10 and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning use approximately 4 of electricity. Between 1973 and 1986, the cost...

Energy Management Of Hte Taste Citrus Juice Evaporator

Energy Consumption in the Food System report XIV, 13392007-001, Federal Energy Administration, Washington, D.C., 1975. 8. G. H. Brusewitz and R. P. Singh, Energy Accounting and Conservation in the Manufacture of Yogurt and Sour Cream, Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 24, 533-536 (1981). 9. S. Bouman, D. W. Brinkman, P. de Jong, and R. Waalewijn, Multistage Evaporation in the Dairy Industry Energy Savings, Product Losses and Cleaning, in S. Bruin, ed., Precon-centration and Drying of Food Materials, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1988, pp. 51-60. 11. D. P. Lubelski, S. L. Clark, and M. R. Okos, Process Modifications to Reduce Energy Usage, in Energy Management and Membrane Technology in Food and Dairy Processing, Proceedings from the Special Food Engineering Symposium Held in Conjunction with Food and Dairy Expo 83, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Mich., 1983, pp. 7-13. 16. J. Filho, A. Vitali, C. P. Viegas, and M....

Increasing Energy Costs

Increasing energy costs associated with traditional methods of food preservation storage, such as freezing, has resulted in the growth of less energy-intensive and more economical methods of short- and long-term preservation, such MAP. It has been estimated that MAP is 18 to 20 less energy intensive compared to freezing for shelf-life extension of bakery products. Thermal processing to achieve ambient temperature shelf stability is energy intensive, but not nearly as much as freezing, which requires removal of heat of fusion as well as temperature reduction and maintenance of low temperature. Further, it has been demonstrated repeatedly that the 0 F (- 18 C) traditionally employed for frozen storage is well above the optimum temperature. Frozen foods are best stored at below their glass transition temperatures, a more costly and energy-intensive process being overtly resisted by commercial frozen food-distribution interests. These groups have failed to recognize the quality and hence...

Extra Energy Costs of Pregnancy

Hytten and Leitch's theoretical estimations of the overall energy costs of human pregnancy published more than 30 years ago have subsequently been experimentally validated as reasonable average values, and they have been adopted by many national and international bodies as a partial basis for developing recommended energy intakes in pregnancy. The costs can be divided into three main components the energy deposited as new tissue in the conceptus, the energy deposited as fat, and the energy required to maintain this new tissue.

Individual Variability in the Total Energy Costs of Pregnancy

Because of the marked differences between individuals in the different components of the energy costs of pregnancy (changes in BMR, body fat, and energy expended on physical activity), the total energy costs, and therefore energy requirements, are also variable. Studies of well-nourished women indicate that the total extra energy costs of pregnancy average 418 MJ (100 000 kcal), considerably higher than the estimates in Table 3, and there is a large range from 34 to 1200MJ (8000-287000kcal). These

Energy conservation

Energy conservation, activity modification, and advanced planning of activities can decrease dyspnea by decreasing the respiratory effort and work of breathing and the related fatigue. Energy conservation techniques gain even greater importance for the patient and the family in advanced disease when family resources and other assistance may become essential. Most of the information known about the relationship between energy conservation techniques and dyspnea is reported in studies that describe the patients' experiences with the strategies21,42,43 as there are no randomized clinical studies examining this relationship. Patients have described energy conservation techniques that help them manage their shortness of breath. These strategies include pacing activities slowing down using good posture and breathing techniques with performance of any task replacing hobbies and activities with those that require less effort and advanced planning of activities with estimation of'breathing...

The Market for Environmental Biotechnology

The benefits are not, however, confined to the balance sheet. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2001) concluded that the industrial use of biotechnology commonly leads to increasingly environmentally harmonious processes and additionally results in lowered operating and or capital costs. For years, industry has appeared locked into a seemingly unbreakable cycle of growth achieved at the cost of environmental damage. The OECD investigation provides what is probably the first hard evidence to support the reality of biotechnology's long-heralded promise of alternative production methods, which are ecologically sound and economically efficient. A variety of industrial sectors including pharmaceuticals, chemicals, textiles, food and energy were examined, with a particular emphasis on biomass renewable resources, enzymes and bio-catalysis. While such approaches may have to be used in tandem with other processes for maximum effectiveness, it seems that their use...

Electrostimulation Of Metabolite Production

A notably innovative approach toward increasing the microbial production of an end product is electrostimulation. Electrical stimulation of microbial metabolite production is based on the use of an artificial electron carrier such as neutral red, allowing an electric current to indirectly supply the electron-driving force needed to generate a proton-motive force for energy conservation and the electrons needed for growth and end product production (24).

Objectives For Blancher Control

Close control of blanch time and temperature influences uniformity of product quality as well as energy consumption. For example, where a vegetable does require blanching prior to freezing, it is now being established that the blanch treatment required depends largely on the heat stability of those enzymes directly responsible for the main deteriorative changes in a given product during frozen storage. Hence energy may be wasted if the blanching conditions are loosely controlled to inactivate peroxidase enzymes, whereas the less heat stable lipoxygenases are the relevant enzymes to inactivate (20).

Brain Energy Metabolism

All the processes described in this textbook require energy. Ample clinical evidence indicates that the brain is exquisitely sensitive to perturbations of energy metabolism. This chapter covers the topics of energy delivery, production, and utilization by the brain. Careful consideration of the basic mechanisms of brain energy metabolism is an essential prerequisite to a full understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of brain function. The chapter reviews the features of brain energy metabolism at the global, regional, and cellular levels and, at the cellular level, extensively describes recent advances in the understanding of neuron-glia metabolic exchanges. A particular focus is the cellular and molecular mechanisms that tightly couple neuronal activity to energy consumption. This tight coupling is at the basis of functional brain imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Energy And Cost Considerations

Lated to cleaning temperature and hence energy savings can be achieved by reducing the cleaning temperature. However, this would necessitate an increase in the deter-gency requirement of the solution and or cleaning time. The most energy efficient method, therefore, may not be the most cost effective method. Cost and energy calculations are required in several plants for combinations of time, temperature, and strength of detergent to achieve a standard level of bacteriologic cleanliness before any meaningful conclusion can be reached (11).

Assessment of Nutrition in Children Anthropometry

After the first year of life, children usually follow very predictable gains in weight and height over time. Growth as gain in weight and height remains, with activity, the aspect of energy consumption that the body can reduce if energy intakes are inadequate for all needs. The wide range of normal weights for age in a population means that a single weight in an individual child is not a good indicator of over or under nutrition. Nevertheless, weight change over time is the most widely used parameter for judging nutritional status. Failure to gain weight at the expected rate is often the first evidence of declining nutritional status. Where inadequate nutrition is prolonged, linear growth faltering also occurs. Growth curves showing weights and heights plotted against age with trajectories for mean and standard deviation or centile distributions of a population are the basis of growth assessment in childhood. In infancy, crossing the centiles upwards or downwards is quite common as...

Fermentation and respiration

The chemiosmotic model, proposed by Peter Mitchell in 1961, states that the proton, or hydrogen ion, gradient which develops across an intact membrane during biological oxidations is the energy store for the subsequent synthesis of ATP. This model somewhat revolutionised the then current thinking on the energy source for many cellular processes, as the principles of energy storage and availability according to the chemiosmotic theory were applicable to many energy-demanding cellular phenomena including photosynthetic phosphorylation and some cross-membrane transport systems. It could even account for the movement of flagellae which propel those bacteria possessing them, through a liquid medium. The chemiosmotic theory accounts for the coupling of the transmembrane proton gradient to ATP synthesis. It implies that during oxidation, the electrons flow down from high to low energy using that energy to drive protons across a membrane against a high concentration, thus developing the...

Protein Synthesis In Nervous Tissue

Palade Experiment Secretory Pathway

The process by which integral membrane proteins are synthesized closely follows the secretory pathway, except integral proteins are of course not released from the cell, but instead remain within cellular membranes. Synthesis of integral proteins begins with synthesis of the nascent chain on a polysome that is not yet bound to the RER membrane (Fig. 2.4). The emergence of the N terminus of the nascent protein from the protein-synthesizing machinery allows a ribonu-cleoprotein, a signal recognition particle (SRP), to bind to an emergent hydrophobic signal sequence and prevent further translation (Walter and Blobel, 1981 Walter and Johnson, 1994 Gilmore et al, 1982a,b). Translation arrest is relieved when SRP docks with its cognate receptor in the RER and dissociates from the signal sequence in a process that requires GTP. Synthesis of transmembrane proteins on RER is an extremely energy-efficient process. The passage of a fully formed and folded protein through a membrane is,...

Principles of measurement 521 Theory behind NIR measurement

Infra-red light is part of the broad spectrum of energy known as electromagnetic radiation. Figure 5.1 shows the relative wavelengths and energies in the electromagnetic spectrum that are used in spectroscopy. While X-rays are of extremely high energy, capable of promoting inner electron transitions in high atomic number elements, the infra-red region is of relatively low energy and upon interaction with molecules, causes inter-atomic vibrations. Near infra-red

Theoretical Bases

Weight caused by storage of extra energy in body fat stores. The primary source of energy consumption is the food (and beverages) that individuals consume. Energy expenditure, or the energy that individuals burn is derived from several sources (1) physical activity (about 25 ), (2) basal metabolic rate (about 70 ), and (3) the thermic effect of food (about 5 ). Metabolic rate and thermic properties of food are not easily altered by behavior. However, certain drugs can increase (or decrease) these metabolic responses. Therefore, behavioral weight loss programs generally focus on the modification of eating behavior and energy expenditure that results from increased physical activity.

Cellular Respiration and Adenosine Triphosphate

In the first stages, glucose and other metabolic fuels are oxidized, linked to the chemical reduction of coenzymes (nicotinamide adenine dinucelotide (NAD+), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and flavin mononucleotide (FMN)). In the final stage, ATP is synthesized from ADP and phosphate via a common pathway using energy released from the oxidation and recycling of the reduced coenzymes (Table 1). Thus, the oxidation of metabolic fuels is tightly coupled to energy consumption and the production of ADP from ATP in energy-consuming processes (Figure 2).

Manure Fuel Production And

The use of manure as a substitute for fertilizer N may become more attractive as energy costs increase. Natural gas is used to produce a large fraction of fertilizer N, and natural gas accounts for 75 90 of the cost of making anhydrous ammonia. Conserving manure N may be of much greater importance as energy costs continue to escalate. Furthermore, it will reduce carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) generation during the manufacture of N fertilizer.

Interactions between Resting and Nonresting Energy Expenditure

It must be emphasized that the separation of adaptive thermogenesis between resting and nonresting is artificial, given the possibilities of their interactions illustrated in Figure 2. For example, energy expenditure during sleep, which is generally nested under resting energy expenditure, also comprises a nonresting component due to spontaneous movement (or SPA) occurring during sleep, the frequency of which seems to be highly variable between individuals. Furthermore, nonresting energy expenditure or NEAT may also include heat production resulting from the impact of physical activity (exercise or SPA) on postabsorptive metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis. There is evidence that relatively low-intensity exercise can lead to potentiation of the thermic effect of food, and that the effect of physical activity on energy expenditure can persist well after the period of physical activity (postexercise or post-SPA stimulation of thermogen-esis). Reduction in postexercise...

Biological Significance

Nutrients (protein, minerals, and vitamins) with only a secondary role in regulating energy balance and body weight. Whatever the exact functional significance of DIT, however, it is clear that in the context of weight recovery an elevated efficiency for catchup fat can be shown to persist even under conditions of hypermetabolism (a net increase in thermogen-esis) induced by hyperphagia or nutrient-deficient diets. To explain this apparent paradox, the model presented in Figure 4 provides a structural framework that illustrates how suppressed adipose-specific thermogenesis that results in enhanced fat deposition during refeeding, and that is postulated to occur in the skeletal muscle, persists under conditions when the nonspecific control of thermogen-esis is activated in organs tissues recruited by the SNS (liver, kidneys, heart, and brown adipose tissue). Such differentially regulated control systems for thermogenesis may thus have arisen during the course of mammalian evolution as...

Morphology of Lesions in the Kidney

Immediately after ultrasound exposure with low energy levels, the lesion sometimes cannot be detected macroscopically. Even microscopy only shows an area that is less strongly stained by periodic acid-Schiff, without changes in the cellular structure 38,39 . Ultrastructural examination of the kidney has revealed damage to organelles within the first couple of hours. The initial healing process indicated the presence of these discrete lesions. Medium energy levels induced a sharp lesion that was macroscopically detectable 1 h after HIFU treatment and that was demarcated within the next few days 40 . Focusing on the renal corti-comedullary border resulted in pronounced streaky bleeding of the medulla. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions appeared to be less extensive in the cortex. Nevertheless, focusing directly on the cortex also induced a distinct defect in this area. Histologically, acute changes involved epithelial displacement and epithelial destruction of the affected tubuli....

Emulsion Science In The Food Industry

Food Emulsions

Between the two energy levels compared to the thermal energy of the system (kT), the greater the fraction of molecules in the lower energy state. In practice, a system may not be able to reach equilibrium during the time scale of an observation because of the presence of an energy barrier (AE*) between the two states (Figure 1.2). A system in the high energy state must acquire an energy greater than AE* before it can move into the low energy state. The rate at which a transformation from a high to a low energy state occurs therefore decreases as the height of the energy barrier increases. When the energy barrier is sufficiently large, the system may remain in a thermodynamically unstable state for a considerable length of time, in which case it is said to be kinetically stable or metastable (Atkins 1994). In food emulsions, there are actually a large number of intermediate metastable states between the initial emulsion and the separated phases, and there is an energy barrier...

Other Clinical Characteristics

In contrast to their poor dietary intake, these patients have a paradoxical enhanced interest in nutrition and cooking. They collect recipes, read nutrition textbooks, plan a career in nutrition or cooking, or find a job in a restaurant (usually wait-ressing). Anorexic patients enjoy cooking and feeding the rest of the family. They know the precise energy content of all usual food and use their knowledge to select low-energy items.

The strengths and weaknesses of batch retorts

Batch retort manufacturers appear adept at meeting the challenge of new container types and materials, the concerns for the environment and energy conservation, the growing demand for automation and the need to reduce product manufacturing costs. It is likely that the basic principles of energy transfer via condensing steam, perhaps via a heat exchanger and automatic batch control systems will be available to the food processor for many years to come. Food researchers and microbiologists are likely to keep pace with product developers and package designers to ensure that the food processor has the expertise available to ensure that coming generations of new food products, thermal processes and package formats will not pose a risk to public health. It seems likely that the current momentum in these research and development areas, the growing public awareness of the risks of food poisoning and the commercial pressures to produce more and more high-quality, shelf-stable food, will...

Other Adjunctive Tools To Facilitate Ablation

Catheter navigation systems have been developed that use low energy radiofrequency signals or ultrasound signals to localise catheters. These systems permit identification of points of interest in three dimensional space, cataloging of ablation sites, and re-navigation to sites of interest. However, one system does not create activation or isopotential maps, and does not integrate anatomy with physiology. Compared with the more complete mapping systems described above, its main advantage is reduced cost. Little clinical experience is available for the other system because of its recent introduction.

Box 55 Diauxic growth

Diauxic Lag Phase

When E. coli grows in a medium containing glucose and lactose, it preferentially metabolises the former since it is more energy efficient to do so. The cell has a regulatory mechanism that suppresses the synthesis of lactose-metabolising enzymes until all the glucose has been used up (see Chapter 11). At this point a second lag phase is entered, while the lactose metabolising enzymes are synthesised. Such growth is termed diauxic, and the resulting growth curve is characteristically biphasic.

Csp2Csp3 Bond Rotation

The C5 to C15 portion of the AA acyl chain of AEA and of 2-AG contains four cis homoallylic double bonds (i.e., cis double bonds separated by methylene carbons). One important feature of this chain is the great torsional mobility about the two torsion angles involving each methylene carbon between adjacent pairs of double bonds (vinyl groups) in the acyl chain (for example, the C8-C9-C10-C11 and C9-C10-C11-C12 torsion angles, for which rotation would occur about the C9-C10 and C10-C11 bonds. See drawing of AEA (1) for the numbering system). This involves rotation about Csp2-Csp3 bonds. Rabinovich and Ripatti (Rabinovich and Ripatti, 1991) reported that polyunsaturated acyl chains in which double bonds are separated by one methylene group (as in AA) are characterized by the highest equilibrium flexibility compared with other unsaturated acyl chains. Rich (Rich, 1993) reports that a broad domain of low-energy conformational freedom exists for these C-C bonds. Feller and coworkers have...

Dairy consumption energy intake and body weight

Dairy consumption has been associated with both increased and decreased energy intake. A greater consumption of dairy products was associated with a higher energy intake of adults in Bogalusa, LA (Ranganathan et al., 2005). Because an association was also found between the number of servings of dairy products and saturated fat intake, these results suggest that the higher energy intake results from the consumption of high fat dairy products. Surprisingly, the association between dairy consumption and body weight of the study group was not reported. However, Rajpathak and colleagues (2006) found that American men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study) who increased dairy consumption over 12 years gained slightly more weight than those who reduced intake the most. This association was largely due to the intake of high-fat dairy products because low-fat dairy intake was not associated with body weight change. Nevertheless, weight gain with increased dairy consumption was found to be less...

Steven H Cousins Kathryn VBracewell and Kevin Attree

Nutrients for maintenance, movement, growth, and reproduction. Food webs are structures which only exist such that members of the web gain energy from others, or if they are predated, 'donate' energy and nutrients to their predators. We suggest that additional measurement techniques can clarify the energetics of trophic transfers. Although categories of stored energy can be identified in ecosystems, conventional calorimetry only provides a first law of thermodynamics description suitable for energy accounting in food webs in which energy is neither created nor destroyed. We therefore ask how can we make appropriate measurements for a second law approach to the operation and fuelling of food webs.

Timing and Mechanism of Injury

Individual biological variation, sexual dimorphism, and age-related changes in leg bone size, cortical thickness, cross-sectional morphology, trabecular integrity, and resilience need to be considered in the forensic assessment. More gracile bones will be less resistant to fractures as will bones in which the endosteal surface has been resorbed as a result of age, hormonal influences, medical treatment, or the use of certain medications, alcohol, or illicit drugs (17). For example, there is a bimodal distribution of subtrochanteric and distal femoral fractures with an initial peak in young adulthood associated with high energy impact and a second peak in older individuals, usually female, associated with relatively low-energy impact (18,19). For this reason, it is difficult to estimate the actual force involved for the already damaged bone, although ranges can be produced from experimental situations in which the test bones are chosen to approximate the size and dimensions of the bone...

The Herbivorous Food Step

Muthukrishnan (1978) give energy accounting (first law) data for final instar silkworm larvae free-feeding on mulberry leaf and show 1000 gcal of fresh leaf results in 462 gcal assimilated and 538 gcal frass and a gross conversion efficiency of 16 into silkworm mass. We approximate this to 1g leaf 0.16g larva + 0.54g frass + 0.3g CO2. The power densities of the materials produced and as measured above have been transformed from leaf 12.6 W.kg-1 (estimated peak 16 W.kg-1) to larvae 13.0 W.kg-1 (estimated peak 22.0 W.kg-1) to frass 6 W.kg-1 (estimated peak 7.0 W.kg-1) (Attree, 1998). Thus a unit mass of leaf is transformed into a small quantity of material with a higher power density, the silkworm, and a large quantity of low power density material, the frass, while, by the first law, the energy contents are conserved.

Principles Of Laser Capture Microdissection

Laser capture microdissection is based on the selective adherence of visually targeted cells and tissue fragments to a thermoplastic membrane activated by a low-energy infrared laser pulse (Fig. 1). The basic system (marketed by Arcturus, Mountain View, CA) consists of an inverted microscope, a solid-state near-infrared laser diode, a joystick-controlled microscope stage, and hardware and software for laser control and image archiving. A new system for automated microdissection with expanded technical capabilities has recently been introduced by the same company. The thermoplastic membrane used for the transfer of selected cells is mounted on an optically clear cap which fits on standard 0.5-mL microcentrifuge tubes for further processing.

Psychological support and behavioral interventions

Behavioral interventions typically include education regarding energy conservation and breathing training. Energy conservation comprises a group of strategies aimed at minimizing energy expenditure during daily activities. The goal of energy conservation is to maximize functional capacity in an individual with very limited physiologic reserves. Breathing training techniques attempt to reduce dyspnea by altering breathing patterns. Pursed-lip breathing is one such technique that involves expiration against partially closed lips. Pursed-lip breathing reduces respiratory rate and minute ventilation,19'20 but it has not been consistently shown to reduce dyspnea.

Homogenization Efficiency

The energy efficiency of a homogenizer (EH) can be calculated by comparing the minimum amount of energy theoretically required to form an emulsion (AEmin) with the actual amount of energy that is expended during homogenization (AEtotal) The minimum amount of energy required to form an emulsion is equal to that needed to increase the interfacial area between the oil and water phases AEmin AAy where AA is the increase in interfacial area and y is the interfacial tension. For a typical oil-in-water emulsion, AEmin has a value of about 3 kJ m-3, assuming that 0.1, r 1 im, and y 10 mN m-1 (Walstra 1983). The actual amount of energy required to form an emulsion depends on the type of homogenizer used and the operating conditions. For a high-pressure valve homog-enizer, AEtotal is typically about 10,000 kJ m-3, and so the homogenization efficiency is less than 0.1 (Walstra 1983). The reason that homogenization is such an inefficient process is because the disruption of small droplets...

Comparison of Homogenizers

The choice of a homogenizer for a particular application depends on a number of factors, including the volume of sample to be homogenized, the desired throughput, energy consumption, the physicochemical properties of the component phases, the desired droplet size distribution, the equipment available, initial costs, and running costs. After choosing the most suitable type of homogenizer, one must select the optimum operating conditions for that particular device, such as flow rate, pressure, gap thickness, temperature, homogenization time, and rotation speed.

Advanced Techniques And Instrumentation

An important technique used to conduct structural studies with MALDI-TOF MS is the so-called postsource decay (PSD). The MALDI process results in different classes of desorbed particles, ions, neutral particles, and metastable particles that undergo decay during their drift toward the detector. The decay is initiated by low-energy collisions of neutral matrix molecules with analyte ions. To analyze the PSD products, precursor ions are preselected (based on mass) via an ion gating device. Products and precursors are resolved through the use of single-staged or two-staged reflectrons. Some applications for the PSD approach are described in ''Applications in Proteomics.''

Membrane Homogenizers

Membrane homogenizers form emulsions by forcing one immiscible liquid into another through a glass membrane that is uniform in pore size. The size of the droplets formed depends on the diameter of the pores in the membrane and on the interfacial tension between the oil and water phases 30 . Membranes can be manufactured with different pore diameters, with the result that emulsions with different droplet sizes can be produced 30 . The membrane technique can be used either as a batch or a continuous process, depending on the design of the homogenizer. Increasing numbers of applications for membrane homogenizers are being identified, and the technique can now be purchased for preparing emulsions in the laboratory or commercially. These instruments can be used to produce oil-in-water, water-in-oil, and multiple emulsions. Membrane homogenizers have the ability to produce emulsions with very narrow droplet size distributions, and they are highly energy efficient, since there is much less...

Countercurrent Distillation Rectification

Countercurrent Distillation

- in vacuum rectification, the low pressure loss per plate permits energy savings For heating pumps, employing a direct product stream, e.g. vapour recompression, results in a higher difference between head and sump temperature than the usage of an external compression fluid. After adjustment of the operating conditions, a head and a sump product form. The reduced thermal exposure is of advantage, as well as the low energy requirements and the high output. Methods developed on a laboratory scale can be transferred to semi-industrial and industrial units.

Macrophyte Treatment Systems MaTS

The link between the general desire for biodiversity conservation and the acceptability of created wetlands was mentioned earlier. One of the most important advantages of these systems is their potential to create habitats not just for 'popular' species, like waterfowl, but also for many less well-known organisms, which can be instrumental in bolstering the ecological integrity of the area. This may be of particular relevance in industrial or urban districts. At the same time, they can be ascetically pleasing, enhancing the landscape while performing their function. These systems can have relatively low capital costs, but inevitably every one must be heavily site specific, which means many aspects of the establishment financing are variable. However, the running costs are generally significantly lower than for comparable conventional treatment operations of similar capacity and efficacy. In part the reason for this is that once properly set up, a well-designed and constructed facility...

Liquid Food Concentration

Evaporation of liquid foods is most commonly accomplished using multieffect evaporators. The word effect indicates vapor flow in the evaporator. The total evaporation costs depend on the steam consumption, the specific area of the evaporator, and the specific product losses (9). The energy efficiency of an evaporator is usually expressed by thermal or steam economy, which is defined as a ratio of quantity of water evaporated to quantity of steam consumed (10). The steam economy of an evaporator increases with the increase in number of evaporator effect, because subsequent effects use vapor from the previous effect as the heating medium. As an example, a single-effect evaporator takes 1.5 kilogram of steam to evaporate 1 kg of water, whereas a double-effect evaporator only consumes 0.75 kg of steam to evaporate the same amount of water (11). Energy consumption in a four-effect, seven-stage (the word stage indicates the flow of orange juice in the evaporator) TASTE evaporator with a...

Linear Library Optimization

Filter all analogs with a rapid, approximate method based on the co-crystal structure of the target-fragment complex to eliminate analogs of the fragment hit that are unlikely to bind. We use a computational approach based on the energy minimization and docking scoring functions from Northwestern Dock 63 . We constrain each analog to bind initially as observed for the fragment hit, sample multiple sterically allowed, low-energy conformers of its substitu-ents using the Open Eye 61 OMEGA software 64 , and perform a rapid energy minimization for each conformer against all available structures of the target protein (up to 50 in some cases). Multiple protein structures with differing conformations are included at this step, because our minimization scoring approach maintains the protein structure as a rigid object and only allows ligand movement. Elaborated fragment conformations are only rejected if they prove sterically incompatible with ALL of the available target structures.

Repression of gene expression

Glucose is central to the reactions of glycolysis (Chapter 6), and is utilised by E. coli with high efficiency, because the enzymes involved are permanently switched on or constitutive. The j-galactosidase required for lactose breakdown, however, must be induced. What happens then, when E. coli is presented with a mixture of both glucose and lactose It would be more efficient to metabolise the glucose, with the ready-to-use enzymes, but from what you have learnt elsewhere in this section (see Figure 11.15b), the presence of lactose would induce formation of j-galactosidase and subsequent lactose breakdown, a less energy-efficient way of going about things. In fact, E. coli has a way of making sure that while the readily utilised glucose is present, it takes precedence. It does this by repressing the formation of j-galactosidase, a phenomenon known as catabolite repression. Thus, the presence of a 'preferred' nutrient prevents the synthesis of enzymes needed to metabolise a less...

The Risk For Mood Disorders

The risk in the control sample was mostly (15 out of 18 children) accounted for by children of psychiatrically well parents who were siblings of a bipolar patient. Children with negative family history rarely received even a low risk rating. The clinical features which were most frequent in children with a bipolar parent were mood lability, low energy, anxiety worry, hyperalertness, sensitivity and somatic complaints. Increased and decreased energy, decreased sleep and anger temper were noted to occur periodically in more than 50 of the children, and these miniclusters (episodic affective storms) were considered the more typical prodromal manifestation in children at risk for bipolarity. Disruptive behaviours and conduct problems were very rare in the Amish children with a bipolar parent, presumably due to psychosocial and environmental influence.

Submerged Fermentation

Tongwen and Weihua (150) studied the effect of cell configurations on energy consumption and the electroacidification parameters in citric acid production by bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Three basic cell arrangements, type I A (anion membrane)-C (cation membrane)-BP (bipolar membrane)-A-C, type II C-BP-C, and type III BP-A-C-BP, were used. Type I generated acid citrate by acidification with acid sulfate produced from the dissociation of sodium sulfate, and type II produced acid citrate by replacing Na+ with H+ generated at bipolar membrane electrodialysis. Type III generated acid citrate by directly splitting sodium citrate. From energy consumption, current efficiency, and concentration of the produced acid citrate, it was suggested that type II seems to be a favorable cell configuration for the production of citric acid. Other workers (141,147) studied the production of citric acid from synthetic medium by S. lipolytica and A. niger using a stirred tank reactor and a disk...

Homebound with supported outings

In this phase attention and distraction strategies can be reinforced and practiced, so they will become a 'habit' before, but also as, shortness of breath increases. Attention strategies might include monitoring of the symptom, advanced planning of activities, energy conservation and appropriate rests, and the use of a fan. Distraction strategies might include music, TV, the Internet, walks, reading, relaxation, guided imagery, self-talk, acupressure, or massage. This phase may require a change or decrease in the exercise regimen, however, optional exercises can replace walking, such as, daily weights, breaking up the exercise to smaller intervals, or chair aerobics. Support groups either organized or within the community can also help patients to learn strategies to cope with increasing dyspnea. Vicarious learning from peers who have developed ways to manage dyspnea is a potent source of self-efficacy or confidence that will help them to control their dyspnea. In the hypoxic COPD...

Mental Work and Brain Work

Autoradiographic studies conducted in animals have confirmed Sherrington's principle for the regulation of brain blood flow and its coupling to neuronal activity and energy usage. But it would take several years before sensitive techniques were developed for measuring regional brain blood flow in humans. An early development was the invention of the xenon-133 (Xe-133) method for assessing regional cortical changes in brain blood flow and glucose metabolism. Injection of the radioactively tagged xenon gas, which passes freely across the blood-brain barrier, into human patient volunteers showed that the performance of various mental tasks (such as mental arithmetic of the type mentioned at the beginning of this article) led to increased metabolic activity in specific cortical regions.

Penetrating Ballistic Injuries

Injuries caused by firearm missiles are classified as due to either low- or highvelocity missiles based on the missile's exit speed low-velocity rounds generally have a speed of 1000 ft s, whereas a high-velocity round is defined as one with a speed of 2000 ft s or above. The trauma caused is proportional to the kinetic energy of the missile and therefore proportional to the square of the velocity. Most handguns are considered low-velocity weapons. Low-energy ballistics inflict a smaller zone of injury, often limited to moderate soft tissue damage and minimally comminuted fractures. High-velocity missiles, however, inflict devastating, widespread destruction of the soft tissues, complex comminuted fractures, and organ damage. These injuries extend to distant areas of the body through an inconstant vector. The increasing availability of legal and illegal firearms increases the likelihood of high-velocity ballistic injuries presenting to trauma centers. These weapons are often the...

Electrochemical reactions Oxidationreduction

These may take place at or very near both electrodes, especially when processing corrosive and or highly conductive acid or NaCl-containing fluids. As indicated above, protons may be reduced at the cathode to form hydrogen, while chloride anions may be oxidised into chlorine and hypochlorite. Oxygen or oxidants present in the food fluid can react with hydrogen and enhance the rate of proton reduction. Electrode material (stainless steel) is often visibly oxidised at the anode, with the formation of a layer of metal oxide(s), and the possible release of metal cations into the food fluid. The oxidation of graphite electrodes releases CO2. Current conduction through the bulk fluid medium depends mainly on ion migration, and much less on a flow of free electrons. The possible oxidation or electrolysis of food constituents during PEF processing has not been specifically investigated. In some cases, protein deposits have been observed on electrode surfaces. Metal ions or complex ions...

Introduction 11 Radiation on Earth

Cataclysmic events such as supernovae explosions. When they enter our solar system, their energies must be high enough to overcome the deflection by the magnetic fields of the solar wind. Solar Cosmic Radiations (SCR) consist of two components, the low energy solar wind particles that flow constantly from the sun, and the highly energetic Solar Particle Events (SPE) that are emitted from magnetically disturbed regions of the Sun in sporadic bursts.

Radiation Beyond Low Earth Orbit

Human missions beyond LEO, such as to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, or even to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn are considered as a natural extension of the current human activities in space. Such long journeys outside the protective umbrella of the geomagnetic field will expose both astronauts and equipment to the radiation environment found in the deep space (Horneck et al. 2003a). The lunar surface radiation environment is characterized by the GCR and SCR in the near Earth environment that impact the lunar surface thereby producing secondary particles which diffuse from the surface into the local environment. The mass shielding effect of the Moon itself is nearly a factor of two. On Mars which, like the Moon, lacks a magnetic field, GCR and SCR interact directly with the Martian atmosphere, whereby low energy charged particles are stopped and the composition of the particle fields penetrating to the surface of Mars is modified (Horneck et al. 2003b, Horneck et al. 2005). In the...

Growth Of Map Technology

Despite the paucity of visibility, MAP technology has emerged as the premier packaging technology of the last years of this century. Currently, the United States leads the way in MAP technology, followed by the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Thousands of food processors around the world use MAP technology for shelf-life extension and food distribution. It is estimated that the production of CAP MAP vacuum-packaged foods in North America is well in excess of 30 billion lb annually. The growth of MAP technology, for both medium- and long-term preservation of food, is due to a number of interrelated factors consumer desire for higher-quality, more nearly fresh, and higher nutritional quality foods the development of better but still imperfect distribution systems improved packaging technologies and energy costs.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of

The main benefits associated with MAP of food products are better quality retention, extended product shelf life and associated increase in market area, improved product presentation and consumer appeal, and a reduction in energy costs associated with freezing and freezer storage costs (Table 8).

General References

Aboagye et al., Energy Costs in Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Freezing Processes as Applied to a Baked Product, in M. LeMaguer and P. Jelen, eds., Food Engineering and Process Applications, Vol. 2, Elsevier Applied Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1986, pp. 417-427.

Behavioral Changes in Physical Activity

It has frequently been assumed that a behavioral reduction in the energy expended on physical activity helps to counteract the increases in expenditure due to increased body weight, and in some women this leads to saving of energy that largely meets the costs of pregnancy. However, although relatively small changes in activity patterns can potentially result in significant energy savings, there is little evidence that this occurs to a large extent. A possible reason for this is that affluent women are habitually so sedentary that there is little scope for further reduction. In contrast, in developing countries habitual levels of physical activity are high and there is therefore more potential for behavioral reductions. However, many women are likely to be unable to reduce their physical activity because of the constraints imposed by a subsistence livelihood, where farm work is obligatory for survival. This topic has been one of considerable debate in recent years, particularly since...

Programming and follow up

Maximum energy of the device (fig 16.2), but the ICD can be programmed to treat ventricular tachycardia by a variety of modalities of antitachycardia pacing (fig 16.3) or if necessary by low energy cardioversion shocks. Some centres routinely test the efficacy of antitachycar-dia pacing modalities at a post-implant electro-physiological study. However, many implanters now consider this unnecessary, since spontaneous episodes of ventricular tachycardia are often easier to terminate than tachycardias induced in the laboratory, and a standardised antitachycardia pacing algorithm appears to be effective in the majority of patients.

Comparison Of Single And Twin Screw Extruders

In single screw extrusion, the use of steam for heating provides about one half of the energy necessary for heating. The other half comes from mechanical energy. Twin screw extrusion heat is provided primarily with mechanical energy inputs. The use of steam will lower energy costs as it is a inexpensive source of energy giving single screw extruders the

Mitochondria and Peroxisomes

Mitochondria are minute capsules of respiratory, phosphorylative, and other enzymes they are the power plants'' of cells, which the unresting neuron, with a great need for oxygen and glucose and low energy reserves, requires in profusion. In oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria produce large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chief molecule upon which the energy requirements of electrically active neurons depend. Neuronal mitochondria are rodlike or filamentous and usually more slender than those in other cells, ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 mm in diameter. They may associate closely with Nissl bodies, but generally are ubiquitous in the dendrites and soma (Figs. 16 and 21F), along the axon, and in profusion at axon terminals (Fig. 23). A peculiarity of neuronal mitochondria is that their cristae often lie parallel (not transverse) to their long axis cross sections of such forms appear as concentric light and dark rings. Another feature is the paucity of electron-dense granules...

Mechanical Vapor Recompression Evaporators

In recent years, MVR technology has been introduced and widely accepted as an effective approach to powering medium to large-capacity evaporators for both chemical and sanitary applications. While experience has shown that the higher capital cost of this equipment relative to that of steam-driven evaporation systems has been offset by significant energy savings, advances in MVR technology now have reduced energy requirements even further. Simply stated, with mechanical recompression the water vapor boiled off in the evaporator is passed to an electrically powered compressor and is compressed through 1-3 psi. This raises the temperature of the vapor, which then is used as the heating medium. The difference in enthalpy between the vapors on the heating and process sides is comparatively small, with a resultant reduction in energy consumption and, depending on regional steam and power costs, an operating cost equivalent to at least an 8-30-effect evaporator. Theoretical thermal...

Influence of Exercise Training on Energy Balance

Not all athletes are able to correctly identify goals that are suitable for their sport and for their individual make-up. This can lead to various problems, including excessive restriction of energy intake in an attempt to achieve an unrealistically low body mass. If energy intake is too low, and especially if carbohydrate intake is inadequate, it may not be possible to sustain the training load without the risk of chronic fatigue, injury and illness. If an energy deficit is incurred, it may lead to changes in metabolic and hormonal function, which affect performance, growth and health. One outcome of low energy availability in female athletes is a disturbance of reproductive function and menstrual regularity. Other problems are likely to occur in male athletes. There is a real danger that the focus on achieving a specific body mass and body composition, may become more important than achieving success in competition. athletes who are failing to achieve an adequate carbohydrate...

Short rotation coppicing

The practicalities and limitations of generation from such a fuel source largely lie beyond the scope of the present work to examine. In general, though, ensuring continuity of supply and adequate production can be problematic. In addition, while much interest has been shown in the idea of using the biomass produced by a number of individual growers in a single generator, the logistics and transport costs are major obstacles to overcome. It is possible to characterise any given fuel in terms of its calorific value per unit mass, which is referred to as its energy density (ED). Clearly, high ED confers obvious advantages in terms of storage and delivery. Wood, however, is a relatively low energy density fuel and hauling it to a centralised facility, thus, becomes costly, both in economic and environmental terms, especially over long distances. There is a clear advantage, then, in maximising the final yield of energy cropped trees and integrated biotechnology can assist in this regard.

Classification and Treatment of Pelvic Fractures

Type Compression Injury

BREAK IN THE PELVIC RING Pelvic fractures include those that involve a break in the pelvic ring, fractures of a single bone without a break in the pelvic ring, and acetabulor fractures. Pelvic fractures involving a break in the pelvic ring can be complex and therefore difficult to classify. These injuries range from low-energy stable fractures to high-energy unstable patterns. The most clinically useful classification by Young ( Table. . . 2.65-.1.), is presented.7 It differentiates fracture patterns based on mechanism of injury and direction of causative force. Incidence of complications (i.e., urogenital and vascular) is correlated with the fracture pattern, making identification of the type more clinically significant and useful.

Exogenous Somatotropin Growth

There is little effect of pST on digestibility, so effects are due to an increase in the efficiency of use of dietary protein and or an increase in the requirement of dietary protein to support the increased protein deposition. In grower pigs (30 60 kg), pST has little or no effect on dietary protein requirements, but there is an improvement in the efficiency of amino acid use. In finisher pigs (60 120 kg), pST has little effect on the efficiency of dietary protein use, but there is an increase in protein requirement commensurate with the increase in protein deposition. 6 As a consequence of the increased protein mass and protein synthesis, there is also an increase in maintenance requirement. That increase, when combined with the reduced intake, means that dietary energy may often limit the response to pST. Protein deposition in growing ruminants is virtually always limited by dietary energy consumption, and this may explain why ruminants treated with ST do not decrease feed intake,...

Types of thermal process

Conventional water blanching has lower capital cost and better energy efficiency than steam blanching but results in larger losses of water-soluble components, including vitamins, minerals and sugars. It also results in larger volumes of effluents and risk contamination by thermophilic bacteria. With steam blanching it is possible to reduce significantly the effluent volume as well as leaching losses if air cooling is adopted instead of water. However, uneven blanching can result if the food is blanched in multilayer piles. The individual quick blanching (IQB) technique (Lazar et al., 1971) is an innovation based on a two stage heat-hold principle and has been shown to improve the nutrient retention significantly. Research and engineering efforts led to the development of improved blanching equipment that makes use of steam (saturated or superheated) and recirculating hot water to improve nutrient retention, reduce leaching losses and improve energy efficiency (Cumming et al., 1984)....

Recommended Dietary Allowances

Quantifying thiamin requirements is based on a variety of biochemical data. Early results indicated that a thiamin intake of 0.4mg day on a low-energy intake was close to the absolute minimum requirement. Epidemiological evidence suggested that beriberi occurred when the intake of thiamin was

Nature of the Measured Changes

Work conducted to understand the energy-consuming processes taking place in axon terminals has shown that glucose consumption is correlated with the activity of the Na+ pump, suggesting that this is the crucial event in the coupling between neural activity and energy consumption. If increased metabolic activity reflects presynaptic activity, then one would predict that both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity results in similar increases in energy needs. Consistent with this prediction, stimulation of excitatory and inhibitory afferents of the lateral superior olive within the brain stem auditory system of the cat brings about similar increases in deoxyglucose uptake. Note that, although increased excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic activity may produce identical local increases in deoxyglucose uptake, they will have opposite effects on the postsynaptic neurons being

Skinners Descriptive Behavior Operant Conditioning Theory

Is that it must be considered as a condition that is qualitatively different, as well as quantitatively different, from the state of wakefulness (cf., dual-arousal model - refers to the physiological relationship between sleep and wakefulness where the arousal function involves two nerve pathways the diffuse tha-lamic system and the reticular activating system the model indicates that the two systems permit the brain to operate in a dual manner, one for stimulus-processing and the other for executing responses). There are active mechanisms controlling sleep just as there are active mechanisms controlling arousal during wake-fulness. Sleep should be considered not as one collection but as two separate ones where quiet sleep (or NREM sleep) and active sleep (or REM sleep) constitute the duality of sleep. Estimates suggest that people spend nearly a third of their lives sleeping. Laboratory studies indicate that most individuals find it difficult to stay awake for more than 60 hours,...

The Lipostat Theory Predicts the Feedback Regulation of Adipose Tissue

Gulation Prise Alimentaire

The lipostat theory postulates a mechanism that inhibits eating behavior and increases energy consumption whenever body weight exceeds a certain value (the set point) the inhibition is relieved when body weight drops below the set point (Fig. 23-30). This theory predicts that a feedback signal originating in adipose tissue influences the brain centers that control eating behavior and activity (metabolic and motor). The first such factor, leptin, was discovered in 1994, and several others are now known.

Tofsims Acquisition

Many biological specimens are electrically insulating and will tend to acquire a positive charge during positive ion bombardment (see Note 25). To alleviate this phenomenon charge compensation is required, usually through the use of a low-energy (30 eV) electron flood-gun. The electron beam and secondary ion extraction field must be pulsed such that the low energy electrons are not accelerated by the extraction field. Pulse synchronization is such that the electron pulse arrives at the specimen between the primary ion pulses, when the extraction field is pulsed off.

Lignin Decomposition by Saprotrophs

As cellulose decomposition proceeds, the concentration of the more recalcitrant lignin increases (Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982). At later stages of decomposition, decay correlate well with lignin concentration in the litter (McClaugherty and Berg, 1987). Polyphenolic compounds, either tannins present in the fresh litter or products of lignin decomposition, form recalcitrant complexes with nitrogen-containing compounds, such as proteins and chitin (Kelley and Stevenson, 1995). As a result, nitrogen progressively becomes incorporated into the highly recalcitrant, polyphenolic litter fraction during decomposition (Berg, 1988). In highly decomposed coniferous forest humus, more than half of the nitrogen was found in the acid insoluble (i.e. polyphenolic) fraction (Johnsson et al., 1999). Bas-idiomycetes have been highlighted as the main organisms responsible for lignin degradation, using elaborate oxidative enzyme systems (Rayner and Boddy, 1988 Chapter 2). There are, however, large energy...

Dietary Management

Current ideas on a reasonable reducing diet are that it should contain at least 100 g carbohydrate to prevent glycogen depletion and ketosis. High-carbohydrate diets are composed of complex carbohydrates and are thus of low energy density, which may aid management of hunger. Since high-carbohydrate diets are low in fat, they have the theoretical advantage of directly reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The energetic efficiency with which carbohydrate is converted and stored as fat is lower than that of dietary fat, providing a further advantage. Protein intake must be adequate to maintain lean body mass. Although there is an inevitable fall with weight loss, 0.8 g per kg per day + 1.75 g per 100 calorie deficit of protein (about 44 g daily for women and 56 g daily for men) should be consumed, and fat restricted to less than 30 of total energy. The diet should contain recommended daily intakes of vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes, if necessary by supplementation 20-30 g...

Behavior Modification

The components of a typical behavior modification programme are shown in Table 3. For each area, patients need to learn the underlying concepts, recognize the importance to their own situation, and practise strategies to change their behavior. The results of a large number of programs have been published, either as audit outcome or as comparative trials. Programs vary in duration from 12 weeks to 52 weeks (there has been a trend since the 1970s to lengthen treatment time). Drop-out rates are clearly biased by selection procedures, but are typically 10-20 . Weight loss during treatment is typically 10-15 of initial weight, at a rate of about 0.5 kg per week. In order to strengthen the impact of the intervention on weight loss, many programs have included a period of time on very low-energy or liquid-based diets. This approach of a complete withdrawal for a time from established (abnormal) eating habits can be usefully integrated into a model of behavior change, and is well and...

Wade R Smith Ian Pallister and Kirti Moholkar

Advancements in fracture care have significantly improved the outcome of upper extremity injuries. However, nonunions continue to occur, often with devastating functional sequelae. Improvements in patient resuscitation, car safety, and surgical technology have changed the nature of upper extremity nonunions. Before the era of airbags, lowered speed limits, trauma systems, and open reduction techniques, nonunions occurred primarily in low-energy injuries treated by nonoperative methods. When healing did not occur, the result was often a hypertro-phic nonunion. In current practice, hypertrophic nonunions continue to be seen, but an increasing percentage of nonunions are atrophic and infected and may be complicated by significant bone loss, soft tissue deficits and nerve damage. The complex reconstructive processes required for subsequent treatment have complications of their own, including reflex sympathetic dystrophy, disabling sensory or motor function of the extremity, and permanent...

Bioreactor Configurations 341 Submerged Fermentor Systems

Bioreactor Parts

The main advantages of a fluidized bioreactor system as observed in ethanol production from S.cerevisiae (18) are superior mass and heat transfer characteristics, very good mixing between the three phases, relatively low energy requirements, and low shear rates (which makes a fluidized bed reactor suitable also for shear sensitive cells such as mammalian and plant cells).

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

Reuptake inhibitors, tricyclics, or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI). Mirtazapine belongs to the piperazino-azepine group of compounds. Available evidence suggests that Mirtazapine has an additional orexigenic and anti-emetic effect, which may increase energy consumption. Electroconvulsive therapy is a viable option in depressed persons with severe anorexia. Evidence exists in support of the efficacy of this treatment modality in restoring appetite following failure of pharmacological agents.

Materials and Methods HIFU Equipment

For this study, we used a modified second- and third-generation device called the Sonablate 200 and 500 (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, IN, USA) in 35 and 50 patients, respectively. A treatment module includes the ultrasound power generator, multiple transrectal probes of different focal depths, the probe positioning system, and a cooling system (Fig. 1). The transrectal HIFU probes use proprietary transducer technology with low-energy ultrasound (4 MHz) for imaging of the prostate and for the delivery of high-energy ablative pulses (site intensity, 1300-2200W cm2). The single piezoelectric crystal alternates between high-energy ablative (1-4sec) and low-energy (6-12 sec) ultrasound for a total cycle of 7-16sec.

Nonionizing and Ionizing Radiation

The electromagnetic radiation spectrum includes long wavelength, low frequency, low-energy forms of nonionizing radiation and progresses to short wavelength, high frequency, high-energy forms of ionizing radiation. Ionizing refers to the ability of high-energy radiation to displace electrons from atoms and cause matter through which it passes to become electrically charged. Nonionizing forms include ultraviolet rays, visible rays, infrared rays, microwaves, and radio waves. Lasers, ultrasound, and nuclear magnetic resonance systems are other examples of nonionizing radiation used in the medical field. X-rays and gamma waves are ionizing forms of electromagnetic radiation.

Packaging Part Ivcontrolled Modified Atmospherevacuum Food Packaging

The shelf life of foods such as fresh and processed meat, eggs, fish, poultry, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and soft bakery goods is limited in the presence of atmospheric oxygen due to three important factors the biochemical effect of atmospheric oxygen, the activity of oxidative enzymes, and the growth of aerobic spoilage microorganisms. A fourth factor of no small importance is attack by insects. Each of these factors, alone or in conjunction with one another, can result in changes in color, flavor, odor, and overall deterioration in food quality, and the hazard of microbiological safety. Technologies employed by food processors to retard these deteriorative changes include chilled storage, freezing, thermal processing, water removal, osmotic adjustment, pH change, and the use of chemical additives and preservatives. However, increasing energy costs associated with freezing and drying, quality changes imposed by the processes themselves, and growing consumer concerns about...

Refrigeration Systems

Heat recovery from refrigeration systems will be of greater importance as energy costs rice and environmental questions require an increasing amount of attention. Whenever a demand for heat exists near a refrigeration plant, one form or another of heat recovery from the refrigeration plant should be considered.

Conclusion Of Critical Medical Anthropology

Type 2 diabetes is rapidly becoming a worldwide epidemic as populations adopt modernized or Westernized lifestyles. Evolutionary evidence for the selective advantage of diabetes thrifty genotypes and phenotypes predisposes humans to the deleterious and diabetogenic effects of contemporary culture. Recent dietary changes are characterized by an abundance of calorically dense, sugary and fatty foods with low fiber content. In addition, labor-saving, energy-efficient daily activity patterns reduce caloric needs and energy expenditure. The result is a high prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and other physiological abnormalities comprising Syndrome X.

Hormonal Response to Injury Infection and Cancer

The sick euthyroid state, in which total tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations are reduced in severely injured and infected patients, is common. This is likely a normal response to conserve energy in the injured person as the body's ability to convert the stored form of a thyroid hormone (thyroxine (T4)) into the active form of thyroid hormone, T3, becomes impaired. T4 is converted to an inactive thyroid hormone known as reverse-T3 hormone (rT3). This event may have evolved as a necessary energy-saving response during a severe injury or illness to reduce the known contribution of T3 to resting energy expenditure. The low T3 syndrome is an adaptive way to reduce the normal day-today effect of T3 on resting energy expenditure. This process can occur in the aggressive cancers,

Process and equipment

The principle involved in generating high-intensity light is that a gradual increase of low to moderate power energy can be harnessed and released in highly concentrated bursts of more powerful energy. Electromagnetic energy is accumulated in a storage capacitor8 within fractions of a second and then released in the form of light within a millionth or billionth of a second, resulting in an amplification of power with a minimum of additional energy consumption (Dunn et al., 1995). Typically, equipment used to produce high-intensity light is composed of one or more adjustable lamp units, a power unit and a high-voltage connection that allows the transfer of a high-current electrical pulse. As the current passes through the gas chamber of the lamp unit, a short, intense burst of light is emitted.

Ultrasound as a preservation technology

The use of ultrasound within the food industry is an active subject for research and development (Povey and Mason, 1998). As is the case in other areas of processing technology, the sound ranges employed can be broadly divided into high frequency, low energy, diagnostic ultrasound in the MHz range and low frequency, high energy, power ultrasound which is in the kHz range (Fig. 16.1). There is an increasing interest in the effect of different frequencies on processing and as a result of this the gap between the ranges used for analytical and processing applications is diminishing.

Issues Associated with Measurement of Dietary Intake

Social desirability bias Social desirability bias can influence dietary measures as respondents strive to report what they think is required not what was actually consumed, for example, reporting less alcohol consumption than is the case or greater consumption of foods with perceived health benefits such as fish, fruit, or vegetables. This is likely to be the cause of mis-reporting, under-reporting, or low energy reporting, which occurs in certain respondents. It is possible to predict how much energy a respondent should report, as this is the amount required to maintain a stable weight. (Weight will be either gained or lost if more or less energy is consumed than required.) As energy intake should equate to energy expenditure, expenditure effectively measures intake. Techniques for measurement of energy expenditure such as whole body calorimetry and doubly labeled water can be used. Using these techniques those individuals classified as low energy reporters are likely to be older,...

Automatic And Implantable Defibrillators

Are capable of a variety of responses to ventricular tachycardia and VF. Most are programmed to follow a tiered approach to ventricular dysrhythmias antitachycardia pacing, low-energy cardioversion, and finally defibrillation. Depending on the frequency of discharge and whether the pacemaker function is used, the latest ICDs have a projected life span of about 8 years.

Health Effects of Carbohydrates

Foods high in sugars or GI are highly palatable and it has been suggested that they create a potential risk for energy overconsumption and weight gain. However, there is no evidence to support this claim or confirm the role of GI in body weight regulation. Foods high in sugar have high energy density and thus decreasing their consumption can assist in weight reduction. On the contrary, foods rich in NSP are bulky and have less energy density and as a result induce greater satiety when ingested. It follows that diets rich in NSP may be useful for obesity prevention, since they prevent energy overconsump-tion. However, there is no evidence to indicate that increasing the carbohydrate content of a low-energy diet facilitates weight loss.

The Radiation Field In Space

SCR consist of the low energy solar wind particles that flow constantly from the sun and the SPEs that originate from magnetically disturbed regions of the sun which sporadically emit bursts of charged particles with high energies. These events are composed primarily of protons with a minor component (5-10 ) being helium nuclei (alpha particles) and an

Biological Membranes And Transport

Cell Membrane Appearance

The first cell probably came into being when a membrane formed, enclosing a small volume of aqueous solution and separating it from the rest of the universe. Membranes define the external boundaries of cells and regulate the molecular traffic across that boundary (Fig. 11-1) in eukaryotic cells, they divide the internal space into discrete compartments to segregate processes and components. They organize complex reaction sequences and are central to both biological energy conservation and cell-to-cell communication. The biological activities of membranes flow from their remarkable physical properties. Membranes are flexible, self-sealing, and selectively permeable to polar solutes. Their flexibility permits the shape changes that accompany cell growth and movement (such as amoeboid movement). With their ability to break and reseal, two membranes can fuse, as in exocytosis, or a single membrane-enclosed compartment can undergo fission to yield two sealed compartments, as in endocytosis...

Fruits and Vegetables Fruits

Immediately after irradiation, pectin in the 10 to 30 yellow papaya showed depo-lymerization and demethoxylation. However, irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 1.0 kGy of fruit at the 25 to 30 yellow ripeness stage had less depolymerization of pectin and a firmer texture when ripe than the controls. Firmness of the irradiated fruit lasted 2 days longer than the controls. Earlier work in the U.S. showed a consumer preference for irradiated papaya.202 The International Atomic Energy Agency has recently published an excellent book on the use of irradiation as a quarantine method for treatment of fruit such as mangos, papaya, and grapefruit in several countries.203 Thomas204 has reviewed possible applications of irradiation for the preservation of subtropical fruits, citrus, grapes, and avocados. Miller and MacDonald205 206 have reported that the treatment of Florida grapefruit with irradiation at 0.3 kGy delayed ripening and increased fruit firmness without damaging fruit quality. Mitchell...

Ultrasonic Homogenizers

Ultrasonic jet homogenizers are used mainly for the industrial preparation of food emulsions (Figure 6.8). A stream of fluid is made to impinge on a sharp-edged blade, which causes the blade to rapidly vibrate, thus generating an intense ultrasonic field that breaks up any droplets in its immediate vicinity due to a combination of cavitation, shear, and turbulence (Gopal 1968). The major advantages of this device are that it can be used for the continuous production of emulsions, it can generate very small droplets, and it is more energy efficient than high-pressure valve homogenizers (i.e., less energy is required to produce droplets of the same size). Even so, the vibrating blade is prone to erosion because of the ultrasonic field, which means that it has to be replaced frequently. Fluid flow rates between 1 and 5000 l min-1 are possible using this technique.

Future Technologies And Challenges

The world energy consumption, conservation, environmental concerns, worldwide market globalization, frozen, refrigerated, shelf stable processed food products competition and the high manufacturing costs will force the frozen food products industry to increase R&D challenges and to develop new technologies. These new technologies could be based on 2. Equipment Flexibility. Improvement in equipment flexibility, efficiency and energy consumption. The designing of small self-contained refrigeration units which could be used in food freezing or food products distribution and storage. 5. Manipulation of the Freezing Point. The manipulation of the freezing point of food ingredients and raw materials, by using biotechnology principles, ingredients and or changes in its physical characteristics and chemical structure without affecting its nutritional, quality and flavor values, open new R&D opportunities. Major improvements could be accounted, (in the finished product quality, food product...

DLW and Other Noninvasive Energy Expenditure Measurements

The energy requirement of an individual is the intake from food that will balance expenditure when an individual has a body size and composition, and level of physical activity, consistent with long-term good health and that will allow for the maintenance of an economically necessary and socially desirable level of physical activity. In principle, these measurements could be obtained from the measurement of food intake or by factorial methods summing estimates of resting metabolic rate with the energy costs of activity. In practice, neither of these approaches is satisfactory food

Corrosion By Insulating Materials

Energy conservation now is widely practiced by all branches of industry, and the food industry is no exception. For example, in the brewing industry, wort from the wort boilers is cooled to fermentation temperature, and the hot water generated in the process is stored in insulated vessels (hot-liquor tanks) for making up the next batch of wort. An area of corrosion science that is receiving increased attention is the subject of corrosion initiated in stainless steels by insulating materials. At temperatures in excess of 60 C (140 F) these can act as a source of chlorides that will induce stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion of austenitic stainless steels.

Health Maintenance And Disease Prevention

The composition of the diet may affect the body's ability to maintain energy (1,11). Especially, diets containing at least 55 of energy from a variety of carbohydrate sources, as compared with high-fat diets, reduce the probability of body fat accumulation. Substantial data suggest those diets high in fat tend to promote consumption of more total energy than diets high in carbohydrates. This effect may be due to the low energy density of high-carbohydrate diets, because total volume of food consumed appears to provide an important satiety cue. Although there are no data to suggest that different types of carbohydrates affect total energy differently, the composition of the diet may affect the proportion of excess energy stored as body fat. The body has a large fat storage capacity, and excess dietary fat is stored very efficiently in adipose tissue. Alternatively the body's capacity to store carbohydrates is very limited, and excess dietary carbohydrates are not efficiently stored as...

Unconventional Surgery

Most of the discussion has focused upon variations on established surgical practices using instruments that are a modification of current surgical tools. There are a number of new technologies that are fundamentally different. One class of technologies is the energy-directed systems, which include some ablation technologies in use today, such as radiofrequency (RF), thermal (cryo or heat), laser, as well as those used by radiologists such as X-ray, proton beam, etc. A significant difference between radiological and surgical use of energy systems (X-ray, proton beam, etc.) is that radiologists usually discharge X-rays over large areas to kill massive amounts of tissue, whereas the surgical energy tools are used with precision (and usually hand held) for very specific localized effect. There are other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum that are being investigated as potential energy-directed surgical tools microwave, millimeter wave, femtosecond lasers, HIFU 14 , photodynamic, and...

Micronutrients and Physical Activity

Osteoporosis is now widely recognized as a problem for both men and, more especially, women, and an increased bone mineral content is one of the benefits of participation in an exercise program. Regular exercise results in increased mineralization of those bones subjected to stress and an increased peak bone mass may delay the onset of osteoporotic fractures exercise may also delay the rate of bone loss. Estrogen plays an important role in the maintenance of bone mass in women, and prolonged strenuous activity may result in low estrogen levels, causing bone loss. Many very active women also have a low body fat content and may also have low energy (and calcium) intakes in spite of their high activity levels. All of these factors are a threat to bone health. The loss of bone in these women may result in an increased predisposition to stress fractures and other skeletal injury and must also raise concerns about bone health in later life. It should be emphasized, however, that this...

Dietary Mg Deficiency

Severe Mg deficiency is very rare, whereas marginal Mg deficiency is common in industrialized countries. Low dietary Mg intake may result from a low energy intake (reduction of energy output necessary for physical activity and thermoregulation, and thus of energy input) and or from low Mg density of the diet (i.e., refined and or processed foods). Moreover, in industrialized countries, diets are rich in animal source foods and low in vegetable foods. This leads to a dietary net acid load and thus a negative effect on Mg balance. In fact, animal source foods provide predominantly acid precursors (sulphur-containing amino acids), whereas fruits and vegetables have substantial amounts of base precursor (organic acids plus potassium salts). Acidosis increases Mg urinary excretion by decreasing Mg reabsorption in the loop of Henle and the distal tubule, and potassium depletion impairs Mg reabsorption. Mg deficiency treatment simply requires oral nutritional physiological Mg supplementation.

The Ultimate Explanation Evolutionary Considerations

However, because people live so long already, why are they not capable of reproducing and living indefinitely or at least much longer than they do now The answer to this question involves energy. Organisms must channel and apportion their energies into reproductive activities as well as into the maintenance and repair of the soma. Although the energy cost of making an egg or sperm probably stays more or less constant over time and is therefore the same for both young and old, this is not the only energy cost incurred in reproduction. The energy costs of courtship, pregnancy, and child rearing are high and represent a significant investment of energy by an organism. In addition, some energy must be devoted to the repair and maintenance of the soma if an organism is to survive reproduction. It is reasonable to assume that even a well-fed organism has only a limited amount of energy available to it. Thus, the problem facing the organism is how best to allocate its finite metabolic energy...

Internally Contaminated Patients

Radioactive material gains entry into the body by three principal routes inhalation, ingestion, or absorption from contaminated mucous membranes or abraded skin. Misadministration of a radiopharmaceutical is a potential source of internal contamination that can occur in the hospital setting. Internal contamination becomes a major concern of the population if large amounts of radioactive material are released into the atmosphere as a result of nuclear weapon detonation, large-scale nuclear power plant accident, or even a volcanic eruption. Such events may result in inhalation of airborne radioactive material or ingestion of radioactive material deposited onto agricultural land with subsequent transfer into the food chain.

Single Cell Production An Example of Bioprocess Design

From 1985 to 1991, a research team at CINVESTAV-IPN developed a high-cell-density process for food-grade Candida utilis production from sugarcane molasses. A continuous, 10.5-m3, jet-loop fermentor was designed to take advantage of its intrinsic high oxygen transfer rate and energy efficiency. This fermentor was provided with a computer system for online data acquisition and for controlling the molasses flow rate in response to inferred ethanol production rates. The operating costs were minimized because of the efficient conversion of molasses into biomass and of the low water consumption in the fermentation stage. The capital costs were kept down due to the high productivity achieved in the fermentation process. An overview of the most important aspects of the process developed is presented below.

Biotechnological Potential of MCT

Matrix Model Trotter

Connective tissue may provide inspiration for entirely synthetic materials. A simple example resulting from this approach is an artificial tendon which is manufactured from poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibres embedded in a swollen hydrogel matrix and can be designed to have mechanical properties that suit specific implantation sites (Kolarik 1995). Trotter (unpubl.) has speculated that MCT could serve as a model system for the construction of dynamically controllable ligaments with adjustable stiffness and adjustable damping. Trotter has also suggested that these might be incorporated into energy-efficient robots, and it is therefore relevant that there has been interest in the design of'compliant' robots for specialist purposes such as pipeline inspection (Suzumori 1996). As for reassembled biomaterials (see above), both the variable passive mechanical properties and the contractility of MCT may yield design principles applicable to the development of fully synthetic devices.

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