And Animal Models Of Human Cancer

SAGE was also used to better define and dissect specific molecular pathways, such as the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) p-catenin pathway. The c-Myc gene was identified as a downstream target of APC action, since it is down-regulated by the TCF4 p-catenin transcription complex (38). In turn, also using SAGE, the CDK4 gene was identified as a target up-regulated by c-Myc (39). The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor 5 (PPAR5) was identified as a target of the APC p-catenin TCF pathway...

Clinical And Molecular Pathologic Features Of Bladder Cancer

Molecular epidemiology studies of bladder cancer have contributed to the modern viewpoint of tumorigenesis mainly based on associations with environmental exposures and DNA damaging agents. Bladder cancer was one of the first neoplastic diseases to be found associated with an industrial chemical exposure (14). It has also been related to genotypic characteristics of individual polymorphisms, such as the fast acetylator phenotype (15). In addition, bladder cancer is one of the first tumors in...

Lung Tumor Collection Processing And Models

Tumor collection is dictated to a large extent by clinical practice. For example, when SCLC is diagnosed, the disease has generally spread to distant organs (metastasis), and surgical resection is not performed. In such cases, the diagnostic biopsy or cytology specimen may be too limited for research tumor procurement. However, in limited stage (early stage) SCLC disease, when the tumor has not metastasized to distant organs, surgery is performed, and therefore, samples can be obtained. In...

Multiclass Classification Classifying Multiple Tumor Types

Multiclass classification problems are inherently more difficult than pairwise comparisons. In this section, we review our efforts to perform multiclass tumor classification (49,50). We explored the general feasibility of molecular cancer diagnosis of common human tumors solely on the basis of tumor gene expression profiles. We first created a gene expression database containing the expression profiles of 218 tumor samples representing 14 common human cancer classes and devised a multiclass...

Sage Uses In Human Genome Mining And Annotation

As previously mentioned, SAGE data is perpetual, and available databases become constantly updated in parallel with our constant improvement in understanding the complete human genome. A recent development of value in helping to better mine the human genome was the report of a modification of the SAGE technique that allows one to obtain longer SAGE tags. This will lead to a better and unique gene identification of the 3' ends of genes and, in turn, facilitates the isolation of novel genes. This...

Unsupervised Learning Clustering

In unsupervised learning techniques, the structure in a data set is elucidated without using any a priori assumptions or knowledge as part of exploratory data analysis. The promise of these methods lies in their ability to provide a molecular grouping or taxonomy of samples or genes. One of the easiest ways to analyze data in this context is by using a clustering algorithm (11-13). Objects of interest, usually genes or samples, are Fig. 2. General methodology for clustering gene expression...

Clinical Manifestations Of Colorectal Cancer

A major goal of global expression analysis is to provide information that supports an enriched system of classification, either alone or in conjunction with clinical and genetic data. To place this effort in perspective, we sketch the clinical behavior of colon cancer and outline the major clinical-pathological classification systems. Adenocarcinoma arises in the epithelial cells of the colon. The tumor consists of a mass of abnormal glands (hence the name, adenocarcinoma) that invades and,...

Experimental Biology Of Prostate Cancer

Several excellent reviews of the molecular biology of prostate cancer are available, and only a few of the more common molecular alterations and their potential significance are highlighted here (4,12). The analysis of chromosomal alterations in cancer has identified many changes reflecting loss or gain of function of particular genes. Consistent allelic loss is expected to reflect the location of putative tumor suppressor genes. Loss of heterozygosity at chromosome arms 8p, 10q, 13q, and 17p...

Results From Expression Profiling Studies Of Lung Carcinomas Reveals Distinct Adenocarcinoma Subclasses

Transciptome Analysis in Lung Tumors Although the SCLC and NSCLC distinction is widely accepted in the context of lung tumor classification, such a classification is based primarily on clinical and pathological attributes of the disease rather than similarity or dissimilarity at the level of biological circuitry. Thus, a basic purpose of transcriptional profiling of lung tumors aims at understanding the molecular view of lung tumors that is relevant from a diagnostic or therapeutic perspective....

Erbb3

Expression Patterns Related to ER Status Tamoxifen is a frequently prescribed drug for treatment and prevention of breast cancer 7,11,90 . ER tumors may initially respond to tamoxifen, but the development of tamoxifen resistance is an important clinical problem. A number of groups have compared microarray data of breast carcinomas based on ER status. Hilsenbeck et al. 91 compared gene expression arrays of estrogen-stimulated, tamoxifen-sensitive, and resistant MCF-7 cells grown in a nude mouse...

W27939

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