The Truth About Fat Burning Foods

Eat The Fat Off

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Nutritional Impact Of Fat Replacers

Some observers have speculated that the availability of reduced-fat and fat-free foods is contributing to the increasing rate of obesity among adults and children, lb characterize fat replacers as a magic formula for weight loss is to misrepresent their optimal dietary role. To prevent or slow weight gain, calories eaten cannot exceed cal Table 7. Selected Applications and Functions of Fat Replacers

Composition Of Fat Replacers

Focus groups conducted by the International Food Information Council suggest that there is a lack of knowledge concerning fat replacers among consumers as well as among health professionals. For example, very few consumers realized that the fat removed from low- and reduced-fat foods is replaced with another ingredient. And although health professionals understood that product reformulation replaced the taste and texture of fat, they typically had very little specific information (11). Usually a fat replacer is not itself a fat. Some fat replacers, however, are lipids, but because of their structure, they may be undigestible or only partially digestible. Most fat replacers are limited in their use. Some are good thickening agents others provide creaminess still others make food moist. Having a variety of fat replacement options available allows manufacturers to use a systems approach to formulating low-fat and fat-free foods with the functional and sensory characteristics of their...

Robert G Ackman Contents

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fish is a brain food is an old admonition given to children who decline to eat fish. It originated in the roughly similar appearance of white fish muscle lipids and those extracted from the human brain, and even the chemists of the nineteenth century found similarities in the phosphorus content, not realizing that this indicated that both tissues were rich in phospholipids. The fatty acids of fish were even more mysterious and the polyunsaturated ones were easily destroyed in the inexact analyses of the time. Fish was usually sold just as fish, a food to be eaten because it was Friday in Catholic countries, or because it was cheap. At about the turn of the century, a few organic chemists began to sort out the structures of two highly unsaturated fatty acids, known as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20 5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22 6n-3). By the 1950-1960 era, much patient work in Germany, Japan, Britain, and the United States had identified most of the...

Total Lipid Recovery

Most of the organic solvents already mentioned will dissolve the triacylglycerols and free the fatty acids of Figure 3.1. The difficulty in total lipid extraction is twofold (1) Some of the solvents are immiscible with water and (2) some are poor solvents for the polar lipids (mostly phospholipids). The triglycerides may be obvious in fatty streaks or layers, or they may exist in the form of adi-pocytes (fat cells) scattered within muscle tissue. A very small fraction will be found in the cell membrane bilayers, which are mostly phospholipids. It is likely that the latter do not exist in the neat arrangements usually shown but are instead hydrated to some extent because of the affinity for water of both the phosphoric acid and amino acid molecules on the 3-position of the glycerol.

Fish As Food

The seminal research reported by Dyerberg and Bang (1979) caused a sensation in the fatty acid world, and reports by Dyerberg (1981) and Dyerberg et al. (1981) enhanced the acceptability of longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin. Later in an international meeting in London, United Kingdom, Ackman (1988b) reviewed The Year of the Fish Oils in 1987, suggesting the maturation stage of a new science. The enormously productive research in medicine in the next decade prompts an update mainly of 1990 and on as a decade of progress, and the controversy that has sprung up about fish as food during this decade. Owing to wider implications, some revision in the viewpoints is needed as being solely concerned with public acceptance of fish as food. A. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Health It has to be recognized that the originator of lies, damned lies, and statistics, Benjamin Franklin, was a far-sighted person. In a recent review article, Hooper et al. (2006) concluded that Long-chain and...


It is important when consuming a healthy diet to include fresh, frozen, or canned vegetables, and as the data presented in this chapter illustrate the consumption of vegetables, in general, give a favorable polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio and in many vegetables a favorable omega 3 to omega 6 ratio.

Improving Nutritional Value Of Animal Products

Meats, beef especially, might be consistently tender and therefore more palatable. Products from ruminant animals might contain greater concentrations of CLA and omega-3 fatty acids. The ideal egg would have decreased cholesterol content and more unsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids. Though these ideas may sound as if they are many years away, researchers currently are working to make them reality.

Why Is Docosahexaenoic Acid Of Interest

Of particular interest to us is understanding the membrane role for the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 6A4,7,10,13,16,19), the longest chain and most unsaturated fatty acid commonly found in biological membranes (Salem et al., 1986). It represents the extreme example of an omega-3 fatty acid. Once incorporated into a membrane, DHA will become an important component of the hydrophobic interior where it will affect membrane order or fluidity, thickness, domain size and stability, permeability, lipid phase, and, through interaction with membrane proteins, even biochemical activity (Salem et al., 1986 Stubbs & Smith, 1984). The presence of DHA in membranes is necessary for normal neurologic development (Menkes et al., 1962) and vision (Neuringer et al., 1988), as well as for benefits in various diseases, including atherosclerosis

Dha And Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins

In general, DHA or mixtures of omega-3 fatty acids decrease the expression of MHC II molecules. As designed, most experiments detect changes in MHC II production rather than direct modification of plasma membrane structure. For example, human volunteers fed a fish-oil supplement displayed reduced expression of MHC II on peripheral blood monocytes before and after treatment with the cytokine y-interferon (Hughes et al., 1996a), and dietary fish oil decreased MHC II expression on rat lymphatic dendritic cells (Sanderson et al., 1997) and murine peritoneal exudate cells (primarily B-cells and macrophages) (Huang et al., 1992). The nature of the stimulus used to induce MHC II expression is an important consideration in evaluating DHA's effects. Macrophages (thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells) from n3-rich fish-oil-fed mice expressed more MHC II after a brief treatment with platelet-activating factor contrast than did macrophages from n6-rich safflower oil (Erickson et al.,...

The late response to injury

A significant catabolic phase is observed in critically ill patients as part of the stress response. The advantages of instigating early enteral feeding are thought to include maintenance of the mucosal barrier of the gut, limiting the alteration of commensal flora in the gut, minimising the catabolic response, and boosting the immune system. Enteral feeds, particularly those supplemented by L-arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, L-glutamine (the entero-cyte's primary energy source) or branched amino acids, have been shown to decrease infective complications and intensive care unit (ICU) stay after major trauma.

Animal Fats And Fish Oils General

Both animal fats and fish oils are highly digestible energy sources for animals, and fish oils are also an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamins A and D. The quality of feed-grade fats can be assessed by the composition, hardness, color, impurities, and stability.

Conditionspecific Nutritionals Hypermetabolic Stress or Trauma

Recent nutrition research has focused on the clinical benefits of enterally feeding hypermetabolic patients. Several trials have reported significant decreases in infections and or wound healing complications (17-20), hospital length of stay (17,20,21), and multiple organ failure (19) in patients fed specialized enteral formulas compared with patients fed standard enteral formulas. These specialized enteral formulas contain ingredients shown to enhance the immune response, improve wound healing, reduce free radical formation, and alter the inflammatory response. Included are the amino acids arginine (22) and glutamine (23) as conditionally essential nutrients during trauma, omega-3 fatty acids (24), and antioxidants (25-27).

Overview Of Methods To Redesign Animalderived Foods

Figure 2 summarizes approaches that could be utilized to improve animal-derived foods. Among the traditional feeding and breeding methods, some are preharvest and some are postharvest techniques (Fig. 2). Preharvest techniques include feeding animals compounds such as vitamin E, omega-3 fatty acids, or CLA. Postharvest techniques available for modifying animal-derived foods include such procedures as calcium infusion or electro-stimulation of animal carcasses to improve tenderness, the addition of vitamin D to milk, which has been done for

Future Development

Fish is health food is not a marketing gimmick but truly states the merits of seafood. The demand for this highly nutritious protein food, much avowed for its healthful omega-3 fatty acids, will continue to grow in demand. This pressure on a limited resource will encourage better biological management of the natural wild stocks (including international cooperation), faster expansion of aquaculture operations, and the total utilization of the raw material.

Structure Function and Nutritional Requirements

Omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids are a class of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). They have two or more cis double bonds, with the position of the first double bond six carbon atoms from the methyl end of the molecule. The general formula of n-6 fatty acids is CH3 (CH2)4(CH CHCH2)x(CH2)yCOOH where x 2-5 . Linoleic acid (cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid, 18 2n-6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (cis-9, cis-12, cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid, 18 3n-3, ALA) are the precursor fatty acids of the n-6 and omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, respectively. These two fatty acids cannot be made by mammals and are therefore termed essential fatty acids (EFA). In addition, mammals are unable to interconvert LA and ALA, or any of the n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, because mammalian tissues do not contain the necessary desaturase enzyme. Plant tissues and plant oils tend to be rich sources of LA. ALA is also present in plant sources such as green vegetables, flaxseed, canola, and some nuts. Once consumed in the diet, LA can...

Omega3 PUFA in Fish and Shellfish

The PUFA of many fish lipids are dominated by two members of the omega-3 ( -3) family, C20 5 n-3 (EPA) and C22 6 n-3 (DHA). They are so named because the first of several double bonds occurs All fish and shellfish contain some omega-3, but the amount can vary, as their relative concentrations are species specific (Table 2). Generally, the fattier fishes contain more omega-3 fatty acids than the leaner fishes. The amount of omega-3 fatty acids in farmraised products can also vary greatly, depending on the diet of the fishes or shellfish. Many companies now recognize this fact and provide a source of omega-3 fatty acids in their fish diets. Omega-3 fatty acids can be destroyed by heat, air, and light, so the less processing, heat, air exposure, and storage time the better for preserving omega-3 in fish. Freezing and normal cooking cause minimal omega-3 losses, whereas deep frying and conditions leading to oxidation (rancidity) can destroy some omega-3 fatty acids. Table 2 Selected fish...

Humor Elicitation Theory Of

One theory that integrates the diverse findings on hunger, eating, and weight, called the set-point theory (Keesey, 1980), suggests that a homeostatic mechanism that regulates food intake, fat reserves, and metabolism operates to keep an organism at its predetermined weight. According to set-point theory, which was first suggested by research with laboratory rats, no single area in the brain keeps track of weight. Rather, an interaction of metabolism, fat cells, and hormones keeps people at the weight for which their bodies are designed. A common, persistent psychological theory holds that being overweight is a sign of emotional disturbance, but research has failed to support this popular belief. However, tension and irritability can result from constant dieting (being hungry much of the time), and unhap-piness can result from being heavy in a society that discriminates against people who weigh more than the cultural ideal. Culture and ethnic background...

H.lundolm Psychological

Daly et al., Enteral Nutrition With Supplemental Ar-ginine, RNA, and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Patients After Operation Immunologic, Metabolic and Clinical Outcome, Surgery 112, 56-67 (1992). 68. B. Gumbiner, C. C. Low, and P. D. Reaven, Effects of a Mono-unsaturated Fatty Acid-Enriched Hypocaloric Diet on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care 21, 9-15 (1998).

Fat And Fatty Acid Intake

Data from the 1995 USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII) indicates that total fat consumption is 32 to 33 of calories for males and females 19 years of age and greater. Saturated fat intake is approximately 11 , MUFA is 12 to 13 and PUFA is 6 to 7 of calories. As shown in Table 1, palmitic acid is the most predominant SFA in the diet, accounting for 5 to 6 of calories. Likewise, oleic acid is the major MUFA, and linoleic acid is the most abundant PUFA in the diet. Trans fatty acids comprise approximately 2.6 of total energy intake. The intake of omega-3 fatty acids in the United States is approximately 1.6 g day (about 0.7 of energy intake). a-Linoleic acid is the predominant omega-3 fatty acid in the diet, accounting for 1.4 g day. Intake of EPA and DHA is quite low (only 0.1 to 0.2 g day). Otherwise, intake of CLA is estimated to be approximately 0.2 g day in participants of the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Total fat intake has declined from...

Crossnational Epidemiology And Major Depression

The analyses of cross-national epidemiological data, collected using high-quality modern diagnostic and epidemiological sampling methods, does provide one method of testing the hypothesis that a lower omega-3 fatty acid status is related to higher prevalence rates of affective disorders, psychotic disorders, or aggressive behaviors. Economic data describing seafood consumption has been useful in these cross-national studies. Although economic data on the production and consumption of seafood cannot accurately be used to quantify dietary intake for an individual, these data can be used to describe trends for the populations of entire countries and thus provide a basis for comparing consumption across countries (World Health Organization, 1996). The financial incentive to produce accurate data also adds some confidence to the accuracy of consumption estimates derived from economic data. When compared cross-nationally, greater amounts of seafood consumption were robustly correlated (r...

Special Formulations Immunonutrition

Enteral formulations enriched in arginine, omega-3 fatty acids, and glutamine nucleotides are considered to enhance the immune response, and treatments with these formulations are collectively referred to as immunonutrition. The formulations under consideration vary in composition. They are distinguished by high (12-15 g l) or low (4-6 g l) arginine, the presence or absence of glutamine and nucleotides, and the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. The proceedings of the summit on immune-enhancing enteral therapy concluded that immuno-nutrition should be given to malnourished patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery and trauma patients with an injury severity score of 18 or those with an abdominal trauma index of 20. Despite lack of evidence, it was recommended for patients undergoing head and neck surgery and aortic reconstruction, those with severe head injury and burns, and for ventilator-dependent nonseptic patients. The summit did not recommend it for patients with...

Enteral Omega3 Fat Supplementation

Omega-3 fats are composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids, in which the first double bond 3 carbon atoms are located away from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain. The fatty acids found in fish oil, called eicosapentanoic and docosahexaenoic, are precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes that antagonize the prothrombotic effects of similar compounds derived from linoleic acid. In humans, when infused, they reduce the production of proinflamma-tory cytokines from stimulated mononuclear cells. They potentially have anti-inflammatory effects and have been shown in controlled trials to benefit patients with ARDS.

Perioperative Enteral Nutrition

Infusing a diet enriched with arginine, omega-3 fatty acid, and RNA preoperatively and postopera-tively has resulted in a significant reduction in total but not major complications. In patients undergoing abdominal surgery, progressive postoperative oral supplementation without formal EN reduces complications and raises the question as to whether EN, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), or immuno-nutrition are even necessary for the majority of patients. Complications can be reduced by introducing early sip feeding of liquid diets without formal EN.

Major Depression Treatment

Only one treatment study of omega-3 fatty acids in major depression has been completed and none have been published (Marengell et al., 2000). In contrast to the predictions of the tissue compositional and epidemiological studies, this 6-wk trial of 2 g d of DHA alone did not document any differences in depressive symptoms among subjects with mild to moderate major depression. This study of medication-free patients with a Hamilton depression rating scale of greater than 17 and no significant comorbid psychiatric diagnoses was well designed and carefully conducted. However, several questions remain before the efficacy of DHA in major depression can be ruled out. First, the trial length may not have been adequate. Second, although the dose of DHA (2 g d) appeared adequate to change most tissue compositions, this dose may have been excessive if there is a nonlinear or inverted U -shaped pattern of response. In other words, response may be seen at low doses, but secondary antagonistic...

Tenderness and Flavor of Lamb

The flavor of lamb is particularly distinctive. In comparison with beef and pork, this is explained by high concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids of medium-chain length, e.g., 4-methyloctanoic acid and 4-methyl-nonanoic acid, and perhaps by more saturated fat. 6 Skatole is also a significant factor in the flavor of lamb. Different flavors in grass-fed and grain-fed lamb have been shown in several studies. 7 This is associated with higher concentrations of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscle after grass-feeding, whereas grain-fed lamb contains higher concentrations of n-6 polyun-saturated fatty acids (Fig. 1). The different oxidation products of these fatty acids produce different odors and flavors during cooking (Fig. 2). Grass-fed lamb also has

Bipolar Affective Disorder

One of the most important contributions to the field of omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatric disorders has been the double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment study conducted by Stoll et al. (1999a) among subjects with bipolar affective disorder. Bipolar affective disorder is also commonly known as manic-depressive disorder, which more vividly describes the debilitating clinical course of this illness. Thirty subjects were treated with 14 capsules per day containing either 9.6 g d of ethyl ester EPA plus DHA or an olive oil placebo. Subjects were studied as outpatients for 4 mo and received the capsules in addition to their regular pharmacological therapies. After 4 mo, there was a significantly reduced relapse to a severe episode of mania or depression in the omega-3-treated group compared to the placebo treated group. Among subjects taking no other medications, four subjects in the EPA plus DHA group remained symptom-free for the length of the study, whereas the four subjects in the...

Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression may provide an extremely useful model for testing the hypothesis that a deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids in adulthood, and in particular DHA, increases the predisposition to suffering depressive disorders (Hibbeln and Salem, 1995). Throughout pregnancy, the placenta actively transfers DHA from the mother to the developing fetus (Cambell et al., 1998). Without adequate dietary replenishment, DHA stores in mothers can become depleted (Holman et al., 1991 Al et al., 1995) and may not be replenished for 26 wk (Otto et al., 1997). Given these basic findings, we predicted that the prevalence rates of postpartum depression would be higher in countries with lower rates of seafood consumption. This study evaluated published data on the prevalence of postpartum depression and published data on the DHA content of breast milk (Hibbeln, unpublished). We found that the DHA concentration of mothers' milk predicted prevalence rates of postpartum depression in a simple linear...

Hostility And Homicide Mortality

Low omega-3 status has been associated with disorders of impulsivity, including homicide and aggression in cross-national, observational, and interventional studies. Higher homicide mortality rates (World Health Organization, 1995) are correlated to lower rates of seafood consumption (World Health Organization, 1996) across 26 countries in a cross-national analysis (r -0.63, p 0.0005) (Hibbeln, 2001). The diagnosis of death as a result of homicide is subject to fewer cross-national cultural differences than are other behavioral outcomes. These data also are consistent with observational and interventional data for violence and hostility. Virkkunen et al. (1987) reported that impulsive and violent offenders had lower plasma concentrations of DHA and higher concentrations of 22 5n6 than nonimpulsive offenders and healthy controls. Three human, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trials have demonstrated the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing hostility, an affective...

Deficiencies In Gestation And Psychiatric Outcomes

An intriguing possibility is that some level of deficiency in omega-3 status either during interuterine, postnatal, or in later development, could contribute to a lifelong risk of suffering psychiatric illnesses through irreversible neurodevelopmental changes (Peet et al., 1999). For example, studies of periods of famine such as the Dutch Hunger War have generated hypotheses that specific psychiatric illness may be related to nutritional deprivation in specific periods of development. Prenatal malnutrition in the first trimester may increase risk for developing schizophrenia (Susser and Lin, 1992) as reflected in increased sulcal sizes (Hulshoff Pol et al., 2000) whereas later gestational famine during the second and third trimester increased the risk for later affective disorders (Brown et al., 2000). One test of the hypothesis that mothers are deficient in essential fatty acids during gestation has been to examine the composition of maternal plasma on the day of birth and the...

Serotinergic Metabolism And Impulsivity

Abnormalities in serotinergic neurotransmission caused by low-omega-3 status could potentially increase the risk for impulsive behaviors such as suicide and homicide and may be an important mechanism leading to an increased predisposition toward developing a depressive disorder (Hibbeln et al., 1998a). Abnormalities in serotinergic function are thought to be important in impulsive, suicidal, and depressive behaviors. Most of the commonly used antidepressant medications act to increase serotinergic neurotransmission (Meltzer and Lowey, 1987). One of the best-replicated findings in biological psychiatry is that low concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA are associated with suicide and depression (Roy et al., 1991). Low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations predict impulsive, hostile, and aggressive behaviors (Mann, 1995 Virkkunen et al., 1994 Linnoila et al., 1983) and reflect serotonin turnover in the frontal cortex (Stanley et al., 1985).

Human Data On Omega3 Fatty Acids And Neurotransmitter Metabolites

Correlational data from human studies are consistent with the proposition that omega-3 status is related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations. We observed that plasma concentrations of DHA and AA predicted CSF 5-HIAA and CSF homovanillic acid concentrations in 234 subjects (Hibbeln, 1998a Hibbeln et al., 1998b). In healthy control subjects and late-onset alcoholics, higher concentrations of plasma DHA predicted higher concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. It is remarkable that this correlational relationship was found between a cerebrospinal fluid measure of a neu-rotransmitter metabolite and a plasma level of a fatty acid. We have also replicated this finding among 104 adult rhesus monkeys. Higher concentrations of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA in plasma predicted higher concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA (Hibbeln, et al., unpublished data). Among these animals, higher EPA and DHA plasma concentrations also predicted more functional dominance behaviors....

Omega3 Fatty Acids And Other Potential Mechanisms Of Action

A discussion of possible mechanisms is difficult and somewhat premature, as the body of clinical data that demonstrates efficacy is still emerging and selective effects of individual fatty acids on specific illness have not been demonstrated. Nonetheless, many of the clinical studies of omega-3 fats in psychiatric disorders have emerged in part from the observation that DHA is selectively concentrated in neuronal membranes (Salem et al., 1986 Salem, 1989). Alterations in the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of synaptic membranes may exacerbate a predisposition to psychiatric disorders through several mechanisms. (1) Depletion of DHA from synaptic membranes creates biophysical changes in membrane structures that alter the shape and activity of membrane bound proteins, receptors, and enzymes (Mitchell et al., 1992 Huster et al., 1998 Mitchell et al., 1998 Litman et al., 1991 Litman et al., 1996). These biophysical changes may affect neurotransmitter receptor binding, catecholamine...

Considerations For Future Intervention Trials

The long history of clinical studies in cardiovascular diseases, infant nutrition, and other illnesses have yielded valuable lessons that can help to form the design of future studies of psychiatric disorders. Baseline measurements are essential, as some subjects may enter the study with high tissue concentrations of EPA and DHA and supplementation may produce little additional effect. Biological markers are the most accurate measure of fatty acid status, but a simple dietary questionnaire may be able to screen out subjects with a high omega-3 intake. The baseline diet should be standardized at a low seafood and omega-3 intake. If subjects in the placebo group begin to eat more fish because of their excitement in being part of the study, then treatment effects may be difficult to detect. Consideration should be given to the course of their illness and number of failed treatments. For example, it may be difficult to detect treatment differences among subjects who are treatment...

Future Considerations

See also Ascorbic Acid Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements. Bone. Calcium. Chromium. Cobalamins. Fatty Acids Omega-3 Polyunsaturated. Folic Acid. Food Fortification Developed Countries. Older People Nutrition-Related Problems Nutritional Management of Geriatric Patients. Riboflavin. Supplementation Role of Micronutrient Supplementation. Vitamin B6. Vitamin E Physiology and Health Effects. Zinc Physiology.

General Aspects Structures and Nomenclature

A fatty acid molecule consists of a hydrocarbon chain with an acidic carboxyl group at one end and a terminal methyl group at the other. In the case of a saturated fatty acid, all the carbon atoms in the chain are linked by single bonds, whereas an unsaturated fatty acid is defined by the presence of one or more double bonds in the chain. Most polyunsaturated fatty acids of animal tissues belong to either the omega-6 (o6) or omega-3 (o3) series (also referred to as n-6 and n-3, respectively). These terms indicate the positioning of the double bonds in the chain. Thus, for an o6 fatty acid, the double bond nearest to the methyl end is located between carbon atoms 6 and 7, counting from the methyl terminus. Similarly, the double bond nearest to the methyl end of an o3 fatty acid forms the link between carbon atoms 3 and 4. Fatty acids are symbolized by a shorthand nomenclature. For example, linoleic acid is abbreviated to 18 2o6, indicating a chain length of 18 carbon atoms with 2...

Plasma and Red Cell Composition

There are clear abnormalities of fatty acid concentrations in depression that are distinct from those in schizophrenia (Adams, Lawson, Sanigorski, & Sinclair, 1996 Maes et al., 1996 Maes et al., 1999 Peet, Murphy, Shay, & Horrobin, 1998 Edwards, Peet, Shay, & Horrobin, 1998). First, the abnormalities are present in both plasma and in red cells, raising the possibility that the problem may be in fatty acid metabolism in general, rather than membrane phospholipid metabolism in particular. Second, the abnormalities are specifically deficits in the omega-3 fatty acids EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and particularly in EPA. In contrast to the situation in schizophrenia, AA levels are either normal or elevated.

Therapeutic Implications

Based on the likelihood that bipolar disorder is related to phospholipid signal transduction problems, Severus and Stoll developed the idea that these might be modulated by omega-3 fatty acids (Stoll et al., 1996). They therefore set up a randomized study of highdose mixed EPA and DHA in partially treatment-resistant patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. The EPA DHA preparations were found to be highly significant in preventing relapse and in improving depression (Stoll et al., 1999). This initially promising observation is now being followed up in much larger studies.

Eggs Composition and Structure

Parts The Egg

Yolk lipids are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, particularly oleic acid, and contain substantial quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid composition of eggs reflects the hen's feed. The typical feed is based on corn meal, soybean meal, and a small amount of supplemental animal, vegetable, or animal vegetable fat blend as the sources of fatty acids. The polyunsatu-rated fatty acids in these ingredients are predominantly of the omega-6 series (e.g., linoleic and arachidonic acids). Eggs enriched in fatty acids of the omega-3 series (e.g., linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) are obtained by the inclusion of flax seed, canola seed, fish oils, some species of micro-algae, or other ingredients containing high levels of these fatty acids. 9 Eggs enriched in this manner typically contain 400 to 500 mg of fatty acids of omega-3 series. Recent research has demonstrated that eggs can be enriched in other lipid-soluble factors such as...

Ara Acid Microalgae Mysore

Growth of and Omega-3 fatty acid production by Phaeodactylum tricornutum under different culture conditions. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 57 419-425, 1991. 83. Drevon, C.A., I. Baksaas, H.E. Krokan. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Metabolism and Biological Effects. Basel, Switzerland Birkhauser Verlag AG, 1993.

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Challenges and Opportunities

The possibility of gaining market shares for the flavour and fragrance industry by establishing new trend products or by expanding into areas which so far have remained 'unflavoured' constitute only the best known varieties of possible expansion prospects. As other examples from the beverage sector, the manifold new creations of flavoured coffees and ready-made milk drinks as well as the increasing demand for ice teas in Europe deserve mentioning 23 . Additionally, in the beverage sector new beverages borrow flavours from other categories (e.g. peppermint waters as well as brain-twist sensation drinks and 'think-drinks' with omega 3-fortification).

Novel antipsychotics in development

There is evidence that schizophrenic patients have a deficiency in omega 3 fatty acids in their neuronal membranes while clozapine has been shown to increase the concentration of such fatty acids in red blood cell membranes, thereby suggesting that atypical antipsychotics may contribute to the normalization of neuronal membrane function by increasing their polyunsaturated fatty acid content. This forms the basis of the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia. Two open studies in which fish oils rich in omega 3 fatty acids were given over a period of 6 weeks showed an improvement in both positive and negative symptoms and a marked reduction in the Abnormal Voluntary Movement scores there was a strong correlation between the clinical improvement and the increase in the omega 3 fatty acids in the red blood cell membranes. These studies have been extended to show a marked and sustained response to treatment over a 1-year period. Thus omega 3 fatty acids may provide an important and novel...

Mammary Glands Hormonal Regulation

The mammary glands are fascinating organs that are designed to provide nutrients and immunological protection to the young. These glands are a microcosm of the organism in that they have a life cycle (Fig. 1), which proceeds with each subsequent pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. The first phase of the life cycle is mammogenesis or growth and development of the mammary gland. This includes the growth and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells that comprise ducts and alveoli myoepithelial cells required for milk ejection fat cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix components the complex system of blood vessels found in the developed mammary gland, sensory, and motor fibers to innervate the glands and also cells of the lymphatic and immune systems to defend the mammary glands when necessary. At the end of pregnancy, the mammary glands prepare for birth of the young by undergoing biochemical differentiation and the onset of milk synthesis, also known as lacto-genesis (Fig....

Ontogeny Adipose Tissue

Holes Cell Wall Caused Dehydration

Fat cell development commences by midgestation and is characterized by the appearance of a number of fat cell clusters, or primitive organs, which subsequently increase in number and size throughout fetal development (Table 1). 1-3 Primitive fat organs are vascular structures in presumptive adipose tissue with few or no fat cells (Fig. 1 Table 1). Fetal adipocyte development is spatially and temporally related to capillary development.1-2-1 Although angiogenesis appears to be linked to adipo-genesis, the major regulators of angiogenesis have not been examined in meat animal adipose tissue (Table 2). Fig. 1 Phosphatase histochemistry in cryostat sections of fetal perirenal adipose tissue from 70 day (A), 90 day (B) and 105 day (C, D) fetal pigs. Note that phosphatase reactivity is limited in arterioles (arrows) in perirenal tissue at 70 days (A), whereas more extensive phosphatase reactivity indicates that arteriolar differentiation (arrows) has clearly progressed by 90 (B) and 105...

Biomedical Anthropology and the Evolution of Diabetes Thrifty Genotypes and Phenotypes

Data from other parts of the world also suggest similar but more recent dietary transitions, among Australian Aborigines (O'Dea, Spargo, & Akerman, 1980) and other Pacific Island populations (Zimmet et al., 1982, 1995). On the island of Nauru in Micronesia more than 30 of individuals over the age of 15 have diabetes (Zimmet et al., 1977). These high rates are most likely the result of nutritional and cold selection as well as founder effect in which members of the small initial island population carried thrifty genes. Expanded beyond carbohydrate utilization, the model has implications for thriftiness in the metabolism of other previously limited dietary constituents that have now become abundant (e.g., salt, cholesterol) and, conversely, dietary constituents that were once abundant and are now limited (e.g., dietary fiber) (Broadurst, 1997). Broadhurst (1997) makes a case for diabetogenic effects of reduced omega-3 polyunsatu-rated fatty acid (PUFA), chromium, plant phytochemicals,...

Integrated Actions Of Metabolic Hormones

Although reesterification of fatty acids can regulate FFA output from fat cells, regulation of lipolysis and hence the rate at which the cycle spins provides a wider range of control. It has been estimated that under basal conditions 20 of the fatty acids released in lipolysis are reesterified to triglycerides, and that reesterification may decrease to 9-10 during active fuel consumption. Under the same conditions,

Adipose Tissue Stores and Supplies Fatty Acids

Adipose tissue, which consists of adipocytes (fat cells) (Fig. 23-16), is amorphous and widely distributed in the body under the skin, around the deep blood vessels, and in the abdominal cavity. It typically makes up about 15 of the mass of a young adult human, with approximately 65 of this mass in the form of triacylglycerols. Adipocytes are metabolically very active, responding quickly to hormonal stimuli in a metabolic interplay with the liver, skeletal muscles, and the heart.

Vegetarian Eating Patterns

Most respects to nonvegetarian diets Avoidances include all meat, poultry, and often fish, but consume milk products and eggs. Iron may be limiting and it can be obtained from iron-fortified cereals. Low-fat dairy products are preferred to keep intakes of saturated fat and total fat moderate Avoid all meat, fish, poultry, and eggs. Nutrient considerations same as above The terms vegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan focus on foods that are left after others have been omitted from the diet. From the nutritional standpoint the animal food groups (e.g., meat fish, fowl, eggs, milk, and milk products) are nutrient-dense foods. In traditional diets of usual foods, they were often rich sources of certain nutrients. Depending on the particular animal food group under consideration, these nutrients may include protein of high biological value, highly bioavailable iron, zinc, calcium, vitamins A, D, B12 and B6, riboflavin, omega 3 fatty acids, and iodine. When these food groups are eliminated...

FATTY AcIDs FoR FooD Ingredients

There is an increasing body of evidence supporting the conclusion that the fatty acids in the food we eat have a major influence on our physical and mental health (23). This is particularly the case with the essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) linoleic and linolenic acids, which are the precursors of the long chain PUFAs arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA) in humans. In turn these long chain PUFAS are the direct precursors of bioactive eicosanoids (prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes) and the bioactive omega-3 fatty acid docosohexae-noic acid (DHA). The eicosanoids mediate many functions in the human body including the inflammatory response, the induction of blood clotting, the regulation of mental functions such as the sleep wake cycle, and the regulation of blood pressure (24). The balance of omega-6 and omega-3 derived eicosanoids is important in the body because those derived from omega-6 ARA are...

Foods for special uses

A recent trend is toward the consumption of 'functional foods,' which are foods or dietary components designed to support health and reduce the risk of chronic, diet-related illnesses and conditions, including cardiac disease, osteoporosis, and cancer (Hasler, 1998). Most examples of functional foods are plant based, such as oats, soy, flaxseed, garlic, tomatoes, broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, citrus fruits, grapes, olive oil, and cranberries. Fatty fish and eggs from chickens fed flaxseed are good sources of omega-3-fatty acids. Fernandez-Gines et al. (2005) reviewed meat products that are formulated with additional plant products and have reduced or modified lipid content as functional foods.

Glucosefatty Acid Cycle

The self-regulating interplay between glucose and fatty acid metabolism is called the glucose-fatty acid cycle. This cycle constitutes an important biochemical mechanism for limiting glucose utilization when alternative substrate is available, and conversely limiting the consumption of stored fat when glucose is available. Fatty acids that are produced in adipose tissue in an ongoing cycle of lipolysis and reesterification may either escape from fat cells to become the free fatty acids, or they may be retained as triglycerides, depending on the availability of -glycerol phosphate (Fig. 1). The only source of -glycerol phosphate for reesterification of fatty acids is the pool of triose phosphates derived from glucose oxidation, because adipose tissue is deficient in the enzyme required to phosphorylate and hence reuse glycerol released from triglycerides. Consequently, when glucose is abundant, -glycerol phosphate is readily available, the rate of reesterification is high relative to...

Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

The process of oxidation involves a series of enzyma-tically controlled biochemical reactions leading eventually to the combination of oxygen with the carbon and hydrogen components of the body's fuels to yield the carbon dioxide and metabolically derived water. The incompletely oxidized nitrogen is excreted as urea, which is synthesized by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. The intermediate steps in the metabolism of the body's fuels are linked biochemically to drive the generation of phosphate-containing organic molecules, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which in turn serve as the direct energy sources for all the body's cell activities, including the synthesis of complex molecules, the maintenance of tightly controlled ionic gradients in the cell, and the excretion of ions and molecules outside the cell. Thus, the oxygen being taken up by the lungs reflects the tissue metabolism of the fuels needed to regenerate the ATP used up in either biochemical 'internal' work or...

Salt Intake and Blood Pressure

The greater storage of fat leads to changes in a range of hormonal secretions from the fat cells including angiotensinogen, a precursor of the renin-angiotensin axis affecting the kidney's excretion of sodium. Adiponectin secretion from expanding adipocytes falls thereby making the blood vessels much more sensitive to plaque formation, medial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Salt-induced increases in blood pressure also involve an array of other hormonal responses including the potent vasocontrictor endothelin-1 and the vasodilator bradykinin, these being potentially involved in the blood pressure-independent effects of higher salt intake on arterial thickening, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and the synthesis of elastin and collagen in the artery. This makes them progressively thicker and less pliable.

Nutritional Value of Fish and Shellfish Introductory Remarks

Interest in the health benefits of fish and shellfish began decades ago when researchers noted that certain groups of people - including the Inuit and the Japanese, who rely on fish as a dietary staple - have a low rate of ischemic diseases (i.e., heart attack or stroke). Fish, particularly fatty fish, is a good source of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. These fats help to lower serum triacylglycerols and cholesterol, help prevent the blood clots that form in heart attacks, and lower the chance of having an irregular heartbeat. In fact, one study found that women who ate fish at least once a week were 30 less likely to die of heart disease than women who ate fish less than once a month. Similar benefits have been found for men. Fish consumption is also related to slower growth of atherosclerotic plaque and lower blood pressure. Especially good sources of omega-3 fats are salmon, tuna, herring, mackerel, and canned tuna and sardines. When included in the diet of pregnant and...

Attentiondeficit Hyperactivity Disorder

With a fish oil containing 480 mg of DHA d for 1 mo improved scotopic vision among these dyslexics. Stordy (2000) has also reported that supplementation with a mixture of essential fatty acids improved motor skills in a open trial of 15 children. Two well-controlled, double-blind placebo-controlled trials among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder supplemented with either DHA alone (Voigt, 1998) or a mixture of EPA plus DHA (Burgess, 1998) were presented at an international workshop in 1998. However, to our knowledge, neither positive nor negative results from these studies have appeared in publication. One important confounding factor is that the diagnosis of behavioral disorders among children is often very difficult. For example, many children with bipolar affective disorder may respond to supplementation but may be mistaken for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The published data are insufficient to either accept or reject the hypothesis...

Supplementation with Dietary Fatty Acids

Various dietary fatty acids have been shown to have numerous immunomodulatory effects. Arachidonic acid (AA, 20 4 n-6) is synthesized in mammalian tissues from the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (18 2 n-6), found in many plant products. The release of AA from cell membrane phospholipids via the action of phospholipase A2 results in the subsequent production of AA-derived eicosanoids, such as prostaglandin (PG) E2 and leukotriene (LT) B4, which have potent proinflammatory and chemo-tactic effects. Alternatively, when AA is replaced with an n-3 fatty acid in the diet, such as eicosapen-taenoic acid (EPA, 20 5 n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 6 n-3), there is competitive inhibition of the use of AA as a substrate, and eicosanoids with different biological activity (PGE3 and LTB5) are produced through the cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxy-genase cellular metabolic pathways (Figure 1). More specifically, EPA-derived eicosanoids result in decreased platelet aggregation, reduced...

Composition Of The

Some elements of the medical profession have emphasized the role of dietary cholesterol in human cardiovascular problems. The negative effect on egg consumption that this emphasis on cholesterol has had led to a number of research attempts to reduce the cholesterol content of eggs. Genetically it has been possible to achieve only slight reductions. Selection of hens for small yolk size has met with some success. A review on altering cholesterol by feeding (5) concluded that dietary modifications resulted in only minor changes in the cholesterol content of egg yolk. Another report (6) states that including 1.5 to 3.0 of menhaden oil in the laying hen's ration results in a temporary reduction of about 50 in the cholesterol concentration in the yolk. The fatty acid composition of the eggs was also modified in that the eicosopentenoic acid and do-cosahexanoic acid (omega-3 fatty acids) content of the yolks was significantly increased when the fish oil was included in the hen's ration....

Clinical Observations

It is remarkable that all of these conditions are also associated with deficits of omega-3 essential fatty acids, suggesting that omega-3 deficits might contribute both to the depression and to the medical disorders (Horrobin et al., 1999a). Epidemiological observations are consistent with the clinical observations. Both between-country and within-country studies show that there are strong inverse relationships between dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and the incidence of both unipolar depression and postpartum depression (Hibbeln, 1999 Hibbeln, 1998 Hibbeln & Salem, 1995). Both sets of observations are thus consistent with the idea that omega-3 deficits are important in depression and in the associated medical conditions.

Negative Results In Crossnational Studies Of Schizophrenia

In cross-national analyses, no specific relationship between seafood or fish consumption and schizophrenia prevalence nor outcome has been reported. Among eight countries, Christensen and Christensen (1988), reported that better outcome measures for patients with schizophrenia were correlated with a low percentage of fats from animals (r 0.91-0.95, p 0.01) but not correlated to a higher percentage of dietary fat from vegetable and seafood sources (r 0.23-0.50, p 0.10). These results are also consistent with a recent analysis of seafood consumption and prevalence rates of schizophrenia (Naoghiul, Weissman, and Hibbeln, unpublished) obtained using a gold standard of cross-national psychiatric prevalence data. Across 14 countries, there was no significant relationship between prevalence rates of schizophrenia and seafood consumption utilizing simple and nonlinear models. In summary, these data suggest that there could be a specific relationship of seafood consumption and omega-3 status...

Shell Eggs Marketed by Weight and Unit

Fig. 1 Designer eggs rich in omega 3 fatty acids (Australia). Fig. 1 Designer eggs rich in omega 3 fatty acids (Australia). Such production is based on the fact that the fat-soluble component fed to chickens can accumulate in the yolk. The most commercially successful shell egg product is the one fortified with omega-3 fatty acids (Fig. 1). This nutraceutical is found in deep-sea fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel and in plants such as flaxseed. Eggs enriched with vitamin E up to 6 of daily recommendation are also available in the market.

Major Depression In The Context Of Evolution

Fundamental to the understanding of any biological process, including mental illnesses, involves understanding their evolutionary context. There are few readily apparent evolutionary advantages for the development of a high prevalence of major depressive illnesses among Homo sapiens. Major depression frequently destroys peoples lives and has a chronic recurring course. Major depression is defined by DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) by the loss of the ability to function in family or job life for at least 2 wk, as a a result of disturbances in mood, sleep, concentration, self-esteem, appetite, physical energy, and sexual energy or function. This disease not only directly reduces the likelihood of procreation but also causes significant disruption in social and family interactions. Prior to 1910, the prevalence of major depression may have been nearly 100-fold less than current rates (Klerman et al., 1985). The increased rates of prevalence of...

Major Depression And Tissue Composition Studies

Symptoms (Ellis et al., 1977 Fehily et al., 1981), unfortunately these studies lacked diagnostic specificity, did not control for alcoholism or smoking, and did not specify the use of psychotrophic medications. Following those initial reports, eight studies have reported that lower concentrations of n-3 fatty acids in plasma or red blood cells (RBCs) predicted depressive symptoms (Adams et al., 1996 Maes et al., 1996 Peet et al., 1998 Edwards et al., 1998a Edwards et al., 1998b Peet et al., 1999 Maes et al., 1999 Hibbeln et al., 2000). Adams et al. (1996) were the first to report that lower measures of DHA in the phospholipids of red blood cells (r 0.80, p 0.01) and a greater aracidonic acid (AA) to EPA ratio (r 0.73, p 0.01) predicted more severe depressive symptoms. Edwards et al. (1998) carefully controlled common confounding factors that would alter omega-3 status among depressed subjects by controlling for both alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking while also assessing...


Several sources of information suggest that humans evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids of approx 1, whereas today this ratio is approx 10-20 1, with an average of 16.74, indicating that Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids compared with the diet on which humans evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Because omega-3 fatty acids are essential in growth and development throughout the life cycle, they should be included in the diets of all humans. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are not intercovertible in the human body and are important components of practically all cell membranes. Whereas cellular proteins are genetically determined, the PUFA composition of cell membranes is to a great extent dependent on the dietary intake. Therefore, appropriate amounts of dietary omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids need to be considered in making dietary recommendations, and these two classes


As early as the 1930s, it was observed that patients with 20 weight loss have a significantly higher mortality following gastrectomy compared to those with less weight loss. In patients recovering from abdominal surgery, enteral feeding has been shown to improve muscle function and reduce morbidity and mortality. Although total par-enteral nutrition (TPN) may improve outcome in those with intestinal failure and in the severely malnourished, it may lead to atrophy of the intestinal mucosa and a reduction in IgA antibody production. This is because the enterocytes and colonocytes are better supported by enteral intralumi-nal infusion, as opposed to parenteral feeding, especially if the enteral nutrition is enriched with glutamine and omega-3-fatty acid, which are important nutrients to enterocytes and colonocytes, respectively.

Where Is Dha Found

In mammals, DHA is found in high amounts in three types of cellular membranes, those of the rod outer segment (ROS) (Wiegand & Anderson, 1983), synaptosomes (Breckenridge et al., 1972) and sperm (Neill & Masters, 1973). In these cells, DHA can represent more than 50 of the total membrane phospholipid acyl chains (Salem et al., 1986). At such high levels, much of the DHA exists as di-DHA phospholipid species (Miljanich et al., 1979). In these tissues, DHA is tenaciously retained at the expense of other fatty acids (Salem et al., 1986) and so levels are kept constantly high and are relatively unresponsive to dietary fluctuations. In all other tissues, DHA is found at much lower levels. In these cells, DHA exists primarily in hetero acid phospholipids with the sn-1 chain composed mainly of the saturated fatty acids palmitic or stearic acid and the sn-2 chain DHA (Anderson & Sperling, 1971). In leukocytes, DHA represents about 2-5 of total fatty acids (Fritsche & Johnston, 1990 Hinds &...

How Pagonists Work

P-agonists specifically enhance the growth of muscle and give a small reduction in the growth of fat. p-agonists' effects are mediated by modifying specific metabolic signals in muscle and fat cells with a resulting increase in nutrients directed toward lean growth. Directing nutrients to tissues of highest priority is a normal metabolic process. This nutritive flow takes place as an ongoing hourly, daily, and weekly adjustment directed by internal body signals. In young growing pigs, more energy is directed toward lean than fat however, in more mature, heavier pigs, a larger proportion of energy is directed toward fat. p-agonists modify the metabolic signals within muscle and fat cells to direct more nutrients to lean growth (Fig. 2). The binding of p-agonists with specific receptors on the surface of muscle and fat cells (p-adrenergic receptors) generates these signals. When p-agonists bind A more detailed description of the proposed mechanism by which b-agonists affect muscle and...

Protein Kinase C

Protein kinase C, which exists in various isoforms, is activated when it translocates to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and interacts with the lipid bilayer including diacylglycerol (DAG). Omega-3 fatty acids induce or enhance PKC activation or translocation, often more so than other polyunsaturated fatty acids, and these actions have been reported in various cells including leukocytes. DHA, EPA, and AA induced the translocation of PKCa, PKC- I, PKC- II, and PKC-e isozymes to a particulate fraction in parallel with enhanced respiratory burst in stimulated macrophages (Huang et al., 1997). DHA also stimulated respiratory burst in neutrophils, however, in a fashion independent of PKC but involving calmodulin (Poulos et al., 1991). Under certain conditions, DHA displays extraordinary ability to activate PKC Marignani et al. (Marignani et al.,

Concluding Remarks

Omega-3 fatty acids have long been recognized as beneficial foodstuff, but their actions are complex and thus poorly understood. There is now a resurgence of interest in omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA, among basic scientists and clinicians. DHA is being used in a variety of forms, from dietary supplements to novel drug conjugates, to benefit an extensive and varied series of conditions, including normal vision and neurologic development, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and cancer. The emerging literature suggests a diversity of mechanisms of action for DHA modulation of eicosanoid hormone production, generation of free radicals, regulation of gene expression, and the fundamental actions of DHA on membrane structure and function. It is the current state of the art, however, that the physiological and even cellular processes affected by DHA are not clearly connected to a single action of DHA, and thus there is urgent need for the interdisciplinary research that will link the...


Modifications in factors that regulate transcription of the LDL receptor gene. Although such genetic modifications may be relatively common, they are poorly defined. Again, an important but unanswered question is whether some people are genetically susceptible to the cholesterol-raising effects of dietary cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. If so, they may possess modifications in the genetic control of LDL receptor expression. See also Eggs. Exercise Beneficial Effects Diet and Exercise. Fatty Acids Metabolism Monounsaturated Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Saturated Trans Fatty Acids. Lipoproteins.

Fish Oils

Fish caught specifically for the production of fish meals are high in body oil content, much of which is extracted before making meal. There has been some interest in feeding fish oils to food animals to increase the omega-3 fatty acid content of meat, milk, and eggs and the reproductive performance of swine. Although feeding fish oils may have beneficial effects, problems such as softening of body fat, development of a fish-like odor in edible tissues, and reduced protein and fat contents in milk have been reported. It is therefore necessary to consider an optimum inclusion rate and or a chemical treatment of oils to ensure acceptable final products.


Lipomas are benign tumors composed of mature fat cells. They are subcutaneous nodules with a soft consistency. Lesions may be multilobulated and range in size from 1 to 10 cm. Common locations include the upper extremities, trunk, and neck. Histological examination shows lobules of mature fat cells enclosed in a fibrous capsule.


Increased levels of saturated fat in the diet have been shown to increase total serum and LDL cholesterol, thus increasing the risk of heart disease (46). Much negative publicity has been associated with tropical fats (coconut, palm kernel, and palm oil) due to their high saturated fat content. Recent studies show palm oil may be an exception, despite its high saturated fat content (56,60,61,63-65). Similarly meat and dairy fats suffer because of their relatively high saturated fat content as well as their cholesterol content. Diets high in monounsaturated fat and low in saturated fats, the so-called Mediterranean diet, have been shown to decrease total and LDL cholesterol while not affecting HDL cholesterol (53,55). Studies suggest this type of diet may be equal to, or better than, a low-fat diet for lowering blood cholesterol. Olive oil and canola oil are common sources of monounsaturates. Diets high in polyunsaturated fats beneficially decrease total and LDL cholesterol, but also...

Speciality Eggs

The nutrient composition of an egg can be significantly modified by altering the composition of the feed. Commercially available nutrient-enhanced eggs contain increased amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E, selenium, and lutein. Other enhancements include increased contents of vitamin D and the B vitamins as well as incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid.

Omega3 Fatty Acids

The fatty-acid content of eggs is easily and significantly affected by the fatty-acid profile of the hen's feed. The omega-3 fatty-acid content of eggs can be increased by feeding hens a source of omega-3 fatty acids. In some countries, fish meal is used as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, but this can result in eggs with a fishy odour and taste. Marine algae are another source of omega-3 fatty acid and result in higher concentrations of eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in egg yolks. Flaxseed oil is also used as a source of omega-3 fatty acids and results in increased levels of a-linolenic acid in egg yolks. The relative proportion of DHA to a-linolenic acid can be controlled by feeding a mixture of flaxseed oil and marine algae. It is possible to attain levels as high as 200 mg of omega-3 fatty acids per large egg. Although omega-3 fatty-acid levels in eggs are well below levels found in fishes such as salmon and tuna, eggs can still be an important source of...

Anatomy Bone marrow

In the foetus the yolk sac, liver and spleen contribute to haemopoiesis, but at birth the bone marrow harbours all the pluripotent stem cells (stem cells from which all blood cells originate) and is the sole producer of non-lymphocytic blood cells (Fig. 11.1). The bone marrow is housed in an inner space created in most bones by the opposing actions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This inner space or cavity consists of a labyrinth of communicating chambers formed by the crisscrossing of fine bony trabeculae. The bony framework is filled with a three-dimensional stromal cell network that forms the bedding for billions of blood-forming cells. The four main cell types of the bone marrow stroma are endothelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages and energy-rich fat cells. From birth up to about 5 years the bone marrow cavity is fully occupied by proliferating haemopoietic cells. The haemopoietic cell mass consists of pluripotent stem cells, differentiated stem cells, precursor blood cells as...

Fatty Fishes

These fishes have fat in their flesh, which is usually much darker than that of white fishes, with similar blocks of muscle and connective tissue. The amount of fat is related to the breeding cycle of the fish, so that the fat content falls considerably after breeding. The flesh of fatty fishes is generally richer in the B vitamins than that of white fishes, and significant amounts of vitamins A and D are present. The mineral concentrations are not very different, but fatty fish is a better source of iron. The oil of these fishes is particularly rich in very-long-chain PUFA, especially those of the omega-3 (n-3) series such as EPA and DHA. These fishes accumulate oils in their muscles, belly flap, and skin (subdermal fat).

Fish Minerals

See also Cancer Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer. Coronary Heart Disease Prevention. Dietary Guidelines, International Perspectives. Fatty Acids Omega-3 Polyunsaturated. Food Composition Data. Food Safety Bacterial Contamination Other Contaminants Heavy Metals. Hyperlipidemia Nutritional Management. Iodine Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements. Protein Quality and Sources. Stroke, Nutritional Management. Supplementation Dietary Supplements.


The most important property of frying oils is resistance to oxidation and polymerization (4). Oxidative stability is usually measured by either the active oxygen method (AOM) or the oxidative stability index (OSI). In both cases the higher the number, the more stable the oil to oxidation and polymerization, and the two measurements normally correlate with each other. A typical refined, bleached, deodorized (RBD) vegetable oil will have an AOM in the 15-25 hour range (4). This is fine for home frying that is done in small batches and often discarded after a single use. For the kind of heavy duty, continuous frying done in the food industry, however, far more stable oils are needed, with AOMs of around 100-200 hours (4,6,7). This stability is usually achieved by either partial hydrogenation or a combination of partial hydrogenation, transesterification, and fractionation. Partial hydrogenation will remove most of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and replace them with cis and trans...

Histological Changes

The epidermis is the only skin layer to thicken during the expansion process however, it eventually normalizes in the postexpansion period. Also noted are flattening of the rete pegs and increases in mitotic activity lasting up to 3 months. The dermis undergoes permanent thinning, increased collagen synthesis, realignment of collagen fibers to a more parallel orientation, and a temporary increase in melanin production that causes hyperpigmentation. Hair follicles and sebaceous glands move farther apart without increasing in number. Subcutaneous fat undergoes a decrease in the number of fat cells and a decrease in the size of the remaining cells with some associated fat necrosis. This layer may fully recover after several months (53). Skeletal muscle undergoes the following (54) muscle cells increase in the number of mitochondria, fibers thin and become atrophic with some necrosis, and hyalinization and calcifications develop. There is no change in the number of muscle cells after...

Fat mimetic

Actually, the demand of consumers for low fat products increases, pressing food industries to develop reduced-fat food. To maintain the properties brought by fat, such as appearance, mouthfeel, texture, juiciness, flavour and storage stability, fat replacers are added. Proteins are usually used as fat mimetics. Lucca and Tepper (1994) reported the functionality of fat replacers in food and described the advantages and limitations of three classes of fat replacers, i.e. proteins-, carbohydrates- and lipid-based ingredients. Protein-based fat mimetics are generally used in frozen dessert, salad dressing, margarine, dairy products and their functional properties are mouthfeel, creaminess and viscosity (Akoh 1998). McClements and Demetriades (1998) wrote a review focused on the role of fat mimetics in food emulsions. They reported the effects of fat replacers on stability, texture, appearance and flavour of food emulsions. They concluded that the initial flavour of an emulsion is altered...

Bile Acids

See also Cholesterol Sources, Absorption, Function and Metabolism Factors Determining Blood Levels. Fats and Oils. Fatty Acids Metabolism Monounsaturated Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Saturated Trans Fatty Acids. Fertility. Hyperlipidemia Overview Nutritional Management. Lipids Composition and Role of Phospholipids.


Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is an important cause of hypocalcemia. Pancreatic lipase breaks down fat into fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids combine with calcium to form insoluble calcium soaps and reduce serum calcium levels. The combination of necrotic fat cells plus calcium soaps makes up much of what is recognized as the fat necrosis of pancreatitis. In addition, as protein moves into the inflammatory exudate, the resultant hypoproteinemia may cause total calcium levels to fall. Pancreatitis can also reduce PTH secretion and the response of tissues to it. If total calcium levels fall below 7.0 or 8.0 mg dL, there is an increased chance of severe complications from pancreatitis.

Lipids Nutrition

Chemically, fatty acids are categorized as either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) contain no double bonds, whereas the unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more double bonds varying in isomeric configuration. Fatty acids with one double bond are referred to as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and those with two or more double bonds are called polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). With regard to MUFA and PUFA, further distinctions are made on the basis of the position of the first double bond from the CH3 terminus (yielding the designations omega-9, omega-6, or omega-3) and the confirmation of the double bond (yielding the designations cis or trans). In cis fatty acids the hydrogen atoms are located on the same side of the double bond, whereas in trans fatty acids the hydrogen atoms are located on opposite sides of the double bond. The chain length of a fatty acid as well as the number and type (ie, cis or trans) of double bonds in the molecule determine its...

Adipose Tissue

Adipose tissue (fat) is deposited in various locations, called depots, in the mammalian body. The major depots include internal body fat associated with the gastrointestinal tract, heart, and kidneys, and subcutaneous, intermuscular and intramuscular fat. The relative amount of each depot varies with species, breed, frame size, and gender. During fetal growth, proliferative fat cells, i.e., preadipocytes (adipoblasts), arise from mesenchymal cells. These cells differentiate into immature adipocytes, but they accumulate little fat prior to the perinatal period. 5 Even though adipose tissue is late developing, some fat is laid down prior to birth. Pigs, lambs, calves, and foals have only 1 3 fat at birth, 6 which is primarily found in the body cavity. Another deposit laid down during late fetal development is brown fat found externally over the scapula area and in the thoracic cavity of some species, but not in the pig. It serves as a

Higher Fat Fish

Up to 60 percent of calories of higher-fat fish may be derived from fat. On average, though, fish in this group have only about 43 percent of calories from fat. The good news is that much of the fat that these fish contain is omega-3 fatty acids, which many studies suggest play a role in protecting against cardiovascular disease and enhancing brain function. Flesh from these fish is darker and firmer and often has a stronger flavor. Common types of higher-fat fish include mackerel, salmon, smelt, and trout.


Preliminary data are beginning to emerge that suggest a relationship between low-omega-3 status and suicidal behavior, which often has a component of impulsivity. Across 31 countries, greater seafood consumption predicts a lower risk of death as a result of suicide among males in an age-adjusted logarithmic regression (r -0.42, p 0.02) (Hibbeln, unpublished data). This relationship is not as robust as the relationship of seafood consumption to prevalence rates of major depression, postpartum depression, or bipolar affective disorders. However, two epidemiological studies within countries are consistent with these cross-national findings. We examined 1767 subjects in northern Finland and reported that frequent fish consumption (twice per week or more) significantly reduced the risk of reporting depressive symptoms (odds ratio 0.63, p 0.03) and of reporting suicidal thinking (odds ratio 0.57, p 0.04) (Tanskanen et al., 2001). In a17-yr follow-up of256,118 Japanese subjects (Hirayama,...


The use of omega-3 fatty acids also seems promising for some symptoms of schizophrenia (see Fenton et al., 2000, for a review). A series of case reports by Rudin (1981 1982) described significant reductions of psychosis after treatment with flax seed oil. More recent open trials have also indicated possible efficacy (Mellor et al., 1995 Puri and Richardson, 1998 Puri et al. 2000). Three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (Peet and Mellor, 1998 Peet et al., 2000a Peet et al., 2000b) have reported clinical improvements among schizophrenics treated with EPA alone, while one study found no clinical improvements (Fenton, et al., unpublished data). Unfortunately, results in the form of full publications are not yet available for any of the double-blind trials. Of these studies, the most striking report is that when treated with 3 g d of EPA alone, 10 of 30 unmedicated

Role in the Diet

Nuts and seeds can make a useful contribution to the dietary intake of macronutrients, notably protein and unsaturated fatty acids, micronutrients, dietary fiber, and energy. Although these commodities play a relatively minor role in the average Western diet, they are more important in the diets of Western vegetarians, especially vegans. Even on a worldwide basis, the nutritional contribution of nuts and seeds is relatively small Plant foods are estimated to supply around 65 of edible protein, but only 8 of protein and 4 of total dietary energy is estimated to derive from pulses, oil crops, and nuts (Young and Pellett, 1994). See also Dietary Fiber Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption. Fatty Acids Metabolism Monounsaturated Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Saturated Trans Fatty Acids. Folic Acid. Food Allergies Etiology. Food Safety Mycotoxins. Protein Quality and Sources. Vegetarian Diets.


The ability of lipases to maintain high catalytic activity and selectivity in nonaqueous media when used either as free enzymes or in immobilized form can be exploited in a wide range of other applications. Thus, immobilized lipases can be utilized for the production of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or omega-3 fatty acids) via hydrolysis of fish oil (4), direct esterification of glycerol with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (9), or acidolysis of an acylglycerol with CLA (10). Enzymatic preparation of acylglycerols in solvent-free media (by esterification, the production of cocoa butter substitutes from inexpensive starting materials (13) and to incorporate omega-3 fatty acids in vegetable oils (14,15).


As a field, the use of omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatric disorders appears to have significant potential. Cross-national comparisons between seafood consumption and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders indicate that there is a significant predictive relationship to the 50- to 60-fold range of rates of prevalence of affective disorders. These studies also indicate that there may be a more selective relationship of omega-3 status to affective and impulsive disorders than to schizophrenia. Thus far, a limited number of placebo-controlled intervention trials appears to demonstrate greater efficacy among patients with more severe symptoms (e.g., who are not undergoing current treatment with psychotrophic medications) (Peet et al., 2000). Overall, there appears to be a treatment response to supplements containing at least some EPA, and significant positive treatment results have not yet been described in trials using DHA alone. This clinical observation has resulted in a mechanistic...

Lipid Composition

Of saturated fatty acids (e.g., myristic, palmitic, stearic) have high melting points and are generally solid at ambient temperature, whereas triacylglycerols consisting of unsaturated (monoene, polyene) fatty acids (e.g., oleic, linoleic, linolenic) are usually liquid at room temperature. Butterfat, for example, contains 70 saturated fatty acids, whereas many vegetable oils contain almost exclusively unsaturated fatty acids 4,8 . The fatty acid distribution within naturally occurring triacylglycerols is not random 9,10 . The taxonomic patterns of vegetable oils consist of triacylglycerols obeying the 1,3 random-2-random distribution, with saturated fatty acids being located almost exclusively at the 1,3-positions of triacylglycerols 8,11,12 . Conversely, fats from the animal kingdom (tallow, lard etc.) are quite saturated at the sn-2 position 13 . Interesterification reactions have been knowingly performed since the mid-1800s. The first published mention was by Pelouze and Gelis 15 ....


Aquaculture of salmon, catfish, trout, shrimp, mussels, and oysters relies almost exclusively on freezing to transport the catch after processing. Freezing has made seafood, often of hitherto exotic species, available to inland consumers to whom the product may have been unfamiliar. Seafood also makes a significant contribution to the nutritional status of the world. Species low in fat (cod, haddock, sole, pollack, hake, catfish, etc) constitute a rich source of animal protein coupled with a low caloric content. Species high in fat (salmon, herring, trout etc.) are very low in saturated fats, while the omega-3 fatty acids present are protective against cardiovascular disease. Surimi, a Japanese

Enteral Formulas

Immune-enhancing formulas These solutions are fortified with special nutrients that are purported to enhance various aspects of immune or solid organ function. Such additives include glutamine, arginine, branched-chain amino acids, omega-3 fatty acids, nucleotides, and -carotene. Although several trials have proposed that one or more of these additives reduce surgical complications and improve outcome, results have not been uniformly corroborated by other trials. From the addition of amino acids, these formulas generally double the amount of protein (nitrogen) found in standard formula. The severalfold higher cost for these solutions prohibits liberal use of these formulas.

Special Formulations

Omega-3 fatty acids The provision of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (canola oil or fish oil) displaces omega-6 fatty acids in cell membranes, which theoretically reduce the proinflammatory response from prostaglandin production. See also Colon Disorders Nutritional Management of Disorders. Energy Requirements. Fatty Acids Omega-3 Polyunsaturated. Gall Bladder Disorders. Liver Disorders. Nutritional Support In the Home Setting Adults, Enteral Adults, Parenteral. Small


Use in powdered mixes is their ability to be spray-dried and to produce agglomerated products. Because of their high solubility and low hygroscopicity and their ability to form complexes with some hydrophobic substances, maltodex-trins are often used as carriers, bulking agents, or both. Special crystalline maltodextrins find use as fat replacers.

Pulmonary Disease

To address the nutritional needs of these patients, a formula was designed containing ingredients that could help control or reduce lung damage from inflammation and oxidation. Preclinical studies have shown that high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets containing omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and y-linolenic acid from borage oil rapidly modulate the fatty acid composition of inflammatory cell membranes (36-38), reduce the synthesis of important proin-

Hdl Ldl Vldl

Stimulation of prostacyclin production by mature fat cells. Interaction with insulin in regulation of adipocyte metabolism Induction of leptin and IGF-I expression. Stimulation of lipolysis Inhibition of lipolysis. Stimulation of glucose transport and oxidation LPL activity inhibition. Induction of lipolysis The synthesis of triglycerides, also termed lipogen-esis, requires a supply of fatty acids and glycerol. The main sources of fatty acids are the liver and the small intestine. Fatty acids are esterified with gly-cerol phosphate in the liver to produce triglycerides. Since triglycerides are bulky polar molecules that do not cross cell membranes well, they must be hydro-lyzed to fatty acids and glycerol before entering fat cells. Serum very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) are the major form in which triacylglycerols are carried from the liver to WAT. Short-chain fatty acids (16 carbons or less) can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and carried in chylomicra directly to...

Dietary Supplements

See also Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Bone. Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides. Electrolytes Acid-Base Balance Water-Electrolyte Balance. Energy Balance. Exercise Beneficial Effects Diet and Exercise. Fats and Oils. Fatty Acids Metabolism Monounsaturated Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Saturated Trans Fatty Acids. Protein Synthesis and Turnover Requirements and Role in Diet Digestion and Bioavailability Quality and Sources. Supplementation Role of Micronutrient Supplementation Developing Countries.


On average, women have a higher body fat percentage the differences, however, decrease at older ages (72) , a smaller plasma volume, and a lower organ blood flow than men, with obvious implications for disparities in drug distribution. Moreover, the major protein groups responsible for binding in human plasma are influenced by sex hormone levels, so that plasma drug binding can clearly be influenced by gender. Note, however, that albumin is not greatly affected by gender (73). There were multiple reports of gender-related differences in aj-acid glycoprotein (AAG) concentrations (74-79), gender-dependent stereospecific binding (80,81), and estrogen-mediated decreases in AAG production (82). Nevertheless, gender differences in unbound fractions of disopyramide are lacking despite differing AAG levels (75). Further investigations did not demonstrate gender-related differences in free fractions of highly bound drugs in patients or in subjects receiving hormone replacement therapy or oral...


The EPA has set a limit of 2 parts of mercury per billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum permissible level of 1 part of methyl mercury in a million parts of seafood (1 ppm). Three major scientific arms (fishing industry, government agencies, and scientific bodies) may also be on a collision course. Fish are a good low-cost, low-fat source of nutrition, rich in healthy omega-3 fatty acids. However, there is strong indication that children in utero are more sensitive than adult humans. This stance is supported by two large controlled longitudinal studies of effects of prenatal mercury exposure from seafood consumption on child neurodevelopment (Seychelles Islands in the Indian Ocean and Faroe Islands near Scotland). Large, long-lived predatory ocean fishes, such as tuna, swordfish, king mackerel, and shark, bioaccumulate methyl mercury in the edible portions.

Breast Milk

Lipids comprise the primary source of energy and are the most variable constituent of breast milk and vary in concentration during a feeding, between breasts, during the day, and over time. They also vary in concentration among women by as much as 50 . Research on the lipid component of breast milk has focused on its association with improved cognitive development and possible role in the prevention of obesity and other chronic degenerative diseases in breast fed children compared to formula-fed children. Particular attention has been paid to the dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, doc-osahexaenoic acid (DHA), which has been shown to enhance retinal development and visual acuity and may provide a physiologic explanation for the superior cognitive development that is documented in breast fed children. Following the lead of Japan and numerous European countries, the US Food and Drug Administration has permitted the addition of DHA to infant formula.

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