Make Your Own Fertilizer

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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Am Biofertilizers Have An Edge Over Other Biofertilizers

This group of biofertilizers is the only among others having fungal system involved. Other biofertilizers exploit bacteria most commonly. Also this offers wide applicability with a wide range of plants having little selectivity, which is commonly reported in other biofertilizers. Though some exceptions exist with certain nonmycorrhizal families like chenopodiaceae, brassicaceae, and few nonhost plants of nyctaginaceae etc. The storage conditions also are very simple with no extra infrastructural requirements like low temperature and moisture content. Shelf-life is comparatively long. Bacterial systems have short life and cause cell death easily. The hyphae of fungal system can extend much beyond (a few meters away) the depletion zone and thus can acquire nutrients from a much wider area. The fungal system also produces vegetative structures like chlamydospores and zygospores, which become dormant during periods of environmental stress and germinate with the return of favorable...

Interaction of Natural Biofertilizers

Different biofertilizers have shown nitrogen-fixing, phos-phorus-solubilizing, and phytohormone-producing abilities and are used as for increasing agricultural productivity, for e.g., (Brady)rhizobium for legumes (grain, fodder), plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) for cereals (wheat, rice, grasses, etc.), Azolla for the rice ecosystem, and actino-mycetes (Frankia spp.) for forest trees. The AM biofertilizer is known to increase the nitrogen-fixing potential of the legumes when given together with Rhizobium (Chaturvedi and Kumar 1991) and Bradyrhizobium (Werner et al. 1994 Xie et al. 1995). The mycorrhiza first stimulates the nodule bacteria in a sequential process by increasing the tissue phosphorus content this results in improved nodulation. There are also reports of positive interaction between Azotobacter Azospirillum, and AM fungi (Alnahidh and Gomah 1991). The AM colonization favorably affects the population of these free-living N-fixing bacteria and thus stimulates better...

Environmental Concern On Chemical Fertilizer Usage

Fertilizer production is also an environmental concern. For every ton of phosphoric acid produced, five tons of phosphogypsum are generated. Phosphogypsum is a solid material that results from the reaction of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid. Although it is nearly identical to natural gypsum, it may contain small amounts of sand, phosphate, fluorine, radium, and other elements present in phosphate ore. Federal regulations restrict both use and research involving phosphogypsum because of its radium content and require phosphogypsum to be stacked on the ground. A limited amount of phosphogypsum, with a minimal radium content, is used as an agricultural soil amendment. During the past 50 years, more than 700 MT have accumulated in Florida alone. These enormous stacks, some covering an area of more than 300 hectares and up to 60 m high, have settling ponds on top that contain highly acidic water that can overflow into waterways. New regulations have been enacted to guard against...

Major Constraints And Solutions In Commercialization Of Am Biofertilizer

Biofertilizers represent an affordable industry for many developing countries. In many African countries, the use of inorganic fertilizer has increased soil acidity, reducing the yield per ton of fertilizer. Biofertilizers are cheap to manufacture, suitable for small-scale farmers if produced locally (eliminating distribution costs), and the investment in technology is far lower than that of inorganic fertilizers. Biofertilizers have been produced, packaged, and sold commercially in India, while in a number of African and Latin American countries, biofertilizers have been produced at national research centers. Most importantly, the demand for biofertilizers has outstripped production in almost all these countries. It is estimated that about 40,000-550,000 is required to build a 100-150 MT biofertilizer plant. Alternatively, 500,000 for 10 plants in different locations could produce up to 1000-1500MT to meet the demand by rural farmers. With increased production capacity,...

Limitations To Using Manure As A Fertilizer

The proximity of the site where manure is produced and crops are grown is key to managing manure for its agronomic benefits. During the early to mid part of the last century, crops and livestock were operationally and functionally linked enterprises. Most feed was homegrown and N provided by legumes and manure sustained crop yields. The introduction of inexpensive fertilizers and inexpensive transport costs allowed crops to be grown in one location and livestock produced in another. On many farms, manure became an undesirable by-product and any connotation of its intrinsic fertilizer value was replaced with a ''waste'' mentality. 7 Specialization in livestock is most pronounced in the feedlot cattle, swine, and poultry industries. Especially since the mid-1980s, the average herd size on U.S. dairy farms has grown markedly, and milk production is becoming concentrated on the largest farms. The trend toward fewer and larger farms for all livestock types has heightened public concern...

Manure As A Fertilizer For Crop Production

In the United States, animal agriculture accounts for approximately 100 billion annually, or half of all farm sales. The manure produced by dairy and beef cattle, poultry, and swine contains vast amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus (Table 1) that in some regions can be landapplied at agronomic rates on farms where it is produced.1-2-1 Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient to cereal crop production, so the fertilizer value of manure is usually equated to its ability to provide N to a succeeding crop. Manure N availability for use by crops is highly influenced by its ammonium content (Fig. 1), which depends on the amount of urine N conserved. Organic N in feces and bedding is more slowly available than urine N, and continues to mineralize and be available for crop uptake years after application. If and when manure is incorporated also affects the availability of manure N to crops. Two approaches are commonly used to estimate the fertilizer N value of manure 1) apparent manure N...

Activities To Protect The Food Supply In the UK

In July 1988, with about 2000 cattle cases confirmed, and in response to a just completed epidemiological investigation implicating MBM (6), the UK made BSE a notifiable disease. Euthanasia of affected cattle became mandatory, and their carcasses were banned from use in feed supplements. A few months later the carcass ban was expanded to include offal from sheep and cattle, although strict enforcement was not achieved. In 1989 the Specified Bovine Offal (SBO) ban prohibited the use of brain, spinal cord, tonsil, thymus, spleen, and intestinal tissues of cattle origin in foods intended for human consumption and fertilizer manufacturing.

Suggestions For Future Work

We have begun additional estimates to more closely relate P and PA in crop seeds grains fruits in relation to total production, fertilizer usage, and hectares farmed in different countries and continents. Because the lpa mutants have considerable potential to provide better nutrition, there is a need for many structural, compositional, nutritional, and agronomic aspects of these mutants to be better characterized. Development of additional lpa mutants is continuing, and these will require ongoing study. For example, whether or not these lpa mutants have altered levels of Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, and other nutritionally significant elements needs to be ascertained, because trace element deficiencies are nutritionally very important issues.

Cheilanthes gracillima Lace fern

Culture and comments This Cheilanthes can be introduced to lowland gardens by paying careful attention to the requirements for good drainage and by providing soil that is not overly rich. My pride-and-joy specimen has been in a low 2-in. (5-cm) high bonsai pot with huge drainage holes for four years. No fertilizer, no mulch, and nothing other than filtered sunshine have been offered for encouragement. A container planting is recommended.

Manure Fuel Production And

The use of manure as a substitute for fertilizer N may become more attractive as energy costs increase. Natural gas is used to produce a large fraction of fertilizer N, and natural gas accounts for 75 90 of the cost of making anhydrous ammonia. Conserving manure N may be of much greater importance as energy costs continue to escalate. Furthermore, it will reduce carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) generation during the manufacture of N fertilizer.

Seed Phytate And Phytase In Animal Diets

Plant seeds such as corn and soybean are major components of livestock feed, including diets of nonruminant animals such as swine and poultry. Phytate phosphorus is utilized inefficiently by monogastric animals, which can result in serious nutritional and environmental consequences. Diets of nonruminants must be supplemented with inorganic phosphate to meet animal growth requirements. Undigested phytate is excreted in manure, which typically is applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. This practice can lead to elevated soil phosphorus levels in areas of intensive animal production and the potential for phosphorus runoff into lakes and streams. High phosphorus levels can decrease water quality due to eutrophication, because phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for aquatic plant growth 2 .

Air And Water Quality

Estimated to produce 4 8 of this methane. 1 The amount produced is a function of the numbers of ruminant livestock, their size, level of productivity, and type of diet, with low-quality roughage diets producing proportionately more. Approaches to reducing methane production through changes in diet, manipulating the rumen flora, and the administration of chemicals or drugs are being advocated, but are unlikely to have application to those ruminant livestock that are extensively managed. 2 Local effects on air quality can occur through ammonia production from manure from housed pig, poultry, and ruminant livestock and from the release of ammonia from feces and urine in intensively managed grazing systems where high levels of nitrogenous fertilizer are applied. The impacts are on increasing the concentration of NOx gases in the atmosphere, which contributes to the acidification and nitrification of soils and water, and hence impacts the productivity of ecosystems. As a result of...

Cultural Overview

Bakairi Post

Their traditional diet is augmented with rice grown using industrial agricultural techniques in the cerrado, the prairie-like part of the reservation. In 1980 FUNAI (the National Indian Foundation in Brazil) began a development project on the reservation (Picchi, 1991). They showed the Indians how to use tractors, fertilizers, and pesticides. The harvests are distributed to households in the reservation, and the surplus is sold in nearby towns for cash. Other sources of cash include nearby ranches where men work for wages and government social service stipends received by some families. The Bakairi also raise cattle herds. In the middle of the 20th century, FUNAI agents began cattle herding in the reservation, and in the 1980s FUNAI distributed these herds to indigenous families.

Separation and specialization of crop and livestock agricultures and concentration of animal production on less land

Even the geographic locations of these disparate activities have separated. Large regional feed and grain dealers substitute for the traditional link between crop and animal production. These dealers, in many developed nations, such as the United States and member nations of the European Union, often buy government-subsidized feedstock that is transported to locations advantageous to the marketing or production of the livestock commodity. There is little direct, short-term economic advantage to produce livestock and crops in the same geographic vicinity. The caloric or nutritional value of grass or feedstocks grown locally no longer constrains the production of livestock within an area. Where primarily feed crops are grown, chemical fertilizers have largely

Genetic Modification in Animals and Plants

GM traits that have already been introduced into plants include resistance to insects, insecticides, and herbicides larger fruits salt tolerance slowed ripening additional nutrients easier processing insecticide production and the ability to take its own nitrogen from the air, lowering reliance on fertilizer. Specific products of genetic manipulation include insect-resistant corn, frost-resistant strawberries, rice that makes beta-carotene (a

List of Producers and Formulators of Commercial AM Inoculum

Like pH, media manipulations (Douds 2002) can further increase the recovery of propagules. Recent report on the success of co-culturing two different genera together with single host under in vitro as it occurs in nature, opens a new scope of an in vitro consortium package as inoculum, which may prove more superior in varied edapho-climatic regions where multiple mycorrhizal isolates may function better than single isolate inoculation for future (Tiwari and Adholeya 2002). Industry-based research documentation's as such are not available to the end users but a recent brief insight into some of the potential techniques by Moutoglis and Beland (2001) along with other alternative production techniques such as bioreactor-based production techniques proposed by Jolicoeur et al. (1999) Jolicoeur and Pirrier (2001) making use of ROC proposes a bright future for AM biofertilizer.

Effects Of Environmental And Other Factors On The Phytate Content

Environmental fluctuations, growing locations, irrigation conditions, types of soils, various fertilizer applications, and year during which a cultivar or variety is grown influences phytate content of seeds and grains. Bassiri and Nahapetian 188 observed that wheat varieties grown under dry land conditions had lower concentrations of phytate compared with the ones grown under irrigated conditions. Nahapetian andBassiri 189 , Singh andReddy 59 , Miller etal. 190,191 , Feil and Fossati 192 ,andSimwembaetal. 55 reported variations in the phytate content of triticales, wheat, rye, oats, and pearl millet grown at different locations and in different years. A variation in phytate content of navy beans was observed by Proctor and Watts 193 as a result of variety and location effects. Griffiths and Thomas 194 reported that the phytate phosphorus content of broad beans, when calculated as a percent of total phosphorus, increased significantly from 39.5 to 57.7 for beans grown under greenhouse...

Algal diversity and seasonal development

In most of the Trebon fishponds, the range and development of phytoplankton is typical of other eutro-phic water bodies, with an initial diatom bloom followed by a clear-water phase, then a mixed summer bloom of green algae, diatoms, and some blue-greens. Early application of manure or other fertilizer, however, can bring forward the summer bloom, promoting intense early development of phytoplankton which dominates the water body throughout the season. This rapidly-growing algal bloom is composed mainly of single celled or simple colonial forms, with green algae (order Chlorococcales) being particularly prominent.

TABLE 1751 Epidemiology of Caustic Ingestions Reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers 1996

Many chemicals used in industry have caustic potential. Alkali substances used in industry include sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide in cleaning fluids, calcium hydroxide in concrete, lithium hydroxide in photography, and ammonium hydroxide in fertilizers ( TabJeJZS- ). Common acids used in industry include hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acids as cleaners, hydrofluoric acid in etching and metal cleaning, chromic acid in metal plating, and formic acid in leather textile tanning. Industrial strength cleaners and chemicals accounted for approximately 8000 alkali exposures and 12,000 acid exposures in the 1996 AAPCC data ( Table

Feed Ingredients Basic Feed Ingredients

Pasture is largely improved pasture because land is periodically reseeded to improve pasture varieties, often with the use of fertilizer and irrigation. Grazing of small grain crops, especially wheat, during the vegetative stage is an important source of pasture. Improved pastures are often part of a crop rotation system to improve soil fertility and humus and to enhance soil conservation practices. Genetic programs provide varieties and strains of plants for improved pastures. These pastures are used in the production of all ruminants but are especially important in dairy production.

Blechnum spicant Deer fern

Blechnum Rickard Serrate

Culture and comments The deer fern is totally intolerant of lime whether applied inadvertently in a general broadcast of an all-purpose fertilizer or as an inherent ingredient of native soils or water. Otherwise, it is an extremely well-mannered addition to soft, peat-enriched soil, in moist shade. To me it is synonymous with the serenity of unhurried woodland walks and forested mountain hikes where, in the Pacific Northwest, it

Mycorrhizal Associations

Papers advocating the valuable potential of mycorrhizal inoculations in plant establishments have been published since the 1960s but comprehensive information on their practical exploitation by multiple field trials has not been presented so far (Findlay and Kendle 2001). Immense potential of mycorrhiza has not been so far exploited due to its uncultivable nature unlike other biofertilizers. Mycorrhizas are conventionally propagated using pot-based methods with host trap plants. The disadvantage of this mode is the low recovery of mycorrhizal propagules, contamination by saprobes, pathogens and other mycorrhizal fungi because of improper management techniques and long gaps duration between setup and harvest. Several alternatives to this mode have been designed, but in all current methodologies of cultivating AM fungi, host plant is indispensable. Many variants of these methods have been proposed by various workers to culture glomalean endomycorrhizal fungi, with a bewildering array of...

Benefits Of Mycorrhizal Inoculation

The practical application of mycorrhiza in agriculture is relatively new, though its importance has been evident for some 400 million years. The unique advantage of mycorrhizal organisms is that they not only survive in the most stressful environments but also make the plant to do so. The role of mycorrhiza in land reclamation is most recognized these days. Application of mycorrhizal biofertilizer provides a most desirable solution to many such environmental problems. These phosphate-solubilizing biofertilizers are suggested as an alternative or supplements to chemical fertilizers. Some of the benefits offered by mycorrhizal fungi to plants and general soil health improvement are listed below. However, these are not discussed in detail in the present review (a) Alleviation of nutrient stress. Under deficiency conditions, mycorrhizal fungi can increase nutrient uptake. They facilitate the uptake of nutrients such as phosphorus. Difference among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for...

Selenium Interventions

In hilly and heavily eroded areas of China where these diseases were endemic, the use of selenium-enriched fertilizers was not feasible as an intervention because of the huge geographical areas involved and hence the high cost. Instead, direct human supplementation of at-risk and affected populations was introduced during the 1970s using a 0.5 or 1.0 mg sodium selenite supplement (according to age) per person per week. In Shaanxi province, following supplementation, the prevalence of Keshan disease declined from 12 per 1000 to undetectable levels between 1976 and 1985, and in Heilongjiang province the prevalence of Kashin-Beck disease declined from 44 to 1 of the population between 1970 and 1986. An alternative approach to intervention, by selenium enrichment of crop and grassland fertilizers, was introduced in the 1970s in Finland. Here, there was no overt evidence of selenium deficiency in the human population, but Se deficiency disease had occurred, and had been successfully...

Athyrium filixfemina Lady fern

Color does not fully develop until after at least one cold winter and steadily improves thereafter. Nutrient-rich fertilizer (5-10-5 is recommended) darkens the intensity of the color but reduces the translucence. The plant is inclined to be brittle, so select the site accordingly.

Epidemiologic Cycles and Transmission Routes

Most diarrheal disease organisms enter, usually with food or beverages, through the mouth. In areas of high contamination, there is increasing evidence that fecal matter and its pathogens may become airborne. These may be inhaled through the mouth and possibly the nose and reach the digestive system via the pharynx and esophagus. Many successfully transit the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and exit the digestive tract in a viable form capable of infecting a subsequent host. The cycle is completed when a pathway from the terminus of the alimentary tract to the beginning, called the fecal-oral transmission, is established. Fecal-oral transmission is usually hand-to-mouth. However, the route need not be direct. The use of human waste as fertilizer, use of agricultural plots as latrine areas, and accidental contamination of soils for food crops can contaminate foods. Unless these foods are adequately disinfected the transmission cycle can be completed when they are...

Utilization Of Fruit And Vegetable Processing Wastes Via Solidstate Fermentation

Fertilizer Although direct disposal of fruit processing wastes in landfills has become environmentally unacceptable, some fruit processing wastes can be composted under anaerobic condition, and then used as fertilizer in landfills, because such wastes were readily degraded under anaerobic digestion conditions (57,58). Solid-state fermentation can also be used for composting of fruit and vegetable processing wastes such as apple waste (59) and tomato pomace (60). Composted apple pomace and other fruit and vegetable processing wastes can be used in nursery potting mixes and as field soil amendments (61). Composted grape pomace was used as an organic fertilizer in vineyards for growing grapes (62).

Lygodium japonicum Japanese climbing fern

Culture and comments The Japanese climbing fern is an easily cultivated conversation piece indoors where it will, however, need a supporting framework. outdoors in cold zones it is self-maintaining, but in warmer areas needs the same attention as those growing indoors. To prevent an unsightly tangle of the old and the new it is essential to cut the old fronds back to the ground in late winter before the new growth takes off in the spring. Give it good composty soil and keep it moist. My plant has been in the same, albeit large, pot for over a dozen years with no fertilizer nor attention other than regular watering and an annual haircut. If the growth has been stunted it is not apparent.

Toxicants in foods and their effects on nutrition

Dibujos Depredador

Additives include chemical preservatives such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and nitrite and microbial retardants such as calcium propionate. The food industry adds chemicals as texturing agents and flavors. Various chemicals may enter the food chain at different stages of processing, such as residues from fertilizers, pesticides, veterinary pharmaceuticals and drugs, and environmental chemicals such as lead or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Some additives are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) items and require no testing for safety. Others require a battery of tests to ensure their safety for use in consumer foods.

Poultry Manure Treatment And Utilization

Chicken Litter Storage Methane Alarm

Most poultry manure is used for crop and pasture fertilization as a cost-effective alternative to inorganic mineral fertilizer. Land application also recycles nutrients, enhances soil fertility, and improves soil physical properties. However, a balance must be maintained between maximum utilization of nutrients by crops and the risk of health and environmental impacts. Proper managing of poultry manure from its production through utilization is the key to maintaining this balance. This includes proper design and siting of housing, manure storage, and mortality management facilities and comprehensive nutrient management planning. Education and training of managers and operators of poultry production systems are essential for good manure management. on the crop's P requirements. Manure application that exceeds a crop's ability to take up N may threaten water quality. Nitrogen as nitrate is a highly mobile compound that may cause human and animal health problems if drinking water...

Principles of the Heap Technique

The second class of additives are the nutrients for the degrading microflora. Because contaminated soil often comes from industrial sites and is often excavated from layers several meters deep, it usually has no significant content of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, or potassium. Of course, degrading microorganisms need these substances for growth and metabolism. Most often, mineral fertilizers are used as liquids or in granular form to supplement the soil with these compounds. Because nutrients normally remain in the soil after treatment, it is important not to overdose with these additives. The level of fertilizer should not exceed that used in conventional agricultural practice.

Vertical integration of agricultural production

Dairy farms are becoming larger with continuing consolidation and concentration in specific locations (Lakshminarayan et al., 1994). Nearly 50 of dairy production occurred under contract in 1998. From 1950 to 1987, the number of farms reporting milk cows declined by roughly 94 , with the average number of cows per farm increasing from fewer than 6 to 50. Regional trends suggest a shift of dairy production from the Midwest and Northeast to the West and the southern regions of the United States to take advantage of more favorable climate that contributes to lower financial outlays. The high cost of transporting dairy waste to where it can be used in crop production partly explains the transformation of manure from a valued commodity as fertilizer to a waste with little or negative value (Manale and Narrod, 1994). Operations have concentrated within certain regions, generally clustering around feed granaries or slaughterhouses to reduce transportation costs. In contrast to the...

The Feed Manufacturing Industry

Feed manufacturing is one of the 25 leading industries in the United States (18) it employs about 97,000 people (11). Feed purchases historically have been the largest U.S. farm expenditure, surpassing rent, interest, fertilizer, and energy in 1984, feed purchases totaled 18.3 billion (11). Feed cost in the production of meat, milk, and eggs accounts for 50 to 75 of the total cost of production. The early development of this industry and the later application of science, engineering, and merchandising to feed manufacturing provides an interesting success story in the development of U.S. agriculture (19). The challenge facing the industry is to formulate, manufacture, and distribute feeds that will enable livestock, poultry, and fish farmers to produce quality products at the lowest possible cost (16).

Reduction And Reuse Of Wastes

Olive pomace and wastewaters are the major by-products resulting from the elaboration of olive oil (100-102). Olive pomace is the material remaining after most of the oil is removed from the olive paste. It contains fragments of skin, pulp, fragments of kernels, and some oil. In chemical terms, the major constituents are cellulose, protein, and water. The minor components are represented by a complex mixture of polyphenols (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and caffeic acid). Olive pomace has some commercial value depending upon its oil and water content. The olive pomace can be further processed to extract the remaining oil. The exhausted pomace (kernel wood) can be used for several applications (1) Its combustion can generate heating water in the olive oil mills (2) kernel wood, after the removal of the stones, can be used as livestock feed and (3) its ashes can be used as fertilizers.

Poultry Manure Management Systems

Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service estimates show that from 1981 to 2001, the total number of broilers and turkeys increased by 100 and 59 , respectively.1-3-1 Figure 1 illustrates typical poultry housing, and manure handling, storage, and disposal systems used in the United States. Solid manure is typically removed using mechanical scrapers and front-end loaders. Liquid and slurry manure is removed from the houses by pumping or by flushing with water. Poultry layer production houses containing caged birds are designed to handle manure as liquid, slurry, or solid. Liquid or slurry manure removal intervals may vary from daily to once-a-week flushing, but most layer houses may be flushed once a day for 20 minutes, using between 38 m3 and 76 m3 of flush water. 4 Manure from high-rise (elevated cages allowing manure removal with a tractor scraper) and belt scrape (manure removed by a belt system running under cages) houses may be handled as...

The Algae Cyanobacteria

Given their diversity in ecophysiology and their obvious importance in a wide variety of ecosystems, cyanobacteria show a metabolic diversity while acclimatizing to the environments. Consequently, from a biotechnological point of view, they are a group of organisms that produce a wide spectrum of fine chemicals, or renewed energy, naturally or artificially. Indeed, cyanobacteria are nature's gift to mankind. First, their oxygenic photosynthesis provides a unique means to utilize cheap substrates (e.g., CO2, H2O) and solar energy for the primary production of organic compounds and many biotechnological products. Meanwhile, N2-fixing cyanobacteria can utilize sunlight as their sole source of energy for the fixation of carbon and nitrogen, and thus make potential biofertilizers. There is renewed interest in the role of biological N2 fixation by cyanobacteria. Recently cyano-bacteria have been utilized as a source of nitrogen fertilizers in some developing countries to reduce the...

Physiological and Biochemical Alterations of the Host

The production of phytoalexins as a result of pathogen invasion in mycorrhizal plants has been explored. Tomato plants inoculated with G. mosseae posed greater resistance to the pathogen F. oxysporum and were found to have increased phenylalanine and b-glucosidase activity and total phenol content in their roots compared to plants inoculated with either organism alone (Dehne and Schonbeck 1979). Sundaresan et al. (1993) reported that a purified ethanol fraction of mycorrhizal cowpea root extract inhibited F. oxysporum in vitro. However, the isoflavonoid was not identified. Production of phytoalexins in mycorrhizal plants appears to be independent of the effect of fertilizer addition (Caron et al. 1986b). In general, in the presence or absence of pathogens in plant roots, phytoalexins are induced in mycorrhizal plants that neutralize the negative effects of pathogens.

Mycorrhizal Commercialization Techniques and Their Formulations

Plant inoculation with AM fungi results in the formation of a mycorrhizosphere with selective consequences on other important soil micro-organisms. Therefore the use of AM fungi in plant production needs an appropriate inoculum technology compatible with that used for other beneficial soil micro-organisms. Development of second generation inocula, derived from mixing AM fungi with other inocula, is one such major activity. The use of such inocula will improve plant fitness, and soil aggregation and stability, so increasing yield by biological means. Some of the important issues related to AM biofertilizer commercialization (c) Quality control. Specific protocols for quality control of AM fungal inoculum need to be developed and standardized for application. This is essential not only as a guarantee for producers and users but also for the protection of ecosystems. This would help in quality management and assessment of inoculum potential with every batch of...

Nutrients in the soil in the absence of permanently cultivated fields hotcold health systems See humoral medicine human

A ceremony which marks the passage of an individual from one status to another. Male initiation ceremonies are often required of all boys in a society and mark the transition from boyhood to manhood. In societies with age-sets, initiation ceremonies may mark a series of transitions to different stages of life. Male initiation ceremonies often involve trauma such as hazing, genital operations, or tests of manliness. Female initiation ceremonies, which commonly occur after the onset of menstruation, are usually for one individual at a time. intensive agriculture. Food production characterized by the permanent cultivation of fields and made possible by the use of the plow, draft animals or machines, fertilizers, irrigation, water-storage techniques, and other complex agricultural techniques. in vitro fertilization. Fertilization that occurs in a laboratory.

Growing Ferns Indoors

Can Ostrich Ferns Grow Indoors

Periodic feeding of a very mild fertilizer at half the manufacturer's recommended strength should keep the plant happy. This is best applied when the fern is in active new growth, which brings me to the subject of grooming. Old fronds need to be removed and this can be a monster chore when the subject is naturally dense. With maidenhairs, I give them a complete haircut in the spring. They will be unsightly for a period, but the other option is to remove the fronds individually, a procedure for folks who have far more free time than I do.

Patents and the Rise of Biotechnology Companies

Biotechnology has also made a great impact in agriculture. The first genetically engineered plant was patented in 1983. The first genetically engineered food was produced by a company called Calgene, in 1987. Calgene, now a part of Monsanto, produced a tomato that could be ripened on the vine and transported ripe to market. Tomatoes are normally shipped green to market and left to ripen at their destination because they are easily bruised and damaged if shipped when fully ripe. Today there is a new green revolution under way, in which genetically modified food will provide greater nourishment and higher yields, while simultaneously reducing the use of fertilizers and herbicides. Although there is considerable controversy surrounding these foods (sometimes referred to as Frankenfood ), there have been no documented cases of anyone being hurt by eating them. In 1990 the biotech firm GenPharm created a transgenic dairy cow into which the genes for human milk proteins were inserted. The...

Plants as Bioreactors

Molecular biotechnology will enable broadening of the range of products and use of transgenic plants as a versatile renewable and low-cost source of novel high-value molecules (Goddijn and Pen, 1995 Arakawa et al., 1999 Dunwell 1999 Fischer et al., 1999 Fischer and Emans, 2000 Giddings et al., 2000). This area of novel commercial exploitation of plants is called biofarming or molecular farming and involves the crop-plant-based production of industrial or therapeutic biomolecules. In this application, the plant can be considered as a solar-powered bioreactor and an attractive alternative to conventional microbial or animal cell expression systems. Its requirements are simple and inexpensive sunlight, mineral salts from the soil (or fertilizers), and water (Goddijn and Pen, 1995 Arakawa et al., 1999 Dunwell 1999 Fischer et al., 1999 Fischer and Emans, 2000 Giddings et al., 2000). Similarly, as traditional agriculture takes advantage of these characteristics in the large-scale production...

Solidstate bioprocessing

Fermented foods have been consumed by humans all over the world for centuries. Most fermentation processes are conducted with liquid nutrient broths. Well known examples in the food industry are the production of yogurt, beer, wine, lactic acid, and many food flavors (213). However, partial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth based bioprocessing has also been used for processing food and food wastes. Here, instead of a nutrient broth, moist solid nutrients with minimal water are used as a substrate for microbial growth. This process is referred to as solid-state bioprocessing. Microbial fermentation and aerobic microbial growth on foods in solid state, for preservation of food and flavor enhancement, has been done for centuries and some of the common examples for these processes include manufacture of cheese and bread (214). Other wellknown examples are the production of microbe laced cheeses such as Roquefort, and the production of fermented sausages. In Asia, solidstate...

Natural Microbial Bioremediators

Jungle Jim Liberman Dies

On March 24, 1989, an oil tanker called the Exxon Valdez crashed into a reef in the Prince William Sound in Alaska, spilling 11 million gallons of oil that devastated the highly populated ecosystem. Attempts to clean rescued animals and scrub oily rocks were of little help and actually killed some organisms. Bioremediation was more successful. Ten weeks after the spill, researchers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applied phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers to 750 oil-soaked sites. The fertilizer stimulated the growth of natural populations of bacteria that metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are organic toxins that were present in the spilled oil. Over the next few years, ecologists monitored and compared the areas that the bacteria had colonized to areas where they did not grow, and found that the level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fell five times faster in the bioremediated areas. Cleanup crews use hot and cold high-pressure water jets to clean...

Good agricultural practice

Though GMP has been developed for the food manufacturing industry, the principles on which it is based are readily transferable to the growing of fruit and vegetables. In this instance the appropriate term is good agricultural practice or GAP. Growers undertake many activities that have the potential to generate hazards that may be associated with produce given the right circumstances, but which might not be included as requirements for control within the scope of HACCP systems. General site organization and cleanliness will lead to the minimization of sources of contamination that might compromise food safety. The handling, storage and methods of use of agrochemicals ought to be carried out in defined ways that are unlikely to lead to the creation of food safety hazards. Equipment used to apply agrochemicals, for example crop sprayers, should be calibrated to ensure correct levels of chemical application and should be cleaned between uses to prevent the possibility of...

Effects Of Grassland Management And Climate Change

In intensive modern farms, grassland areas are ploughed and reseeded (usually with L. perenne in Europe) on a 5-10 year cycle, and their soils in consequence bear more similarity to arable fields than permanent grasslands. Additionally, the past 50 years have seen the widespread use of synthetic fertilizers to improve grassland productivity. Thus, disturbance and eutrophication have led to the demise of most macrofungal fruiting in these habitats, although it has yet to be demonstrated that the mycelia are also absent. Losses of fungal diversity generally mirror declines in plant and invertebrate diversity, and in the case of these better studied groups changes in grassland management can also lead to loss of diversity (Rook and Tallowin, 2003). Shifts from haymaking to silage production or from cattle and sheep to sheep only grazing have also altered patterns of abundance of higher plants and insects. For soil dwelling fungi such changes might be anticipated to have a lesser effect,...

Nutrition And Feeding

Problems associated with excessive levels of nutrients and unwanted nuisance species have already been mentioned. In some cases, aquaculturists use intentional fertilization to produce desirable types of natural food for the species under culture. Examples of this approach include inorganic fertilizer applications in ponds to promote phyto-plankton and zooplankton blooms that provide food for young fish such as channel catfish in the United States, the development of algal mats (called lab-lab) through fertilization of milkfish ponds in Asia, and the use of organic fertilizers (from livestock and human excrement) in Chinese carp ponds to encourage the growth of phytoplankton, macrophytes, and benthic invertebrates. In the latter instance, various species of carp with different food habits are stocked to ensure that all the types of natural foods produced as a result of fertilization are consumed. in dry feed daily for optimum growth. Very young and adult animals are exceptions. Young...

Implications of land management on contamination of animal and plantbased foods

A growing concern in the United States is the potential transfer of pathogens from animal agriculture to crops through the use of untreated animal waste or inadequately treated composted waste. In recent years, there have been a number of reports on USDA recalls of fresh vegetables owing to their contamination with pathogens from manure used as fertilizer (FDA, 1998 Cornell University, 2005).

Dagmar Schrter and Stefan C Dekker

Food and energy production for an increasing number of people, with increasing consumption per capita, have boosted the emission of nitrogen to the atmosphere (Galloway, 2001). In the Northern Hemisphere, contemporary nitrogen deposition averages more than four times that of pre-industrial times. Cultivated lands and mixed forests even receive over sixteen times more nitrogen through deposition today than they did a century ago (Holland et al., 1999). The emission of nitrous oxides mainly stems from fossil fuel combustion, emission of ammonium mainly from domestic animal production and synthetic fertilizer use. Effects of nitrogen deposition on fauna and ground flora (as opposed to trees) have rarely been studied (Bobbink et al., 1998). Therefore we take the opportunity to look at four decomposer food webs that were studied on a European forest transect, with special focus on the effects of different levels of nitrogen deposition in the context of other environmental factors. We will...

Effects Of Nitrogen Addition On Litter Basidiomycetes

Forests are increasingly affected by nitrogen inputs from air pollutants. Several studies have focused on the effects of nitrogen additions from fertilizer or actual or simulated air pollutants on litter decomposition in tropical (Hobbie and Vitousek, 2000) as well as temperate forests (Magill and Aber, 1988 Berg and Matzner, 1997 Carreiro et al., 2000 Schroter et al., 2003 Gallo et al., 2004 Waldrop et al., 2004 Chapter 10). High nitrogen concentrations can have paradoxical effects on litter decomposition rates, accelerating decay of labile components while inhibiting decay of recalcitrant highly lignified components in both temperate (Fog, 1988 Carreiro et al., 2000 Wardle, 2000) and tropical forests (Hobbie At each location, three pairs of plots (nitrogen addition and control) were matched for slope, dominant vegetation, elevation and watershed type. The nitrogen plots had received 50 kg N ha-1 year-1 since January 2002 (25 kgN ha-1 in two applications per year) as ammonium nitrate...

Gender Roles in Economics

As an agrarian society, Nepal's Hindu majority is organized in quite specific gender-based economic roles. The farmers are primarily women, and perform a greater variety and frequency of farming functions than do men. With the exception of ploughing and maintaining irrigation canals, women perform all other agricultural work, such as preparing organic fertilizer throughout the year and carrying it to the fields, removing rocks from fields,

Shell Eggs Marketed by Weight and Unit

Organic eggs are produced by feeding chicken grains and other plant-origin ingredients that are produced without pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, or organic fertilizers (Fig. 2). Animal by-products such as meat-and-bone meal are also prohibited from being fed. As a result, egg flavor is improved due to the elimination of rancid components developed in the animal by-products during processing and storage. Off flavors and odors tend to accumulate in the yolk.

Commercial Activities

What of instances where the genders occupy quite different social spheres Here, women extend their traditional economic work into the commercial realm while still remaining within the home. For instance, traditional Muslim women often live secluded in the household and work hard to earn a living while remaining in seclusion. Traditional Hausa women in Nigeria, who maintain complete seclusion and never leave the home, trade a variety of prepared snacks and meals, clothing and cloth, cooking oil, eggs, and compound sweepings that are sold as fertilizer. These women will also prepare food and or sew clothes on commission, and cook at large events. They maintain their seclusion by selling their items out of windows in their homes, and using their children to deliver goods and solicit customers. Hausa women may sometimes become the

Fungal Phytase Derived From Transgenic Alfalfa

An alternative source of phytase and other industrial enzymes is the juice of transgenic plants. The ability to synthesize recombinant proteins in plant parts other than seeds takes advantage of the tremendous biomass produced by green plants. A forage crop such as alfalfa offers additional advantages in this role because it is a hardy, perennial, leguminous crop that requires no nitrogen fertilizer and has the potential for several harvests per year. A feasibility study

Use Of Mycorrhizal Inoculum 81 When is it Appropriate

Large-scale disturbances always change soil characteristics, alter plant communities, and reduce mycor-rhizal abundance and diversity. Where native fungi have low colonization capacity, but provide benefits to host plants, managing to increase the abundance of fungal populations may be more appropriate than augmenting with nonnative fungi (Dodd and Thomson 1994). Most areas to be restored vary greatly from their predisturbance state. Native ecotypes may or may not be better adapted to the prevailing site conditions (Azcon-Aguilar and Barea 1997). Consequently, using nonnative mycorrhizae better adapted to the current environmental conditions is an important consideration. For instance, management for native populations of mycorrhizal fungi may not be appropriate where exotic trees are planted on disturbed sites. Dunstan et al. (1998) noted that the first attempts to establish pine plantations, especially Pinus radiata, in Western Australia were large-scale failures, and...

Nutrient Management Water Quality Use

Incorporation of manure into the soil greatly reduces the chances of surface runoff. Tabbara 4 showed that incorporation of manure or fertilizer 24 hours before a heavy rainfall reduced both dissolved reactive P or total P concentrations by as much as 30 to 60 depending on the nutrient source and application rate. The incorporation process moves P below the volume of soil eroded under high rainfall events. To reduce potential surface losses of P, manure should be incorporated on soils with intensive erosive rain, recent extensive tillage, or little or no surface residue. Incorporation of manure will reduce the likelihood of surface runoff of P and protect surface water from excess P levels however, the process of incorporating manure may increase the potential for sediment loss from the soil. The development of management practices that protect soil from surface runoff will decrease potential losses of manure P into nearby water bodies. Incorporation of manure may lead to NO3-N...

Batch Operation Composting

In line with its traditional role as a soil fertilizer, compost has been used as an additive in soil remediation. Composting mostly takes place in fixed-bed reactors (Fig. 11.3a). Basically, the compost is added to stimulate microbial breakdown. In experiments, soil contaminated with hydrocarbons has been mixed with compost in various ratios (soil-compost ratios of 2 1, 3 1, and 4 1). In 3-L test batch reactors, the hydrocarbon degradation was 90 after a period of 44 d. Compared with the results in the absence of added compost, soil-compost systems had a much faster degradation rate and a lower end concentration (Lotter et al., 1990). In addition to composting, experiments focusing on the use of white-rot fungi have also been carried out (Schaeffer et al., 1995). In another experiment, four biopiles of 10 m3 each were created to treat chloro-phenol-contaminated soil. Chalk, commercial fertilizer (NPK), and bark chips (as a bulk aeration agent) were added. After two months 80 of the...

Anthropogenic sources

The world average river water concentrations of almost all ions appear to be increased by human activities. Pollution from domestic sewage, fertilizers, and road salt is particularly important in relation to freshwater concentrations of Na, Cl, and SO4. Berner and Berner (1987) estimate that about 28 per cent of the sodium in river water is anthropogenic.

Introduction the importance of modelling to quality

In fact, effort in modelling has been proportional to the ability to control the cultivation system, that is, greater for greenhouse than for field production. In greenhouse production, modelling has focused on yield prediction, optimisation of climate and fertigation (the application of fertilizer through an irrigation system) control and evaluation of strategies of crop management. In field production, it has been dedicated more to the prediction of harvest dates and to the estimation of water and nutrient requirements. In this chapter the processes of tomato production, the various areas of application of models and the future trends in the modelling of tomato production and quality will be reviewed.

Nutrients and Eutrophication in Lakes

Although it occurs naturally, addition of anthropogenic nutrients hastens this process. People contribute nutrients in the form of fertilizer runoff from lawns and agricultural lands, human waste from either treatment plant discharge or indirectly from septic tanks, and animal waste from pasture or feedlot runoff. In these cases the process is termed cultural eutrophication. Oligotrophic lakes are preferred for numerous human

Current Applications Of Radiation Technology In Agriculture

There are a number of ways, other than food processing, in which radiation and related technology are utilized in the service of food and agriculture. Examples include the following sterile male technique for insect pest control, mutation induction for plant breeding purposes, radiotracers for studies on agrichemical pathways in the environment, studies on utilization of fertilizers and other plant nutrients by plants cultivated as human food crops, radio-

Prerequisites Of Haccp

In 1997, President Clinton announced his Food Safety Initiative amid public and media pressure to improve safety in the U.S. food supply. An immediate result was that the FDA in conjunction with the USDA published a user's manual for the fresh produce industry entitled A Guide to Minimize Microbiological Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables. This document, which is not regulatory, identifies potential sources of microbiological contamination for fruits and vegetables during production and handling at the farm level and provides suggestions on good agricultural practices to minimize these hazards (CFSAN, 1998). Specifically, it addresses potential contamination from water sources, fertilizer use (manure or compost), worker health and hygiene, and field and packingshed sanitation, and calls for the development of trace-back procedures for fresh produce.

Chemical and Physical Properties

Anthropogenic sources of manganese are predominantly from the manufacturing of steel, alloys, and iron products. Manganese is widely used as an oxidizing agent, as a component of fertilizers and fungicides, and in dry cell batteries. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) improves combustion in boilers and motors and can substitute for lead in gasoline as an antiknock agent. Concentrations of manganese in groundwater normally range between 1 and 100 mgl-1, with most values being below 10 mgl 1 Typical airborne levels of manganese (in the absence of excessive pollution) range from 10 to 70ngm 3.

GM beyond the Laboratory

GM crops are widely grown in some countries, but are boycotted in others where many people object to genetic manipulation. As of 2001, 75 percent of all food crops grown in the United States were genetically modified, including 80 percent of soybeans, 68 percent of cotton, and 26 percent of corn crops. Farmers find that GM crops are cheaper to grow because their reliance on pesticides and fertilizer is less and a uniform crop is easier to harvest. Heavy reliance on the same varieties may be dangerous, however, if an environmental condition or disease should arise that targets the variety, but this dilemma also arises in traditional agriculture.

Moral and Political Issues

Underlying these problems of inequality and poverty are an exploding population in some parts of the developing world and increasing overconsumption in the developed world. The United States, with 5 percent of the world's population, annually consumes 25 percent of the world's fossil fuels, 33 percent of its paper, 24 percent of its aluminum, and 13 percent of its fertilizer. A child born in 1994 in the United States will in his or her lifetime drive 700,000 miles, using 28,000 gallons of gasoline produce 110,250 pounds of trash eat 8,486 pounds of red meat and consume enough electricity to burn 16,610 pounds of coal. Earth simply cannot support many Americans. The world population as of 2003 is more than 6.2 billion, and is increasing by 75 million per year. An optimistic scenario calls for world population to stabilize at more than 10 billion in the twenty-third century. Many observers expect population to grow far beyond that.

Nitrates nitrites and nitrosamines

It is also notable that people normally consume more nitrates from their vegetable intake than from cured meat products. Spinach, beets, radishes, celery, and cabbages are among the vegetables that generally contain very high concentrations of nitrates. The nitrate content of vegetables is affected by maturity, soil conditions, fertilizer, variety, etc. It has been estimated that 10 of the human exposure to nitrite in the digestive tract comes from cured meats and 90 comes from vegetables and other sources. Nitrates can be reduced to nitrites by certain microorganisms present in foods and in the GI tract. This has resulted in nitrite toxicity in infants fed vegetables with a high nitrate level.

Humans In The Balance

In the twentieth century, fertilizer use provided the most dramatic improvement. But fertilizer use is linked to water use. The more rain or irrigation that is applied, the more fertilizer the crops can utilize. World fertilizer use has actually dropped recently, as farmers have learned to apply it more precisely. A final way to improve yields was to develop better varieties of crops, but the high-yielding varieties require higher fertilizer doses.

Different Heap Techniques

Systems with low water content can be operated with (dynamic) and without (static) agitation, but the wet systems are all static. By agitation, i.e., turning and mixing the soil at time intervals of days to weeks depending on the level of biological activity, the heap is aerated and the water or nutrient content can be readjusted. With the static and dry systems, no additional supply of additives is possible, so all ingredients must be added during pretreatment. Therefore, special additives such as slow-release fertilizers must be used with these technologies. It is also necessary to install some kind of aeration system to supply the microorganisms with oxygen.

Nutrient Management Planning

Nutrient loss from agriculture, as well as from natural ecosystems, is inevitable. A continuous challenge is to enhance nutrient use by crops and livestock and minimize nutrient loss through good management. Animal nutrition, field, whole-farm, and landscape models have been developed to improve nutrient management on crop livestock farms. While of great use in predicting biophysical outcomes (e.g., feed nutrient use by livestock and excretion in manure, fertilizer and manure nutrient

Factors That Control Populations

Factors can also affect growth in a nonadditive way. For example, growth of Impatiens parviflora was increased 33 by adding nitrogen fertilizer and 19 by adding phosphorus. However, when both were added, the increase was 100 . If there were no interaction, adding both nitrogen and phosphorus would be expected to increase growth 33 + 19 52 . This is an example of interaction, which is not accounted for in Lie-big's law. The concept of interaction is important An interaction is when the sensitivity of a variable to one factor depends on the level of another factor. Here, sensitivity can be given a precise mathematical meaning. It is related to the rate of change of one variable with respect to another. One way to express the sensitivity of variable a to variable b (sab) is

General References

Classical plant sources suffer from microbial or insect infestation, sociopolitical instability and depend on seasonal variation, fertilizers, etc Character impact components may possess additional bioactivities and, therefore, often occur in traces only in their plant sources

Flow Of Matter In Ecosystems

However, the soil is being compromised by human activities. Erosion causes a loss of organic-rich topsoil. Agricultural practices do more to replace lost nutrients than to replace soil organic matter, which contributes to favorable physical soil properties as well as chemical ones. Increased water runoff reduces infiltration, thereby reducing weathering of bedrock and the consequent liberation of minerals. As a result, agricultural fertilizers now need to include trace minerals in some areas.


1884 to adopt uniform methods of analysis for fertilizers. Over the years, the number of areas of analytical sciences represented in AOAC increased steadily. A name change in 1965 to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists partially reflected the expansion of AOAC's analytical interests. By 1991 the Association had long ceased to be confined to regulatory (official) analytical chemists from North America having a majority of members working in the private sector, a significant number involved in microbiology and other forms of analysis, and more than one-fourth living outside the United States. Consequently, in that year, the name was changed to AOAC INTERNATIONAL, thereby retaining the initials by which the Association had been known for more than 100 years, eliminating reference to a specific scientific discipline or profession, and reflecting the international membership and focus of AOAC.


From the 1950s on, the nutrient load in lakes started to increase because of the rapid increase in the human population, and agricultural intensification accompanied by intense use of fertilizers. Other perturbations, such as chemical pollution (e.g., pesticides) toxic to zooplankton and the loss of lake-marginal wetlands, have also contributed to the effects of nutrient enrichment (Hosper 1997). These continuous and incidental sources led to higher algal production, eventually resulting in problems associated with eutrophication. Until recently, increased nutrient loads were considered to be the main source for the detoriation of the lake ecosystems. Eutrophication resulted in turbidity of the water and the increased production of algae reduced the light available tothe macrophytes which, therefore, disappeared. The elevated production of algae and the decaying macrophytes produced large amounts of detritus, which accumulated on the bottom of the lakes to form loose sediment....


FIGURE 1 Photograph of stacks of tens of thousands of horseshoe crabs prior to being ground up for fertilizer in June of 1924 in Delaware. Source From Ref. 67. FIGURE 1 Photograph of stacks of tens of thousands of horseshoe crabs prior to being ground up for fertilizer in June of 1924 in Delaware. Source From Ref. 67.


Extraction as practiced in the food industry is essentially the operation of removing or separating a component from the food to ensure food safety or to alter the properties. A rudimentary form of extraction begins with the basic separation or removal of components from an as-received food. With the growing problems of microbiological contamination in harvested fruits, vegetables, and animals, the extraction operation of washing as-received raw materials has received much emphasis over the past few years. The simple washing of a vegetable or fruit is necessary to ensure that contamination from soil, fertilizers, living organisms, pesticides, and so on is removed or at least reduced to an acceptable level, making the vegetable safe to eat. Proper washing is particularly important in slaughtered animals since extremely dangerous microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella contaminate many of them. A much more complex procedure for removing or extracting a component is found...


A richly diverse AMF community ensures qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of AMF species desired for specific activities such as biological control of plant pathogens. However, choice of host genotype and rotation (Bever et al. 1996 Johnson et al. 1992 Talukdar and Germida 1993), levels of fertilizer application (Baltruschat and Dehne 1982 Jasper et al. 1979 McGonigle and Miller 1993 1996 Vivekanandan and Fixen 1991), tillage (Evans and Miller 1990 McGonigle and Miller 1993 Vivekanandan and Fixen 1991), pesticide application (Manjunath and Bagyaraj 1984 Schreiner and Bethlenfalvay 1997), and the effect of associated micro-organisms (Andrade et al. 1995 Xavier and Germida 2002) are some critical factors that can indirectly alter AMF diversity in soils. For example, continuous cropping selectively enhances the proliferation of parasitic AMF, which are relatively fast growing compared to beneficial AMF, leading to alterations in mycorrhizal biodiversity in the rhizosphere...

Impacts Of Grazing

In temperate regions, intensively managed systems have been developed that use simple grass and grass-legume pastures and where only one livestock species is present. These pastures can withstand high grazing pressures without reducing their productivity. In these pastures, uncertainties of weather or variation in soil quality can be buffered by the use of fertilizers and supplementary feeding. Such systems have low plant diversity and, particularly in Europe, this has led to the need to develop more extensive forms of management, sometimes using combinations of livestock species, to meet multiple objectives, including biodiversity objectives, from pastoral resources. This trend is likely to continue and will require a greater understanding of grazing behavior at larger spatial scales than currently exists.

Management Systems

Geese are not fastidious with regard to management conditions. For raising young birds, supplementary heating is necessary during the first 3 4 weeks only. Adults do not require on-premise heating and can be on pasture almost the whole year. An environmentally friendly free-range technology for keeping geese involves serial grazing, electric fencing, and avoiding both seeding of plants rejected by geese and fertilizer application.

Ascaris lumbricoides

These are large parasites that can be transmitted in the form of eggs. The incidence of infections is high for North America, affecting approximately 3 million people. Worldwide, about 7000 million individuals might be affected. The eggs of these worms are found in sewage-fertilizer and in soils. The eggs may contaminate crops grown in soil or fertilized with sewage. Infected food handlers may contaminate a wide variety of foods. People who consume uncooked vegetables and fruits grown in or near soil fertilized with sewage are vulnerable. Eggs of Ascaris have been detected on fresh vegetables (cabbage) sampled by inspectors.

External loading

This involves entry of phosphorus into lakes and other water bodies via streams, rivers, ground water, and run-off from land. These carry both particulate and soluble phosphorus, varying with the hydrology and the terrain - and also with human activities. Input of agricultural fertilizers, and industrial and human effluent, may cause a major increase in phosphorus loading, particularly soluble organic and inorganic P. External loading is a major cause of eutrophication with many types of water body (Table 10.8) including lakes (Section 10.8.1) and wetlands (Case Study 10.4).


Showing other conditions that may result in condemnation are retained and identified as ''U.S. Suspect.'' If during the antemortem inspection an animal displays obvious symptoms of disease, the animal is identified as ''U.S. Condemned.'' 5 Postmortem inspection involves the palpation and visual appraisal of several major lymph nodes and glands, internal organs, and other tissues. Carcasses fit for entry into the meat supply are identified as ''U.S. Inspected and Passed,'' whereas those carcasses found to be unwholesome or unfit for human consumption are identified as ''U.S. Inspected and Condemned'' and eliminated from the human food chain. All condemned materials, parts, portions, organs or glands are to be 1) rendered for inedible fats, greases, or oils 2) made into animal feed or fertilizer (tankage) 3) destroyed by incineration 4) chemically denatured or 5) held at 10 F for five days and sold for animal feed. 3


Propagated from leaf cuttings rather than from seed. The establishment of desirable clones is accomplished by selection on the basis of beverage quality, yield, pest and frost resistance, and other criteria dictated by local conditions and marketing considerations. Yields have been greatly increased and exceed 6,000 kg ha in some clonal fields, although national averages are very much lower (1). Tissue culture of tea is under investigation as a method for producing and rapidly replicating new clonal material. Plants have been regenerated and set out in soil (4). Tea can remain productive for many decades some 100-year-old plantings are still being harvested. The use of irrigation, fertilizers, mulches, and pesticides has been extensively researched in many tea-growing areas and the results reported in the journals of the various tea research institutes (5-8). Pesticides banned in the United States are not used (9).

The Horseshoe Crab

Horseshoe crabs have served several uses to people through the ages (loosely speaking they have always been around) including food for Asian-Pacific and Native American inhabitants spears (their tails) for early Native Americans of Roanoke Island, North Carolina fertilizer for some tide water farmers and bait for fishermen's traps (11). There remain today only four species, three inhabiting the eastern shores of Asia and one scattered along the North American Atlantic ranging from Maine to Mexico.

Blechnum chilense

Pinna Blechnum Chilense

Species comes readily from spores and the long rhizomes are tailor-made for division. Propagators and growers should take care, however, and not apply fertilizer to very young plants. They will reward your efforts by turning a sickly brown and attracting every slug in the vicinity. Sturdy, established plants are not effected by fertilizers, but with their natural vigor do not need any supplemental food.


HYDROCHLORIC AND SULFURIC ACIDS The dermal toxicity of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid is so well recognized that early decontamination and water irrigation usually prevent severe burns to the skin. These acids can burn the skin dark brown or black. Toilet bowl cleaners may contain 80 solutions of sulfuric acid. Some drain cleaners may be 95 to 99 sulfuric acid solutions. Munitions, chemical, and fertilizer manufacturers commonly use 95 to 98 sulfuric acid solutions in their industrial processes. Automobile battery fluid is 25 sulfuric acid. Most household bleaches are only 3 to 6 hypochlorite solutions, which, though acidic, cause little damage unless they are in contact with skin for a prolonged time. Treatment is the same as for formic acid burns. NITRIC ACID Nitric acid is used in industry for casting iron and steel, electroplating, engraving, and fertilizer manufacturing. Upon contact with skin, nitric acid can produce tissue damage by oxidation and may turn the skin...

The Future

The green revolution, which began in the 1960s, was a global technological achievement. The introduction of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and mineral fertilizers for key commodity crops, accompanied by investment in institutional infrastructure and ongoing research programs, raised food production and productivity on a wide scale. The productivity gains in rice and wheat in Asia were especially significant. With population growth and a diminishing land area to produce food, further increases in productivity are still needed in the poorer, food-insecure countries (1,5).

Proteins Amino Acids

L-Glutamate is used mainly as umami seasoning throughout the world. It was first produced in 1909 using an extraction method from the hydrolyzate of soybean with hydrochloric acid. A significant drawback to this method is that a large amount of by-products is produced, and it is necessary to deliver the solid matter as organic fertilizer and the amino acid moiety in solution as an alternative soybean source. In 1956, the fermentation method of l-glutamic acid from glucose using bacteria was reported, changing not only the production method but also the use of the amino acids themselves. The successful production of L-glutamic acid by fermentation was followed by production of other amino acids, using the same concept of regulation of the metabolic pathway of bacteria.

Nematodes Roundworms

NECATOR (HOOKWORM) Necator americanus prevails in the southern United States and is often seen in immigrants from warmer climates. Infection is associated with the use of human fertilizer and the lack of shoes and latrines. Because each worm can withdraw 0.03 to 0.2 mL of blood a day, infection often leads to chronic anemia. Pica and geophagy are often seen in infected children. Patients may have cough, low-grade fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weakness, weight loss, heme-positive stools, and eosinophilia. The diagnosis is made by finding ova in the stool. In mild infections, multiple stool specimens or concentration techniques may be necessary. The parasite burden may be estimated using the Beaver stool or Kato slide smear method. Infections with less than 2100 eggs per gram of feces (

The HACCP study

A flow diagram of the production process (Fig. 6.1) should be prepared which identifies the inputs to, and the outputs from, the process, as well as the operating conditions and parameters required to produce the product. Inputs include seed, seed treatment agents, irrigation water, manure, fertilizers and pesticides, as well as water used in post-harvest, pretreatment operations such as hydrocooling to remove field heat and washing to remove soil and contami- nants, and so on. Clearly the product itself is the principal output, but others may be product that has been rejected in grading owing to damage or deterioration, or waste botanical material (e.g. from trimming and other preparation processes, soil from washing operations, etc.), all of which, given the right circumstances, could give rise to hazards. The process itself will comprise a sequence of various operations including, for example, seed propagation, field or site preparation, fertilizer applications, planting, growing,...


Attention to feeding is also a requirement in container culture. Good soil preparation enhanced occasionally with mulch will give garden-sited ferns years of contented vigor. By contrast, a container planting, including those sitting around in nursery pots waiting to be planted, will deplete nourishment and display displeasure with attendant poor growth and color unless periodically enriched. As with any feeding, my recommendation is for an evenly balanced, complete fertilizer applied at half the manufacturer's recommended strength. A spring infusion with a water-based fertilizer spray helps to get fronds up and about in vigorous health. Coated slow-release fertilizers that are blessedly easy to apply and last for months, but are heat-based for release, are best used as a supplement in early summer depending on your climate. Do keep granular, including slow-release, fertilizers off of the ferns' crowns and foliage to prevent burning or disfiguring. And as another precaution avoid...


Specialty eggs, a recent growth item for the egg industry (currently 3 4 of all eggs sold in the United States at the retail level) include eggs produced by modifying the diet of the flock (65 of the total), eggs produced by hens under welfare conditions (floor or freerange conditions) (22 of the total), fertile eggs (7 of the total), and organic eggs (from hens fed rations with ingredients that were grown without pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, or commercial fertilizers other restrictions may apply) (7 of the total). 4

New Developments

SSF gained a new dimension for various food and nonfood applications during the last 15-20 years. In food applications, it has been used particularly for the production of enzymes, organic acids, pigments, SCP, exopolysaccharides, and aroma compounds. Biologically active secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, steroids, biopesticides, and biofertilizers, are some nonfood applications of SSF. Attention is also being given to the development of bioreactors (fermentors) of various kinds, using automation.


Swazi Redbeard

Theories vary regarding fertilizer with one being that none should be added and the other being that the xeric native habitats are high in mineral nutrients and fertilizer is welcome. I do not feed mine, mostly because of a lack of prioritized time rather than strong convictions, but some of the best xerics I have seen are in bonsai pots and regularly fed. (While these pots are not usually deep, they have extra large drain holes to facilitate the ferns' required good drainage needs.) Whichever course you chose, be sure that applied amounts are no more than one-half of the manufacturer's recommended strength. Feeding for any ferns, including xerics, is most effective when applied during active new growth.


A diverse AMF community contains a mycorrhizal assemblage and species abundance that naturally aid the host to endure adverse conditions to ultimately enhance plant growth. Research shows that inclusion of host crops (Bever et al. 1996 Johnson et al. 1992) and or cultivars that exhibit high mycorrhizal responsiveness can significantly improve AMF functioning (Boyetchko and Tewari 1995 Xavier and Germida 1998). Therefore, rotation of crops that are dependent on mycorrhizae will ensure early AMF root colonization and high sporulation of even the most sensitive AMF species in soil. Minimal disturbance to the soil also guarantees early contact between an emerging seedling and the AMF hyphal network in soil that distributes nutrients and initiate early colonization of AMF propagules in soil. Excessive fertilizer and pesticide use can alter plant chemistry and cause changes in AMF assemblage and abundance, resulting in a poor AMF community that does not benefit the host (Gazey et al. 1992...


The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is a bony, oily fish that is of commercial importance for oil, fish meal, and fertilizer products. It belongs to the family Cludeidae. It is a major protein component in commercial feed fed to cultured fishes. Livestock and poultry feed may also contain menhaden meal. The production of paints, soaps, and certain lubricants may use the menhaden oil. It is not consumed by humans because it has a lot of bones and its oily nature gives off an unpleasant odor when cooked. It is a particularly important fishery from Massachusetts to the Carolinas. It resembles the herring in appearance except for several features. The menhaden is deeper in the body, being more elliptical from a lateral view. It has a large head and lacks teeth. It also has a distinctive black spot posterior to the gill covers with more spots of irregular shapes and sizes along the ventral halves of the flanks. It has silvery sides with a back that can have a blue, brown, or green...

Forage Management

Legumes often have higher crude protein content than grasses because of their symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which reduces the legumes' dependence on fertilizer nitrogen. Lignin content, which reduces the extent of digestion in ruminants, is comparatively higher in legumes than in grass. A high rate of fiber digestion, coupled with lower overall fiber, results in high passage rates and increased animal productivity for legumes, compared to most grasses. While legumes are generally considered high-quality forage, there are serious antiquality factors associated with some legumes (Table 2), in addition to the potential for inducing bloat, summarized in Table 1. These factors are not always detrimental, and in some cases can be beneficial. For example, at moderate

Unit Operations

It is obvious that the quality of the raw material is one of the most essential factors determining the quality of the final product. Green salads should be, as far as possible, cultivated in open fields. Broad-leafed and curly endives must be etiolated in the field in order to increase the processing output using either a rubber band or a plastic bell. This operation should be carried out carefully so as to avoid overstressing etiolated plant tissues. For hygienic reasons, no manure or fertilizer of animal origin should be used. Most of the raw material for fresh-cut processing is cultivated under contracts that specify the cultivars and cultivation techniques (including acreage, sowing time, pesticide and fertilizer applications, and harvest conditions).

Nitrogen Loss

The nitrogen content of bone in a live individual, which is prone to variation between persons, is regarded as approximately 4.5 by weight.13 Therefore, the difference between time zero and 350 years PMI is, potentially, only 2 by weight nitrogen content, allowing little possibility to improve the accuracy of this estimation. The surface area to volume ratio also influences these changes, and, as expected, the protein content of smaller bone fragments experiences decompositional alterations earlier than do larger, intact bones.71 Overall decompositional changes result in an unpredictable linear decrease in protein content, the rate of which is influenced by numerous external factors. The possibility of fertilizers added to the soils in which remains lie, thus potentially influencing intrinsic nitrogen content, has yet to be examined. As such, the accuracy and reliability of this method for use within forensic investigations is questionable.

Industrial Exposure

Cyanide compounds are both precursors and incidental by-products in the production of plastics, solvents, enamels, high-strength paper, paints, glues, wrinkle-resistant fabrics, herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers. 9 The affinity of cyanide for metals makes it useful in the extraction of ores, in metal polishing, and in electroplating.9 It is also used to strip hair from hides in the leather industry. The once widespread use of cyanide as a fumigant resulted in many poisonings. 5 Cyanide is produced in industry by combining ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) to form hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Commercial quantities of water-soluble salts such as