Index

Acupuncture, 114-15, 120 Adoption, 185-87, 190-91 Adrenal gland problems, 7-8 Age, woman's as cause of infertility, 3-4 ectopic pregnancy and, 43 third-party reproduction and, 225-26 Alcohol, 4-5, 20, 105-6, 119 Alternative medicine acupuncture, 114-15 aromatherapy, 114 herbal remedies, 115-16 summary on, 119-20 American Fertility Association website, 202 American Society for Reproductive Medicine

(ASRM) website, 202 Anatomy, reproductive female, 8, 58-62 male, 54-56 summary on, 67-70 Antiphospholipid syndrome, 37, 41 Antisperm antibody (ASA), 89 Aromatherapy, 114 Artificial lubricants, 111-12, 119 Asherman's syndrome, 18-19 Aspirin and heparin, 40, 143-45, 148 Assisted reproductive technology (ART) cryopreservation, 160, 166-68 defined, 151

embryo assisted hatching, 166

emotional issues and, 198-99

ethical considerations in, 224-25, 232-33

GIFT and ZIFT, 168-69

in vitro fertilization (IVF), 156-62

intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 162-66

intrauterine insemination (IUI), 152-56

pregnancy success rates and, 152 summary on, 169-72

Bartholin's glands, 60

Basal body temperature (BBT) test, 79, 108-10, 119

Beta-carotene, 99, 103, 118

Birth control pills, 5

Black cohosh, 116

Blood tests, 77-78, 84

Body mass index (BMI), 96-97

Bravelle, 125, 126

Bromocriptine (Parlodel), 136-39, 148 Buserelin, 129, 130

Caffeine, 103-4, 119 Calendar method, 108 Cancer, 6-7, 21 Causes of infertility health and lifestyle concerns for men, 19-22 health and lifestyle concerns for women, 3-8 specific causes in men, 22-24 specific causes in women, 9-19 summary of, 26-27 unexplained infertility, 24-25 Cervical mucus method, 110, 119 Cervix and uterus, 60-61, 68 Cetrotide, 132, 133 Chaste berry, 116

Chemical toxins and radiation, 107, 119 Chlamydia, 13, 15, 23 Chromosomal problems, 33-34 Chromosomes, 66, 69-70 Cigarette smoking, 4, 20, 43, 104-5, 119 Clitoris, 59, 68 Clomid, 121-25, 147

Cloning ethical considerations and, 230-31, 233 reproductive, 219-20 therapeutic, 220 Clothing, tight, 22 Cocaine, 5, 106 Coffee, 103-4

Computerized analysis of sperm motion, 88 Contraception, 5

Counselors, fertility, 200-202, 205 Crinone gel, 139, 140, 142 Cryopreservation, 160, 166-68, 172 Cytoplasmic transfer, 218-19

Depression, signs of, 194, 203. See also

Emotional issues Diabetes, 36, 37-38 Diet, 6, 21, 94-95, 117

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure, 16-18, 24 Dilation and curettage (D&C), 32 Disease, chronic, 6-7, 21 Doctors finding a fertility specialist, 73-77 obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs), 72, 73

reproductive endocrinologists (fertility specialists), 72 selecting a doctor, 73 Dong quai, 116 Donors, payments to, 226 Douching, 112, 119 Drug therapies aspirin and heparin, 40, 143-45 Clomid, 121-25 conclusions on, 146-47 gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists

(GnRHa), 129-32 gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists

(GnRH antagonists), 132-34 gonadotropins, 125-28 human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 134-36

Parlodel (bromocriptine), 136-39 progesterone, 139-43 risks of, 145-46 summary of, 147-49 Drugs, street, 5, 106, 119

Early pregnancy loss coping emotionally with, 47-48 ectopic pregnancy, 42-45 miscarriage, 30-32 molar pregnancy, 45-47 recurrent miscarriage, 32-42 reducing chance of, 49 summary on, 50-51 Ectopic pregnancy defined, 42-43 diagnosis of, 44 risk factors for, 43-44 summary on, 50-51 treatment of, 45 Egg donation, 173, 176-79, 188-89 Egg whites, 112 Eggs, 8, 64 Ejaculation, sperm, 58 Ejaculatory ducts, 56, 68 Embryo assisted hatching, 166, 171-72 Embryo donation, 174, 179-82, 189-90 Embryos, leftover, 224 Emerging technologies MicroSort, 212-15, 229 ovarian tissue and egg freezing, 215-17 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), 207-12 Emerging technologies not yet available in U.S. cloning, 219-20 cytoplasmic transfer, 218-19 in vitro maturation of eggs, 217-18 nuclear transfer, 219

ovarian tissue donation and transplant, 218 summary on, 222 Emotional issues array of feelings, 193-94 of couples, 195-96 depression symptoms, 194, 203 family, friends and, 197-98 fertility treatments and, 198-200 of lesbian couples, 196-97, 198 roller coaster of, 2 of single women, 197 summary on, 202-5 Endometrial biopsy, 80 Endometrial polyps, 35, 36 Endometriosis, 4, 10-13, 43 Environmental and occupational factors, 7

Epididymis, 55, 67

Essential fatty acids (EFAs), 102, 103, 118 Ethical considerations assisted reproductive technology and, 224-25 cloning and, 230-31, 233 sex selection and, 229-30 summary on, 232-33 surrogacy and, 227-29 third-party reproduction and, 225-27 Ethics, defined, 223 Exercise, 6, 97-98, 118

Fallopian tubes description of, 61-62 endometrial tissue on, 10, 11, 12 fertilization and, 64-66 False unicorn, 116 Family balancing, 210, 214. See also

Gender selection Female reproductive anatomy, 8, 58-62 Female reproductive cycle eggs, 8, 64 hormones, 62-63 menstrual cycle, 63, 69 ovulation, 63-64, 69 summary on, 68-70 Fertility counselors, 200-202, 205 Fertility drug therapies aspirin and heparin, 40, 143-45 Clomid, 121-25 conclusions on, 146-47 gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists

(GnRHa), 129-32 gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists

(GnRH antagonists), 132-34 gonadotropins, 125-28

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 134-36 Parlodel (bromocriptine), 136-39 progesterone, 139-43 risks of, 145-46 summary of, 147-49 Fertility specialists, 72-77 Fertility testing for men blood tests, 84

infection tests on semen, 84-85 other tests for sperm, 87-89 semen analysis, 85-87

summary on, 91-92 TESE/TESA, 89-90 urine analysis, 85 vasogram, 90 Fertility testing for women basal body temperature (BBT) test, 79 blood tests, 77-78 doctors and, 71-77 endometrial biopsy, 80 hysterosalpingogram (HSG), 36, 42, 81 hysteroscopy, 82 laparoscopy, 82-83 ovulation predictor test, 80 pelvic ultrasound examination, 78-79 summary on, 91-92 Fertilization, 64-66 Fibroids, uterine, 4, 35 Fitness, 97-98, 118 Folic acid, 40, 46, 100, 103 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). See also Gonadotropin medication female reproductive cycle and, 63, 67 male reproductive process and, 57, 67 pituitary gland disorders and, 7, 22 Follistim, 125

Food Guide Pyramid, 94-95, 117 Frisch, Dr. Rose, 97

Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), 168-69 Ganirelix, 132, 133 Gender selection ethical considerations and, 229-30, 233 MicroSort, 212-15, 221-22, 229 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), 207-12, 221 Genetics as cause of infertility, 24 chromosomes and genetic design, 66, 69-70 Gestational surrogacy, 183-84, 190 GIFT and ZIFT, 168-69 Ginseng, 116

Gonadotropin medication, 125-28, 147 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists

(GnRHa), 129-32, 147 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists

(GnRH antagonists), 132-34, 148 Gonal-F, 125

Hamster test, 88-89 Heparin and aspirin, 40, 143-45, 148 Herbal remedies, 115-16, 120 Hormone tests, 78, 84 Hormones female, 62-63 male, 57

pituitary gland disorders and, 7, 22 polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and, 9-10 summary on, 67 Hot tubs, 22, 113 Hughes syndrome, 41 Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as fertility therapy, 126, 134-36, 148 miscarriages and, 32 molar pregnancy and, 46, 47 Hyperthyroidism, 39 Hypothyroidism, 39

Hysterosalpingograms (HSG), 36, 42, 81 Hysteroscopy, 42, 82

In vitro fertilization (IVF)

effectiveness of, 156-57, 161-62 man's role in, 157 risks of, 161 stages of, 157-60 summary on, 170 In vitro maturation of eggs, 217-18 Incompetent cervix, 35-36 Infertility. See also Causes of infertility defined, 2

potential causes of, 2-3 summary of facts on, 26-27 Inherited fertility problems, 24 Insulin resistance syndrome, 36, 38-39 Integrative medicine, 116, 120 Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), 162-66, 170-71

Intrauterine insemination (IUI), 152-56, 170

Klinefelter's syndrome, 24

Labia majora and minora, 59, 68 Laparoscopy description of, 82-83 for endometriosis, 13 L-arginine, 102, 103, 118 L-carnitine, 102-3, 118

Lesbian couples, 196-97, 198, 204 Low sperm count environmental factors and, 22 health issues and, 21-22 lifestyle choices and, 20-21 physical conditions and, 22-24 Lubricants, artificial, 111-12, 119 Lubricating glands, 60, 68 Lupron, 129, 130 Lupus, 37, 40-41

Luteinizing hormone (LH). See also Gonadotropin medication female reproductive cycle and, 63, 67 male reproductive process and, 57, 67 ovulation predictor test and, 111 pituitary gland disorders and, 7, 22

Male reproductive anatomy, 54-56, 67-68 Male reproductive process hormones, 57 sperm, 57-58, 68 sperm ejaculation, 58 sperm production, 58 Marijuana, 5, 20, 106 Medications, prescription, 5, 20-21, 106-7 Menopur, 125, 126 Menstrual cycle, 63, 69, 116 MicroSort, 212-15, 221-22, 229 Miscarriage causes of, 31 description of, 30-31 diagnosis of, 31-32 recurrent, 32-42 summary on, 50 treatment of, 32 Missionary position, 112, 119 Molar pregnancy, 45-47, 51 Mumps, history of, 21

Nafarelin, 129, 130 Natural ways to become pregnant alternative medicine, 114-16 diet and nutrition, 94-95 fitness and, 97-98 healthful changes and, 93-94 healthy weight and, 95-97 lifestyle changes and, 103-7 stress reduction and, 98

summary of, 117-20 vitamins, nutrients, and, 97-103 Natural ways to monitor fertility basal body temperature (BBT) method, 108-10 boosting fertility and, 107 cervical mucus method, 110 combination of three methods, 110 ovulation predictor test, 111 rhythm method, 108 summary of, 119 New and emerging technologies. See also Emerging technologies not yet available in U.S. MicroSort, 212-15, 229 ovarian tissue and egg freezing, 215-17 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), 207-12 summary of, 221-22 Novarel, 134, 135 Nuclear transfer, 219

Nutrition, 6, 21, 94-95, 117. See also Vitamins and nutrients

Obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs), 72, 73 Obstruction of vas deferens or epididymis, 23 Occupational factors, 7, 22, 107 Oligospermia, 19. See also Low sperm count Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) assisted reproductive technologies and, 155-56,

161, 165 Clomid and, 123 description of, 145-46, 148-49 Ovarian tissue and egg freezing, 215-17, 222 Ovarian tissue donation and transplant, 218 Ovaries, 62, 69 Ovidrel, 134, 135 Ovulation predictor test, 80, 111

Parlodel (bromocriptine), 136-39, 148

Payments to donors, 226

Payments to surrogates, 228

Pelvic infection, 36, 37

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), 13-16

Pelvic ultrasound examination, 78-79

Pituitary gland abnormalities, 22 Pituitary gland tumors, 7

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 9-10, 38, 146 Positions, sexual, 112 Pregnyl, 134, 135

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), 207-12, 221

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), 100

Prenatal vitamins, 98-99, 118. See also Vitamins and nutrients Prescription medications, 5, 20-21, 106-7, 119 Profasi, 134, 135 Progesterone, 139-43, 148 Progesterone level, low, 34-35 Prometrium, 139, 140, 142 Prostate gland, 55, 67 Provera, 139, 140, 142 Pumpkin seeds, 95

Radiation and chemical toxins, 107, 119 Recurrent miscarriages chromosomal problems and, 33-34 diagnosing cause of, 41-42 lifestyle factors and, 33 medical conditions and, 36-41 progesterone level and, 34-35 risk factors for, 32-33 summary on, 50 uterus abnormalities and, 35-36 Red clover, 116 Red raspberry, 116 Reproductive cloning, 219-20, 233 Repronex, 125, 126 RESOLVE support group, 202 Rhythm method, 108, 119

Saw palmetto, 116 Schwartz, Dr. Gary, 114 Scrotal injury, 22 Scrotum, 54

Selective reduction, 230, 233 Selenium, 102, 103, 118 Semen, defined, 56 Semen analysis, 85-87 Seminal vesicles, 55, 67 Septate uterus, 35 Serophene, 121. See also Clomid Sex chromosome, 66, 70 Sex selection ethical considerations in, 229-30, 233 MicroSort, 212-15, 221-22 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), 207-12, 221

Sexual positions, 112 Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) infertility in men and, 23 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and, 13, 15, 16

Silber, Dr. Sherman, 216 Single Mothers by Choice, 197 Single women, 197, 204 Skene's glands, 60 Smoking, 4, 20, 43, 104-5, 119 Sonohysterogram, 42 Sperm, defined, 57-58, 68 Sperm chromatin structure assay, 88 Sperm donation, 173, 174-75, 187-88 Sperm production. See also Low sperm count description of, 58, 68 egg production versus, 8 pituitary gland and, 22 vitamins, nutrients, and, 101, 102, 103 zinc and, 101, 106 Spina bifida, 40, 100 Stress, 98, 118

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 105 Surrogacy description of, 183-85, 190 ethical considerations in, 227-29 Synarel, 129, 130

Testicles, 54, 67 Testing for infertility doctors and, 71-77 in men, 83-90 summary on, 91-92 in women, 77-83 Therapeutic cloning, 220, 230-31, 233 Third-party reproduction description of, 199-200 ethical considerations in, 225-27, 232-33 Thrombophilia, 37, 39-40 Thyroid disease, 37, 39

Timing, 112-13

Trad itional surrogacy, 183, 190

Underwear, men's, 22, 113

Unexplained infertility, 24-25, 27

Urethra, 56, 68

Urethra opening, 59-60, 68

Uterine fibroids, 4, 35

Uterus abnormalities, 35-36 cervix and, 60-61, 68

Vag ina, 59, 60, 68 Vag inal infections, 37 Varicocele, 23

Vas deferens, obstruction of, 23 Vas deferentia, 55 Vasectomy reversal, 23-24 Vasogram, 90 Vitamins and nutrients essential fatty acids (EFAs), 102, 103 importance of, 98-99 L-arginine, 102, 103 L-carnitine, 102, 103 selenium, 102, 103 summary on, 118 vitamin A, 99, 103 vitamin B, 100, 103 vitamin C, 100-101, 103 vitamin E, 101, 103 zinc, 95, 101, 103, 106 Vulva, 58, 59

Weight, body, 6, 21, 95-97, 117-18 Weil, Dr. Andrew, 116 Wild yam, 116

Xenoestrogens, 104, 119

Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), 168-69

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