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The Warrior Zero Body Weight Challenge

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The Warrior Zero Body Weight Challenge Summary


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Components of hybrid fitness

In this chapter I will review data from studies of microorganisms (including bacteria and viruses), plants, and animals that help to illustrate that hybrid genotypes (produced by lateral gene transfer, viral recombination, or sexual reproduction) demonstrate a range of fitnesses depending on environmental setting. First, I must emphasize that genotype X environment interactions are not the only mechanism affecting hybrid fitness some hybrids are maladapted regardless of environment (e.g. Haldane's Rule or Law Haldane 1922, 1990 Tegelstrom and Gelter 1990 Zeng and Singh 1993 Palopoli and Wu 1994 Naisbit et al. 2002 Tao and Hartl 2003). For clear examples of such hybrid genotypes, I direct the reader to the previous chapter. However, notwithstanding the world-view of some authors (e.g. see Coyne and Orr 2004), hybrid genotypes are not different from other novel genotypes the fact that individuals from divergent lineages produce them is irrelevant in terms of their potential for...

The Structure of the Fitness Function

To understand how a fitness function guides an evolutionary algorithm into a target, consider again Dawkins's METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL example. Recall that the phase space in this example comprised all sequences of capital Roman letters and spaces 28 characters in length and that the target was the sentence METHINKS IT IS LIKE A WEASEL. In this example the essential feature of the fitness function was that it assigned higher fitness to sequences having more characters in common with the target sequence. There are many ways to represent such a fitness function mathematically, but perhaps the simplest is simply to count the number of characters identical with the target sequence. Such a fitness function ranges between 0 and 28, assigning 0 to sequences with no coinciding characters and 28 solely to the target sequence. Even so, closer inspection reveals that specified complexity, far from being generated, has merely been smuggled in. Indeed, it is utterly misleading to say that...

Lefthandedness And Physical And Psychological Fitness

Throughout the years there have been a large number of studies that have suggested that left-handedness may serve as a sign or a marker indicating that there may be other psychological and neurological problems present in the individual. The reasoning is as follows To the extent that left-handedness may be caused by pathological factors, left-handedness might be a marker (at least statistically) for the possible existence of some form of neural pathology, psychological deviance, or developmental abnormality. It is suggested that, at least for the pathological left-handers, the same pathology that caused the left-handedness might have also caused some form of collateral damage that can reduce the individual's physiological or psychological fitness through direct or secondary mechanisms.

Enfuvirtide resistance mutations impact viral fitness

The conserved nature of the gp41 HR1 sequence and its essential role in virus entry suggests that mutations in this region may have a negative impact on the replicative capacity or fitness of the virus. Lu et al. 67 were among the first to demonstrate fitness costs associated with enfuvirtide-resistance mutations. These investigators employed growth competition assays with NL4-3 clones carrying various HR1 mutations, as well as baseline and on-treatment patient envelopes to measure the fitness costs associated with introduction of enfuvir-tide-resistance mutations into various HIV-1 envelopes. Their work suggested a relationship between loss of enfuvirtide susceptibility and deficits in virus replication 67 . In contrast to the results from Lu et al., some investigators have failed to find a consistent effect of enfuvirtide mutations on viral replication capacity even thought they do find that enfuvirtide-resistance mutations rapidly disappear from the plasma virus population when the...

Studies on the Role of Exercise Fitness in the Etiology of Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary heart disease (CHD) has a multifactorial etiology, and major 'biological' risk factors include elevated concentrations of blood total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, reduced concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. In addition, 'behavioral' risk factors for CHD include cigarette smoking, a poor diet, and low levels of physical activity and physical fitness associated with the modern, predominantly sedentary way of living. Among these risk factors, a sedentary lifestyle is by far the most prevalent according to data from both the United States and England (Figure 1). Pooled data and meta-analyses of the 'better' studies indicate that the risk of death from CHD increases about twofold in individuals who are physically inactive compared with their more active counterparts. Relationships between aerobic fitness and CHD appear to be at least as strong. For example, in a cohort of middle-aged...

Hybrid fitness

Here, we demonstrate that regions of the Louisiana iris genome are likely to introgress across species boundaries, and that introgression results from fitness advantages (i.e. increased survivorship in highly-selective, flooded conditions) transferred concurrently with those chromosomal regions.

The Importance Of Interval Timing In Adaptation And Learning

It is becoming increasingly evident that interval timing is crucial for many basic forms of adaptation and learning (e.g., Staddon and Higa, 1996, 1999). One of the clearest cases comes from the field of optimal foraging, which studies the extent to which animals' foraging decisions are the direct product of natural selection (for a review, see Krebs and Kacelnik, 1984). In most cases, to make decisions that maximize fitness, an animal needs to measure its rate of food intake in one or more environments, and measuring rate requires measurement of time. Recent work has shown that European starlings are deftly sensitive to their rate of food intake and appear to record the interval of time between each prey they capture and consume (see Bateson, this volume Bateson and Kacelnik, 1997, 1998). Even nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans engage in complex foraging behaviors that are temporally sensitive suggesting that interval timing is a very basic process that can be fruitfully...

Discovery Development And Deployment Of Diagnostics

The conceptual framework for development of the diagnostics incorporates epidemiological considerations. Selection of candidate molecules for further development is based upon genomic information, followed by the evaluation of fitness to function as a diagnostic. The availability of diagnostics and the accompanying services is determined largely by considerations of cost of the test and returns to the investment made in their development. This, in turn, depends on the purpose for which the diagnosis is performed.

Introduction to Biomechanics of Human Movement

Most people are extremely skilled in many everyday movements like standing, walking, or climbing stairs. By the time children are two, they are skilled walkers with little instruction from parents aside from emotional encouragement. Unfortunately, modern living does not require enough movement to prevent several chronic diseases associated with low physical activity (USD-HHS, 1996). Fortunately, many human movement professions help people to participate in beneficial physical activities. Physical Educators, coaches, athletic trainers, strength & conditioning coaches, personal trainers, and physical therapists all help people reap the benefits of physical activity. These human movement professions rely on undergraduate training in kinesiol-ogy, and typically require coursework in biomechanics. Kinesiology is the term referring to the whole scholarly area of human movement study, while biomechanics is the study of motion and its causes in living things. Biomechanics provides key...

Biosocial Models of Parental Investment

Individuals face trade-offs between investing in themselves (their own human capital, physical growth or immune system, etc.), in mating effort (initiating and or maintaining a relationship with a sexual partner), or in parental effort (investments in existing offspring) The evolutionary perspective emphasizes two reasons for parental investment in offspring. First, parents invest in genetic offspring because doing so increases their own genetic fitness, i.e., the number of copies of their genes present in future generations. Secondly, an individual may invest in an offspring because the investment influences that person's relationship with the offspring's other parent. (Anderson et al., 2001, p.6)

Where Can I Find Out About Biomechanics

The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports publishes Physical Fitness Sports Medicine. The Physical Education Index is a bibliographic service for English language publications that is published quarterly by BenOak Publishing. The PE Index reviews more than 170 magazines and journals, provides some citations from popular press magazines, and this index can be used to gather common knowledge. Early sport and exercise biomechan-ics research has been compiled in several bibliographies published by the University of Iowa (Hay, 1987).

Evolution and Disease

Hypothetically, genetic variation providing resistance to infection, accommodation to nutritional deficiency, or acclimation to environmental constraints such as hypoxia are retained at varying rates in diverse populations due to differential survival and differential reproduction. That is to say, variants are correlated with increased Darwinian fitness. Stressors affecting the survival of children and the fecundity of young adults are most pertinent. While discrete genetic markers such as hemoglobin variants are easiest to correlate with morbidity, mortality, and fertility rates, behavioral traits may clearly correlate with fitness. Pregnancy management techniques, dietary patterns, birth systems, and infant care are non-genetic variables with immense importance in maternal and child survival rates in rigorous or pathogenic environments. Differential fitness involves more than disease resistance, of course. The evolution of successful reproductive traits and strategies is a central...

The Post Reproductive Life Span

It is difficult to reconcile the extensive post-reproductive life span among human females with the maximization of reproductive success and inclusive fitness (Sievert, 2001). However, P. Draper (2002, personal communication) has found that, among the traditional Kung, those adult women who had a surviving mother also had more surviving children. Similarly Hawkes et al. (1989,1997) have noted that, among the Hadza, the presence of grandmothers contributes to the reproductive success of their daughters by freeing them from the rigors of strenuous subsistence activities.

Management Implications

Unrestricted livestock grazing can have potentially negative impacts on biodiversity. However, grazing systems can be established that mitigate the potential negative effects and may enhance some aspects of diversity. Grazing systems can provide rest or deferment from defoliation, thereby providing improved physiological and ecological fitness for grazed plants. This improved fitness levels the competition playing field between grazed and ungrazed plants and can prevent species composition changes. Declines in habitat diversity can then be prevented.

Translocation might Function as a Homeostatic Mechanism in Fungi Adapted to Utilize Spatially and Temporally Separate

A conceptual model of nitrogen dynamics in such environments (Lindahl et al. , 2002) places fungal mycelium as a central controlling network for all the major mineral nutrient fluxes between soil, ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic mycelial networks. The conducting activity of such mycelial networks is critical to exploiting their heterogeneous environment, in which, in the authors' words, 'carbon and nitrogen resources are spatially uncoupled'. The implication is that fungi in these habitats are adapted to gather carbon and energy from one part of their mycelial networks and nitrogen from another. By translocation within the network, a mycelium is enabled to reconcile these two essential resources for biosynthesis. Fungal nitrogen translocation can have a rate-determining effect on ecosystem carbon flux. Nitrogen import through mycelium to N-poor lignocellulose carbon resources results in faster decomposition rates (Beare et al., 1992 Frey et al., 2000). This occurs as a side-effect of...

Challenges of genetic diversity in Env glycoproteins and entry inhibitors

The pol gene encodes functional proteins that are targeted by RT inhibitors, and less genetic variation is observed in this gene compared to env. Nevertheless, some in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that genetically distinct viral variants may respond differently to certain antiretroviral drugs that target the pol gene. HIV-1 group O and HIV-2 strains are naturally resistant to non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs) 16 . The rate of occurrence of nevirapine resistance-associated mutations after a single dose is significantly higher in women with HIV-1 subtype C than in women with subtype A or D 17 . Many studies have also shown the existence of polymorphisms among non-B strains 18-20 . These accessory (or minor) mutations may not result in a significant decrease in susceptibility 21, 22 , but may be associated with an increase in viral fitness (replication capacity) and or increase in resistance level associated with major mutations, and thus long-term failure of therapy.

HandsOn versus Hands Off Management

From a medical point of view, there is contention whether veterinarians ought to treat wildlife diseases. Like all physicians, veterinarians seek good health. Colorado veterinarians treated a lungworm disease in bighorn sheep successfully. By contrast, when an epidemic of pinkeye ravaged the bighorn sheep of Yellowstone Park, authorities refused to let Wyoming veterinarians treat the disease. The welfare of the sheep, they said, required letting the disease take its course disease-resistant sheep would survive and the genetic fitness of the herd would improve. Whether the disease is introduced by humans is a factor. The Chlamydia parasite producing pinkeye was not thought to be introduced some said that the lungworm was introduced from domestic sheep, or at least that the sheep were weakened due to human disruptions, especially of their winter range. Although over half the Yellowstone herd perished by starvation and injury following partial blindness, the herd has recovered, although...

Selection and Improvement of Bioherbicide Agents

Of C. gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene for control of northern jointvetch was partially attributed to its ability to easily spread as an endemic pathogen. Yang and TeBeest (1995) further demonstrated a rapid rate of mortality of the weed as the number of pathogen lesions per plant increased from a single lesion. Therefore, more aggressive and virulent isolates of a pathogen with high infection efficiency, shorter latent periods, and better sporulation from diseased tissues should be selected from amongst the pathogen population. Chemical and physical methods have been used to create fungal mutants with acquired new traits such as elevated antibiotic production (Graeme-Cook and Faull 1991) or increased biocontrol efficacy (Palani and Lalithakumari 1999). Stability or low reversion frequency was observed with some mutants but, in general, stability can be a concern with chemical and physical mutagenesis (Wibowo et al. 1999). Ziogas et al. (1995) reported UV-induced mutants of Nectria...

Event Timers In The Natural World

The first step toward understanding the adaptive contribution of event timers is to recognize the contribution they would make if they were being used. This will provide us with some sense of the situations that might have facilitated the evolution of event timers. The following tour through event timing in the natural world will focus primarily on the domains of animal behavior that would show a positive fitness relationship in the presence of a cost-free event timer that can associate nonover-lapping events in time. I will discuss the difficulties with assessing event timer cost in Conclusions (Section 4.6).

Importance of Sexual Reproduction

This, though, is a 'group selectionist' interpretation. It argues that variation generated in an individual meiosis benefits the group or population to which the individual belongs. Yet current theory prefers to emphasise that selection acts on individuals (Carlile, 1987 Dawkins, 1989). A feature that is advantageous in selection must be so because of benefit to the individual itself or its immediate progeny. As noted above, an alternative interpretation of the selective value of a sexual cycle suggests that repair of damaged DNA is the crucial advantage of meiosis (Bernstein et al., 1985). It is argued that bringing together genomes from two different individuals enables DNA damage in one parental chromosome, caused by mutation or faulty replication, to be repaired by comparison and recombination with the normal chromosome provided by the other parent. Genetic fitness would be increased but only when out-crossing ensures heterozygosis. Even an incomplete sexual cycle might be of...

Optimal Foraging Theory

In many classical optimal foraging models the currency that foraging animals are assumed to be maximizing is their long-term net rate of energy intake (Stephens and Krebs, 1986), where long-term rate is defined as the net energy intake divided by the total time spent acquiring this energy. Rate is a proximate currency that is assumed to relate closely to Darwinian fitness if it is maximized over the lifetime of the forager, because an animal that maximizes its rate of energy intake will achieve the greatest amount of energy for use in maintenance, growth, and reproduction in the least possible time, and time not spent foraging is time available for other fitness-promoting activities, such as looking out for predators and reproduction. Given that the computation of rate involves forming an estimate of the time spent foraging, interval timing is likely to be involved in many foraging decisions.

All Things Bright and Beautiful

There is a strong and vocal minority of protagonists who offer a tantalizing blend of science and cryptotheology. Explicitly relying on the Victorian notion of providential design, they contend that the Earth's unique fitness for carbon-based life generally and human beings particularly is not the result of contingent or coincidental circumstances it is the designed and inevitable outcome of a cosmic plan. It is accepted that all the cosmic activity over the billions of years from primeval swamps to postmodern conurbations is specifically directed and designed to produce the kind of intelligent life that presently exists, namely Homo sapiens. In maintaining that life's being is also part of a design for life's becoming, it is a bold and clever thesis that emphasizes the seamless, harmonious, and teleological basis of all phenomena's development and sophistication in line with a series of natural laws science

Biomechanics Of Ligaments

A common health-related fitness component is flexibility. Flexibility is defined as the intrinsic property of body tissues, which determines the range of motion achievable without injury at a joint or group of joints (Holt et al., 1996 172). Flexibility can be mechanically measured as static and dynamic flexibility. Static flexibility refers to the usual linear or angular measurements of the actual limits of motion in a joint or joint complex. Static flexibility measurements have elements of subjectivity because of variations in testers and patient tolerance of stretch. Dynamic flexibility is the increase in the muscle group resistance to stretch (stiffness) and is a less subjective measure of flexibility (Knudson et al., 2000). Inactivity and immobilization have been shown to decrease static range of motion (SROM) and increase muscle group stiffness (Akeson et al., 1987 Heerkens et al., 1986).

Inhibitors that target gp120 interactions with coreceptor

To indicate HIV-1 isolates that can infect via CXCR4. This switch in corecep-tor use has major implications for the use of CCR5 inhibitors, since they may select for HIV-1 minor populations capable of CXCR4 use, and such viruses are associated with a more rapid disease progression 13 . Indeed, short-term monotherapy with maraviroc (see Tab. 1) did select for R5X4 and X4 variants in 2 62 patients 14 , although these viruses appear to have emerged from a preexisting reservoir and not from de novo mutations. Nonetheless, these results underscore the risk of selectively inhibiting CCR5 and highlight the need to use these agents in combination with other potent antivirals. The mutations in the variable loops of envelope that drive coreceptor switching often come at the cost of viral fitness 15, 16 , which may explain the long delay until the appearance of R5X4 or X4 viruses in patients, and also why 60 62 patients treated with maraviroc did not show emergence of R5X4 or X4 variants 14 ....

Progression of exercise intensity and heart rate

Exercise leaders should be aware that target heart rates can be adjusted in the future. The heart rate intensity can be used to increase the training effect. For some patients the duration may be used as the variable. It is not incorrect to assume that the progression of intensity will automatically occur if the patient exercises to the same given heart rate the work rate for a given heart rate will increase as fitness improves. However, this assumption only reflects

Outcrossing and Non Outcrossing Species

This was first described by Buller (1931) for Coprinus sterquilinus colonizing dung balls (Rayner and Todd, 1979). The idea of the individualistic mycelium, where each genotype builds its reproductive output and fitness by monopolizing resources for its mycelium seemed to be in contrast with the unit mycelium idea, until it was realized that C. sterquilinus is a homothallic species (Rayner, 1991b). Thus all spores in the dung ball had the same genotype, hence the cooperation between mycelia originating from different spores can be regarded as fusing of ramets of the same genet.

Animal State Of Being

An environmental adaptation refers to any behavioral, functional, immune, or structural trait that favors an animal's fitness its ability to survive and reproduce under given (especially adverse) conditions. When an animal successfully keeps or regains control of its bodily integrity and psychic stability, it is said to have coped.

Exercise and lymphocyte subpopulations

The changes in the types of lymphocytes in the circulation as a result of exercise have been well studied. The absolute number of CD3 , CD8 and CD16H CD56 ' (natural killer, NK) cells increase during and immediately after exercise. B Lymphocytosis also occurs with acute exercise. These increases are transient and return to pre-exercise levels within a few hours of cessation of exercise. The ratio of CD4t_CD8+ lymphocytes (helper suppressor ratio) decreases immediately after exercise, largely becuase the CD8 count increases more than the CD4 count. Subject fitness level does little to modify this basic pattern and exercise intensity and duration are the key variables in modifying the extent of the lymphocyte subpopulations shifts. Following acute

Haunted Swing Illusion See Appendix A

The English biologist John Maynard Smith (1920- ) and the American physicist and chemist George R. Price (1922-1975) empirically assessed the hawk-dove, or chicken, game as it relates to biology, conflict, and evolution the chicken game was named and described by the Welsh philosopher Bertrand A. W. Russell (1872-1970) in 1959, but it may be traced as far back as the 8th century B.C. to the Greek epic poet Homer and his reputed poem The Iliad . The chicken game is a two-person strategic game, or a strategic model of brinkmanship, where - in its simplest version - two motorists speed towards each other, where each driver has the option of swerving to avoid a collision or to drive straight ahead. If both drivers swerve, the outcome is a draw with second-best payoffs going to each driver if both persons drive straight ahead, they risk death and each receives the worst fourth-best payoff but if one chickens out (i.e., is a cowardly person) by swerving and...

Integrating The Use Of Heart Rate Rpe Mets And Observation

Finally, it is important that patients learn to self-monitor changes by reporting and or associating their improved levels of fitness relative to changes they experience in activities of daily living (away from the structured class). When patients are able to recognise their changes and benefits, they are better able to judge their own level of functional health or change of symptoms that could occur in the future.

Accumulated Activity And Structured Exercise

Physical activity is described as bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure and produces progressive healthy benefits, for example walking, housework, etc. (SIGN, 2002 ACSM 1998). Exercise is a type of physical activity that is planned, structured and repetitive, involving bodily movement performed to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness (Leon, NIH Consensus Statement, 1997). In 1997 the Health Education Board for Scotland (HEBS) devised a two-stage approach to encouraging the Scottish population to become more active. Many other national guidelines have adopted a similar approach.

Resistance to fusion inhibitors

Mutations in the HR2 also arise during T-20 treatment, often subsequent to HR1 mutations 46, 72-74 . Studies involving computational protein modeling further suggest that HR2 mutations can compensate for a loss of bundle stability that often results from primary resistance mutations in HR1 75 . Such compensatory HR2 mutations are believed to increase six-helix stability, resulting in greater resistance and viral fitness 75 . However, resistance mutations typically revert to wild type after cessation of therapy 76 , consistent with the notion that these mutations impair viral fitness. In vitro assays indicate that common resistance mutations in the HR1 often have fitness costs 46, 47, 77-79 , but examples of resistant viruses with apparent high viral fitness can also be found 78, 79 .

Gender Related Social Groups

Other groups that are important in the lives of some Hungarian men are drinking groups, work circles, and peer groups developed during childhood and early adolescence. Hungarian women participate in fitness groups more than men, but less than men in work circles. Fewer women also maintain friendships across the entire life cycle (Reisman, 1990). As in most areas of gender difference, class, education, age, and region are very important in determining an individual's participation in these groups. For example, it is largely young urban women who take fitness classes.

Enrichment and Research

M., and B. G. Galef, Jr., Effects of Rearing Environment on Adrenal Weights, Sexual Development, and Behavior in Gerbils An Examination of Richter's Domestication Hypothesis, Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 94 (1980) 857-863 Dawkins, M. S., Do Hens Suffer in Battery Cages Environmental Preferences and Welfare, Animal Behaviour 25 (1977) 10341046 Dawkins, M. S., From an Animal's Point of View Motivation, Fitness, and Animal Welfare, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1990) 1-61 Galef, B. G., Jr., and

Forcemotion Principle

Gymnast Split Jump

Imagine a physical education teacher working with students on their upper body muscular strength. A particular student is working toward improving his score on a pull-up test in the fitness unit. The forces in a pull-up exercise can be simplified into two vertical forces the downward gravitation force of bodyweight and an upward force created by concentric muscle actions at the elbows, shoulders, and back. The considerable isometric actions of the grip, shoulder girdle, and trunk do not appear to limit this youngster's performance. You note that this student's bodyweight is not excessive, so losing weight is not an appropriate choice. The teacher decides to work on exercises that train the elbow flexors, as well as the shoulder adductors and extensors. The teacher will likely prescribe exercises like lat pulls, arm curls, and rowing to increase the student's ability to pull downward with a force larger than his body-weight.

Overload Exercise Prescription Principles

If correct exercise prescription is carried out, improvements can be made not only to cardio-respiratory fitness but also to general health, disease prevention and psychosocial well being (Buckley, et al, 1999 SIGN, 2002).To achieve these improvements any exercise programme must work the body systems harder than they are normally accustomed to work. This process is known as overload and can be applied to any aspect of exercise, including cardiovascular fitness, strength and flexibility training (ACSM, 2001). The body responds to the exercise stimulus by adapting to the increased exercise load. For example, individuals who are sedentary can overload their systems by walking at a faster pace than normal. Individuals who have been more active for a period of time will require their activity overload to be set at a higher intensity and or to work for longer periods.

Statement of the Problem

Generating specified complexity via an evolutionary algorithm can be understood as the following optimization problem. We are given a reference class of possible solutions known as the phase space. Possible solutions within the phase space are referred to as points. A univalent measure of optimality known as the fitness function is then defined on the phase space. The fitness function is a nonnegative real-valued function that is optimized by being maximized. The task of an evolutionary algorithm is to locate where the fitness function attains at least a certain level of fitness. The set of possible solutions where the fitness function attains at least that level of fitness will be called the target. Think of it this way. Imagine that the phase space is a vast plane and the fitness function is a vast hollowed-out mountain range over the plane (complete with low-lying foothills and incredibly high peaks). The task of an evolutionary algorithm is by moving around on the plane to get to...

Summary and conclusions

My goal for this chapter was to demonstrate the truism that hybrid genotypes vary in fitness. Often this variation is environment-dependent, but hybrids that have low or high fitness across many habitats (i.e. their fitness appears environment-independent) are also found. I have emphasized two different signatures that can indicate the relative fitness of hybrids. The first involves evidence that there has been a transfer of traits that are adaptive in the hybrids. Such a transfer can be detected by a novel phenotype or by the introgression of markers or traits at a significantly higher than expected frequency in natural or experimental hybrid populations. The second method for estimating hybrid fitness comes from studies of fitness components in experimental or natural environments. These latter studies provide a detailed, composite fitness not available from the more correlative analyses of natural populations. As I stated at the outset, my choice of examples for this chapter was...

Preoperative Planning

Once the decision to proceed with surgery has been made, the type of surgery best suited to the patient and the situation must be chosen. Regardless of technique, the basic elements of preoperative planning consist of preparation and education of both the patient and the surgical team. The patient must clearly understand the treatment and what will be required in the postoperative period in terms of physical therapy, limb lengthening, and pain control. Whenever possible, a preoperative physical therapy assessment can provide a baseline while also teaching the patient about initial treatment. Comorbidities necessitate preop-erative medical evaluation. Plastic or vascular surgery consultation should be considered in the case of compromised skin or blood supply. The health and fitness of the patient for the proposed surgery should not be neglected in any respect for the sake of expediency.

Tips for Dancing During the First Trimester

Dance as you normally would, but keep a few precautions in mind. Warm up beforehand to prepare your joints and muscles for exercise and to help build up your heart rate slowly. As a general rule, your heart rate should not exceed 140 beats per minute (this number may vary depending on your level of fitness). Adjust the intensity of your dancing according to how you feel. Slow down if you are not able to carry on a conversation comfortably while dancing. Keep your workout impact low by leaving one foot on the floor at all times, substituting marching in place for jumps, or stepping side-to-side. Be aware of the limitations of your body.

Exercise prescription in phase IV

Phase IV exercise should see a maintenance of individualised exercise using the same FITT principles as in previous phases. Participants graduating to phase IV after phase III should be more independent exercisers and more responsible for self-monitoring. During an exercise consultation, the phase IV participant may wish to try different activities, for example dancing, hill walking, etc. The exercise consultant should help participants select activity and exercise that will help maintain their health, interest and fitness.

Darwinian Evolution in Nature

Consider carefully what the displacement problem means for Darwinian evolution in nature. Darwinists are unlikely to see the displacement problem as a serious threat to their theory. I've argued evolutionary algorithms like the one in Dawkins's METHINKS-IT-IS-LIKE-A-WEASEL example fail to generate specified complexity because they smuggle it in during construction of the fitness function. Now, if evolutionary algorithms modeled, say, the stitching together of monomers to generate some initial self-replicating polymer, strict Darwinists would admit the relevance of the displacement problem (to paraphrase Theodosius Dobzhansky, to speak of generating an initial replicator via a Darwinian selection mechanism is a contradiction in terms because that very mechanism presupposes replication). Darwinists, however, are principally interested in modeling evolutionary progress once a replicator has come into existence, and here they argue that the displacement problem is irrelevant. The...

The Limitations Of Functional Anatomical Analysis

Emg Turkey Gastrocnemius

Anatomy classifies muscles into functional groups (flexors extensors, abductors adductors, etc.) based on hypothesized actions. These muscle groups are useful general classifications and are commonly used in fitness education, weight training, and rehabilitation. These hypothesized muscle actions in movements and exercises are used to judge the relevance of various exercise training or rehabilitation programs. This section will show that such qualitative estimations of muscle actions are often incorrect. Similarly, many of the muscle actions hypothesized by coaches and thera

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Engineering Design For Perfume Industry

In the following decades, consumer attitudes changed dramatically food and its quality evolved into a symbol of personality, expressed by the slogan 'you are what you eat'. Health, fitness and diet became the precursors of all current trends up to the turn of the century. Today, especially wellness, well-being and a well-balanced lifestyle have to be added. The fortification with vitamins and minerals results in products that implicate pharmacological benefits, a trend which is increasingly called for by consumers.

Adaptive Evolution of Wine Yeast Strains

The molecular basis of the technological properties of wine yeast strains are still largely unknown. However, the obvious possibility is that the adaptation of these strains to the enological environment is dependent on specific expression profiles of their genomes (for a review see Perez-Ortin et al. 2002). Comparative analyses of gene expression between industrial and nonindustrial strains and between different industrial strains could lead to the identification of genes involved in the fitness of the strains in industrial environments. To date, the study of gene expression during wine fermentation has focused on genes induced in the stationary phase in order to express specific activities at the end of the process (Puig et al. 1996 Puig et al. 2000 Riou et al. 1997).

The physiological rationale for using heart rate

The HRmax has for many years provided a practical substitute marker of the percentage of maximal aerobic power ( VO2max). This is based on the assumption that HRmax and VO2max coincide (Astrand and Rhyming, 1954 Astrand and Christensen, 1964). For an individual, heart rate for a given VO2max does not change, regardless of training status, fitness level or age (Skinner, et al., 2003). The use of HRmax allows for the relative comparison of exercise intensity of people of differing ages. Correspondingly, the use of VO2max allows for the relative comparison of individuals of different levels of maximal aerobic power (aerobic fitness). In recognising the heterogeneity of cardiac populations, relative to both age and fitness (Lavie and Milani, 2000), the use of these two relative measures ( HRmax and VO2max) allows for the same exercise prescription principles to be applied to all patients.

Interval Timing And Foraging

It is possible to analyze all foraging behavior in terms of its costs and benefits to the forager. Finding, consuming, and digesting food all have both energetic and time costs associated with them, because time and energy spent foraging are time and energy taken away from other fitness-promoting activities, such as looking out for predators and reproducing. We therefore expect natural selection to have honed foraging decisions so as to optimize the trade-off between costs and benefits, and thus maximize the lifetime survival and reproductive success of the forager (e.g., Stephens and Krebs, 1986). Because the costs associated with foraging involve the length of time taken, it is likely that selection on foraging decisions has involved selection on the ability to measure these costs accurately. In summary, therefore, we have established that (1) all vertebrates need to forage, (2) foraging behavior is likely to have been under strong selective pressure to increase efficiency, (3)...

DRIs for Other Nutrients and Food Constituents

Finally, physical activity has been included in the recent DRI series to highlight the very important role it plays in decreasing risk of chronic disease in terms of both maintaining sufficient energy expenditure to allow for maintenance of body weight and maintaining cardiovascular fitness to decrease the risk of heart disease.

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote advantage is the superior fitness often seen in hybrids, the cross between two dissimilar parents. A heterozygote is an organism with alleles particular forms two different alleles, one donated from each parent. Fitness means the abil-of genes ity to survive and have offspring. Heterozygote advantage also refers more narrowly to superior fitness of an organism that is heterozygous for a particular gene, usually one governing a disease. Inbreeding is the practice of repeatedly crossing a single variety of organism with itself, in order to develop a more uniform variety. During this process, the organism becomes homozygous for many genes, meaning that its two gene copies are identical. This is often accompanied by loss of vigor slower growth, less resistance to disease, and other signs of decreased fitness. This is known as inbreeding depression. Breeding with another variety (outcrossing) produces offspring that are heterozygous for many genes, and is often accompanied by...

Cultural Construction of Gender

Attractiveness in men is related to decisiveness and strength of will as well as physical fitness. It is often said that in the past a glamorous mystique surrounded the warriors. Physical beauty in women is important to sexual attraction. A young Nandi man told me, We like the same things European men like girls who aren't too fat or too thin, and have nice breasts that stand up. Smoothly pigmented skin is positive, and a slight space between the top front teeth is a mark of beauty.

Personality Differences by Gender

Men pride themselves on physical fitness and feats of endurance, for example, ability to withstand cold and rain, and to travel for long periods and distances without food, water, or rest. Men should be able to confront and vanquish human enemies or wild animals in the past, Barng'etuny was an honorary name reserved for those men who had killed lions, usually in defense of their herds. Women also should be brave and stoic in the face of hardship, but they are generally thought to display these virtues to a lesser degree than men. They are also believed to have less capacity for planning and forethought than men, and to be more apt to hold grudges. Only a few desirable qualities are said to be more characteristic of women. Compassion, empathy, and cleanliness are some such traits.

Hypotheses of Heterozygote Advantage

The first hypothesis is known as the favorable dominance hypothesis. It is based on the fact that recessive alleles are very often deleterious in the homozygous condition, often because recessives code for a defective form of the protein. Thus, possessing at least one dominant allele is favored. Under this hypothesis, the two inbred parents are each homozygous recessive for one or more (different) traits, and each has decreased fitness. Hybridization creates heterozygote offspring that have a dominant (functional) allele for each trait, thus increasing their fitness or vigor. In this hypothesis, heterozygotes are superior to the homozygous recessive condition, but not the homozygous dominant condition.

Normative Theories and Bioethics

Finally, virtue theories seem to be attracting more attention within bioethics because of the strong analogies between the notion of health and overall biological fitness, on the one hand, and, on the other, the more general notion of human flourishing that lies at the heart of virtue theories. For those who think that bioethical issues are best approached by getting clear on the goals of the biomedical sciences, this analogy is likely to lead them to take virtue theories seriously.

Conservation Genetics Applications

The use of a conservation genetics approach may be an effective way for assessing the status of populations and species in the wild. Populations that decrease in number while becoming increasingly fragmented by loss of habitat in the wild can experience a loss of genetic variation that could have a severe impact on their fitness and survival. Conservation genetics permits scientists to assess the impacts of habitat fragmentation and loss in the wild using both theoretical and empirical methods. Results from these studies allow managers to evaluate the viability of populations and design protected areas for conservation. Determining the extent of genetic variation among captive populations in zoological parks and botanical gardens is also essential, because captive populations must have sufficient genetic variation so that they persist into the future without suffering from reduced fitness due to inbreeding and other effects associated with small populations. In some cases, captive...

Implication of Genetics for Conservation in the Wild

When a bottleneck occurs, there is an increased chance of breeding among close relatives. This is termed inbreeding, and it may result in a reduction in fitness due to the expression of deleterious genes, in a process known as inbreeding depression. Inbreeding and the loss of genetic variation in small populations can lead to a genetically reduced or homogeneous population that is more sensitive to diseases and to the effects of habitat alteration. The interaction between genetic and demographic declines has been termed extinction vortex. We include below several real examples of the use of genetics in conservation biology.

Ploidy Level Frequencies at Different Life Stages Temporal Variation

In general, screening different life stages for ploidy has the potential to identify specific stages where ploidy-level differences may impact fitness. A number of studies have shown discrepancies between 2n gamete production (based on pollen size and morphology) and occurrence of polyploids in progeny (e.g. El Moka-dem et al. 2002). When polyploid frequencies in progeny are different from those predicted by unreduced gamete production, one possibility is a favoring or a filtering out of polyploids, either pre- or post-zygotically. While such results may provide insights about polyploidy origin and establishment, they depend on the reliable estimation of unreduced gamete production, which can be improved using FCM (see Section 5.4.4). Studies can potentially be carried out in natural populations, screening seed crop, seedlings and adults to make inferences about life stage-specific ploidy fitnesses. It may be difficult to make comparisons between developmental stages in which nuclei...

Implications for endangered taxa

. . . hybridization between rarer and more numerous taxa potentially results in a genetic enrichment of the endangered form. The rare form is aided by such interaction through elevated fitness, the addition of genetic variability that facilitates habitat expansion, and the hybrid population acting as a genetic reservoir for reconstituting the parental genotypes phenotypes.

Growth and Protein Energy Malnutrition

The results of these cross-sectional studies have been reinforced by longitudinal community-wide studies of nutritional improvement following reduction or eradication of parasite burden with anthelmintic drugs. The results of such studies have, however, been less than convincing. Successful treatment of heavily poly-parasitized Kenyan children harboring hookworm, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, with albendazole resulted in improvements in weight, arm circumference, and skinfold thickness and was associated with increased appetite and fitness. Statistical analysis of this data implicated hookworm as being the most important in compromising nutritional status. Weight gain above placebo-treated counterparts averaged 1.3 kg per 6 months, and added about 3 points to a weight-for-age of approximately 80 . However, similar studies in many parts of the world in subjects with lower intestinal helminth burdens have reported only small improvements, whereas others found no change at all in...

Approaches For Studying The Community

Many studies of wood-decay fungi have been based on what is fruiting on the surface. The advantage of such observations is that a large number of woody units can be surveyed in a relatively short time. Further, fruiting reflects the reproductive output and thereby represents an important aspect of fitness. However, there are several reasons why studies solely based on fruiting structures will only give a partial view of the composition, activity and importance of the fungal community involved in wood decomposition. One reason is that this gives a heavy bias towards species with large conspicuous fruit bodies, in particular basidiomycetes, predominantly belonging to the polyporacae, agaricales and corticiacae. Organisms such as bacteria, arthropods and fungal species lacking large fruit bodies will remain undetected by this approach. Other drawbacks are associated with the timing of fruiting. Inevitably, there is a lag phase between establishment of a mycelium and formation of a fruit...

Lymphocyte proliferation as a consequence of molecular mimicry by infectious agents

An increasing number of viruses are known to infect lymphocytes, and directly or indirectly induce lymphocyte proliferation. Both retroviruses and DNA viruses infect lymphocytes. Human GD4 ' T cells are infected by the nontransforming retroviruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 and by the transforming retrovirus human T lympho-tropic virus type I (HTLV-I) while CDS cells are transformed by HTLV-I. Human B cells are infected with two herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). Likewise, human T cells are infected with at least three herpesviruses HHV6 and HHV7 and herpesvirus saimiri. Mouse B cells are infected with murine mammary tumor virus (MMTV), resulting in augmented T and B cell proliferation. Other organisms have subverted lymphocyte signal transduction pathways for enhanced rep-licative fitness, to impair the host immune response or both. A list of some of these agents and their targets are found in Table 4.

Toxicity and tolerability

Other studies have shown that if the fusion inhibitor is continued long-term in this setting of rising viral load during therapy there is evidence of ongoing selection for other resistance-conferring mutations in the HR-2 region and elsewhere, possibly compensatory changes that no longer compromise fitness to the same degree 62, 63 . As discussed above, preliminary data exist to support sequencing of fusion inhibitors, in that newer generation peptides have activity against enfuvirtide-resistant viruses 33, 34 .

Surgical considerations

There are many different types of amputations at different levels through the upper and lower limbs, often associated with eponymous names. Depending on the patient's age, his fitness for surgery must be assessed. In the older age group with diabetes mellitus and generalized atherosclerosis, the cardiorespiratory, renal and peripheral vascular status of the patient must be assessed. The postoperative functional requirements and general mobility of the patient must also be taken into account that is, the postoperative considerations for a patient who is wheelchair bound preoperatively will differ from those for a patient who is ambulant with or without walking aids.

Functional Consequences

The size of the nutritional impact is dependent on the magnitude of the seasonal stress and on the baseline nutritional status, as this sets the limit of the tolerable stress. Lean people will lose more fat-free mass than fatter people. At a BMI of 21, 50 of the weight lost is lean tissue. Therefore, in populations with a lower mean BMI there is a greater impact on their fat-free mass, with greater consequences for their productivity and fitness. A meta-analysis of the body weight change body weight relationship indicates that farmers tend to maintain the loss at below 2 of their fat-free mass people with lower BMI will lose less weight, but they will also have to limit their physical activity, which can have socioeconomic consequences. In some populations, body weight lost

Acute Mountain Sickness AMS

SUSCEPTIBILITY In addition to rate of ascent and sleeping altitude, inherent factors determine individual susceptibility to acute mountain sickness. Factors identified so far are low hypoxic ventilatory response and low vital capacity. Age has little influence on incidence, with children being as susceptible as adults. Women are just as likely, if not more so, to develop mountain sickness but appear to have less pulmonary edema. Susceptibility to AMS is generally reproducible in an individual on repeated exposures. Persons living at intermediate altitudes of 1000 to 2000 m already are acclimatized partially and do much better than lowlanders upon ascent to higher altitudes. There is no relationship of susceptibility to AMS and physical fitness.

Quality of life in patients with ICDs

The issue of fitness to drive in patients with ICDs is a contentious one. Up until five years ago, patients with ICDs in the UK faced a lifetime ban from driving. Since then the regulations in the UK have been gradually relaxed. Currently, ICD recipients may be allowed to drive provided that the device has been implanted for at least six months and has not delivered shock therapy or symptomatic antitachycardia pacing therapy for six months (except during formal clinical testing), and if previous discharges have not been accompanied by incapacity. Patients must stop driving for one month if the device (lead or generator) is revised, or if any change is made in antiarrhythmic treatment. Patients who have an ICD implanted for primary prevention need only refrain from driving for one month, unless they subsequently receive shocks from the device. Licences are subject to annual review. Patients with ICDs are permanently disqualified from driving lorries and buses. These recommendations are...

Subjectivity Of Animals

S., From an Animal's Point of View Motivation, Fitness, and Animal Welfare, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1990) 1-61 Duncan, I.J. H., and J. C. Petherick, The Implications of Cognitive Processes for Animal Welfare, Journal of Animal Science 69 (1991) 5017-5022 Hearne, V., Adam's Task Calling Animals by Name (London Heinemann, 1986) Nagel, T., What Is It Like to Be a Bat Psychological Review 83 (1974) 435-451 Wemelsfelder, F., The Scientific Validity of Subjective Concepts in Models of Animal Welfare, Applied Animal Behaviour Science 53 (1-2) (1997) 75-88.

Micronutrients and Physical Activity

Iron deficiency anemia affects some athletes engaged in intensive training and competition, but it seems that the prevalence is the same in athletic and sedentary populations, suggesting that exercise per se does not increase the risk. The implications of even mild anemia for exercise performance are, however, significant. A fall in the circulating hemoglobin concentration is associated with a reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity and a decreased exercise performance. Low serum ferritin levels are not associated with impaired performance, however, and iron supplementation in the absence of frank anemia does not influence indices of fitness. Routine iron supplementation is not wise, as too much may be harmful.

Behaviour interventions in CR

Exercise consultation was developed in the UK setting. In the US, a similar procedure is termed physical activity counselling. A recent systematic review concluded that physical activity counselling was effective in increasing physical activity and fitness in the general population (Kahn, et al., 2002). Physical activity counselling is also based on the Transtheoretical Model and uses behaviour change strategies similar to those employed in the exercise consultation process. In addition, American CR guidelines recommend that physical activity counselling should be a core component of CR programmes to promote an active lifestyle for patients with CHD (Balady, et al., 2000).

Influence of Life History on Aquatic Food Web Dynamics

Species with longer generation times and life spans may be associated with either of two suites of life-history attributes. The equilibrium endpoint, associated with relatively low fecundity but high investment in individual offspring, presumably increases fitness (survival, growth, reproductive success, etc.) in environmental settings with frequent or chronic density-dependent population regulation via resource limitation, predation, or other biotic factors (Pianka, 1970), but the trade-off is a lower intrinsic rate of increase in density-independent settings (Lewontin, 1965). The equilibrium strategy, more common in tropical than temperate aquatic systems, is extremely rare among pelagic fishes, but predominant among marine birds and mammals. It is also observed among certain fishes and invertebrates inhabiting caves. The second slow life-cycle strategy, associated with high fecundity but low investment per offspring, is the periodic strategy (Winemiller and Rose, 1992). This...

Exploring activity options

The next part of the consultation involves a discussion with the individual on activities they could do to remain active. The individual's home and work environment should be reviewed in order to see where they could incorporate activity into their daily routine. It may be helpful to have information on physical activity opportunities in the local areas that are suitable for CR patients. For example, the times and locations of indoor shopping centres for indoor walking, or of phase IV community exercise programmes and the times of adult-only swim sessions. Previous discussions on likes and dislikes of activity, current activity status and barriers to physical activity should also be considered. The recommended amounts of physical activity and exercise required to improve and maintain health and fitness, and ways to achieve these recommendations, should also be discussed. As discussed in Chapter 4 the combination of stage one (accumulated activity) and stage two (structured exercise)...

Genetic Disease I History and Mechanisms

A genetic disease may be defined as any condition caused or influenced by a malfunctioning gene or cytogenetic (chromosome) error that affects an organism's capacity for adaptation. Excepting lethal defects and sterility, genetic diseases display certain familial modes of inheritance and exhibit morbidity and mortality patterns that may compromise direct fitness. Genetic diseases have been called inborn errors of metabolism, molecular defects, hereditary diseases, and familial diseases (Mai, Young Owl, & Kersting, 2004). Synonyms for

Effect Of Exercise Consultation To Increase And Maintain Physical Activity

Several randomised controlled trials have found the exercise consultation to be effective in promoting and maintaining physical activity in non-clinical and clinical populations (Loughlan and Mutrie, 1997 Lowther, et al., 2002 Hughes, et al., 2002, 2003, Kirk, et al, 2004a, 2004b). Lowther, et al. (2002) compared the effect of fitness assessment, exercise consultation and standard exercise information on physical activity levels in a group of sedentary healthy individuals. Lowther, et al. (2002) found that participants who had received an exercise consultation were significantly more active at 12 months. A recent study of sedentary people with type II diabetes found that the exercise consultation was more effective than standard exercise information in promoting and maintaining physical activity for 12 months (Kirk, et al., 2004b).

Wedensky Inhibitioneffect

Solidarity, competition, courtship, and relaxation) from the fundamental adaptive value of humor. Weisfeld's theory does not rest on the traditional assumptions of humor theory concerning tension-reduction release or pleasure-seeking his theory avoids group-selection reasoning and it addresses the fitness benefits of the humorist as well as the laugher. The theory accounts for the fact that laughter is a means of social influence, and it applies to chimpanzees as well as humans. Thus, Weisfeld's humor theory recognizes both the motivational and affective properties of humor, and not just its cognitive characteristics. Weisfeld's approach helps to explain why aggressive, sexual, and competitive content is particularly funny, why a playful mood is necessary for humor appreciation, why intelligent and socially-competent children and adults tend to make good humorists, and why the condition of incongruity is humorous. Weis-feld's adaptive theory of humor contains elements that are...

Autosomal Inheritance

Two phenotypes, new mutation is hidden in the heterozygote Aa, aa often has lowered fitness Two phenotypes (AA+Aa, AY) and (aa, aY), the latter pair often have lowered fitness, new mutation hidden in female Aa but exposed in male aY Two phenotypes (aa, aY) and (aA+AA, AY), the latter pair often have lowered fitness (or AA, AY are inviable if A is lethal), new mutation exposed in female aA and male AY

Adjusting Categories to the Regional Level

The IUCN criteria are designed to evaluate the risk of extinction at a global level. To adjust to the regional level requires further considerations as the regional status depends on the exchange taking place with populations in other regions. The threat category must be adjusted to a lower category if populations outside the region support the regional population. Mycelia do not migrate between regions, but their spores do, and if the species occur in an adjacent region, it is likely that there will be an influx of viable spores to the region. Such spore influx is likely to enhance the regional survival of small populations, especially for species occurring at the margin of their distribution area or close to an area where the species is more common. In the same way the category may be adjusted to a higher level if the regional population fitness is believed to depend on spore exchange with populations in adjacent regions, when these extra-marginal populations are known to be...

Evolutionary mechanisms the constraints of nature or of imagination

'Darwinian' explanations, in which I have included those that allude to the mechanisms of natural and sexual selection, or, more generally, those that have recourse to Darwinian terminology (for example, the terms of fitness, preadaptation, etc.), indeed even to a terminology commonly considered as such (for example the notion of adaptation). A separate group in this category consists of explanations that refer to the mechanism of 'correlated variation' or 'correlation of growth'.1

Physical Activity

Strategies for improving maintenance of physical activity One of the most challenging problems with physical activity in weight control programs is adherence to activity prescriptions. One way to increase activity adherence is to prescribe activity in short bouts (40 minutes day in four 10-minute bouts) rather than in long bouts (40 minutes day in one bout). Accumulating activity during the day may make it easier to achieve physical activity goals. Although short bouts of exercise improved initial adoption of exercise, they did not appear to increase physical activity adherence or weight loss at 12 and 18 months. Participants have also been provided with personal trainers, supervised walks, home exercise equipment, and financial incentives to improve physical activity adherence. Although personal trainers and financial incentives did increase attendance at exercise sessions, neither improved total exercise achieved or weight loss at 18 months. Providing participants with home exercise...

Genetic exchange research directions

The genomic and phylogenetic data are mainly limited to describing the pattern of evolutionary diversification, and not necessarily the evolutionary processes that underlie the web of life. In particular, though we now have many good estimates of the fitness of recombinants hybrids under a variety of experimental conditions, we still lack large amounts of similar information from natural settings (but see examples in Chapters 1 and 5). In particular, this leaves us in the uncomfortable position of recognizing numerous cases of, for example, lateral exchange in bacteria that may or may not reflect adaptive gains. The same can be concluded for instances of introgressive hybridization most

Regeneration in Echinoderms

Reconstitutive regeneration of arms is particularly frequent in crinoids and ophiuroids which have fragile arms often involved in self-induced or traumatic mutilations. Interestingly, in many cases, the detached body fragments can survive in good health for a long time and undergo phenomena of partial or total regeneration independently of the donor animal (Candia Carnevali et al. 1998). These phenomena, which are also quite common in asteroids, provide evidence of the wide exploitation and implications of regenerative potential in echinoderms. In particular in asteroids, besides the extensive application in common repair mechanisms, arm regeneration offers in fact the most complete example of cloning strategies. As well known, in a few starfish species, individual autotomized arms can regenerate to produce new complete adults. This extreme case clearly shows that in echinoderms regeneration is an indispensable complement of the programme of asexual reproduction which leads to the...

The Evolution of Disease

Predispose individuals to physiological degeneration in mid-life, for example, through type II diabetes, gall bladder disease, autoimmune diseases, and hypertension, are examples of antagonistic pleiotropy, that is having opposite effects on fitness at different ages (Gerber & Crews, 1999, p. 446).

Three Anthropological Perspectives to Interpret Disease

Donald Joralemon (1999) succinctly demonstrates how anthropological perspectives deepen our understanding of a disease such as cholera. He identifies three anthropological perspectives which he applies to an analysis of cholera (1) ecological evolutionary (2) political economic and (3) interpretive. Joralemon concludes by suggesting a fourth and more inclusive and synergistic point of view. The central concepts within these three identified frameworks provide valuable ways to identify anthropological contributions to the study of water-borne and water-washed diseases. The concept of natural selection is central to the ecological evolutionary perspective associated with natural selection are the concepts of adaptation and fitness. When applied to understanding a disease such as cholera, this perspective emphasizes the biological and evolutionary relationship between the human hosts and the cholera bacteria.

Hasan Aziz and Zarin Mogal

Epileptic seizures are accountable for a small proportion of road traffic accidents. Driving laws for persons with epilepsy vary in different countries, from a life-term ban to no regulations at all. In the United Arab Emirates and Sri Lanka there are no laws restricting a person with epilepsy from driving.53,54 In most countries, patients with good seizure control for at least one year and also with good drug compliance are allowed to drive a private vehicle, but professional driving is de-nied.55 The ban on driving is life long in Pakistan as in some other Asian countries. In these regions professional drivers especially flout laws, as it may cost their job. It is quite possible that a number of fatal road accidents are related to epileptic seizures while driving. In India, law pertaining to driving and epilepsy has been at absolute extremes during the last century. The Motor Vehicle Act of 1939 prohibits a person with even a single seizure from driving at any time,56 while the...

Polycomb And Trithorax Groups

Genetic and molecular interactions among other trx-G genes, which encode various chromatin-modifying factors, are common and important at the mechanistic level. TRX physically binds to another HMT called ASH1, and both TRX and ASH1 bind to the dCBP histone acetyltransferase. TRX also binds to a subunit of a SWI SNF-related complex, called SNR1, which includes OSA, BRAHMA (BRM), and MOIRA (MOR). Like Suv39 and HP1 or E(Z) and PC, TRX and or ASH1 may provide a covalently modified histone interface for the BRM complex (Figure 8-5). Mammalian counterparts of trx-G genes are important for many aspects of development, ranging from implantation to Hox gene expression, erythro-poiesis, and neural tube closure at midgestation to postnatal fitness and cancer prevention. With respect to Hox gene regulation, trx-G and Pc-G factors counteract each other just as they do in Drosophila.

Biomedical Anthropology and the Evolution of Diabetes Thrifty Genotypes and Phenotypes

Neel first proposed a thrifty genotype for glucose utilization among Native American populations as an evolutionary explanation for their high prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes (Neel, 1962, 1982 Neel, Weder, & Julius, 1998). He hypothesized that a feast and famine existence conferred a selective advantage and increased reproductive fitness for those individuals who had the ability to release insulin quickly, to thriftily store energy during times of food abundance, and to efficiently utilize energy depots during dietary deprivation (Neel, 1962, 1982). Recently, Campbell and Cajigal (2001) postulate specific selection for thriftiness of the physiological mechanisms enhancing energetic efficiency of skeletal muscle.

Hawaiian silversword complex

Data for the Hawaiian silversword alliance also allow inferences germane to the current discussion of hybrid fitness. First, a study by Robichaux (1984) found that Dubatia ciliolata and Dubatia scabra differed significantly in the water potentials of their tissues. The natural hybrid formed by these species demonstrates intermediacy for the same characteristics. This would suggest that the hybrid might have lower fitness relative to its parents in the respective parental habitats. However, the hybrid grows in the same habitat site as D. scabra (younger lava flow Robichaux 1984). This suggests that the natural hybrid genotypes are less fit and thus excluded from the D. ciliolata ecological setting, but do not suffer from lower fitness in the D. scabra habitat. A second series of studies also suggests that hybridization has contributed to adaptive diversification, and indeed the adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian silversword alliance. Specifically, Barrier et al. (2001) and Lawton-Rauh...

Direct Effects Of Invertebrates On Fungi Mycophagy


The morphology of fruit bodies can be altered as a result of the presence of invertebrates some Diptera cause galls, enclosing larvae, in long-lived fruit bodies (e.g. Peniophora cinerea, P. limitata and Ganoderma applanatum) and even occasionally in fleshy agarics (e.g. Panaeolina foenisecii and Panaeolus acuminatus (Hanski, 1989 Spooner, 2003)). Moreover, the reproductive fitness of the fungus can be affected by mycophagy in fruit bodies. Both field surveys and experimental studies indicated that ciid beetles significantly decreased the area of functional hymenium of Trametes versicolor Octotemnus glabriculus and Cis boleti caused reductions of 58 and 30 , respectively, in experiments (Guevara et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2000c). Production of inhibitory chemicals (Feofilova, 2001), physical structure and phenology (Chapter 5) of fruit bodies are likely to have evolved, at least partly in response to mycophagy.

The Five Themes of Human Childhood

Childhood is a reproductive and feeding adaptation. By the time the childhood growth stage begins at age three years the infant is weaned, meaning that all breast-feeding is finished. Weaning frees the mother from the demands of nursing and the inhibition of ovulation related to continuous nursing. This decreases the interbirth interval and increases reproductive fitness, as human women can reproduce successfully every three years or less, but ape females require four to seven years between successful pregnancies. A trade-off is that human children are still dependent on older individuals for feeding and protection because they do not have the permanent teeth, digestive systems, or motor skills to fend for themselves. The reproductive benefits are so great, however, that on balance childhood and child support social systems may have evolved as a means to provide dependent offspring with food and care while allowing the mother to reproduce new infants.

Three Mechanical Characteristics Of Muscle

Muscle Force Time Eccentric Concentric

Therapists, athletes, and coaches often refer to a functional characteristic called muscular strength.While muscular strength is commonly measured in weight training with one-repetition maxima (IRM is the maximum weight a person can lift only one time), most researchers define muscular strength in isometric conditions at a specific joint angle to eliminate the many mechanical factors affecting muscle force (e.g., Atha, 1981 Knuttgen & Kraemer, 1987). Many fitness test batteries include tests for components called muscular strength and muscular endurance. Early physical education research demonstrated that muscular strength has several domains of functional expression. Statistical analysis of fitness testing demonstrated that muscular strength is expressed as static (isometric), dynamic (slow to moderate movements), and explosive for fast movement (Jackson & Frankiewicz, 1975 Myers et al., I 993). This corresponds closely to the major changes in force capability in the...

Pre Darwin Darwin the Modern Synthesis and genetic exchange development of a paradigm

Linnaeus believed in a Special Creation model for the origin of species. Surprisingly, he also held that species could arise through hybridization (i.e. hybrid speciation) between previously created forms. In this regard, he wrote in his Disquisitio de Sexu Plantarum (1760 as cited by Grant 1981, p. 245), 'It is impossible to doubt that there are new species produced by hybrid generation.' Just over 100 years later, the German botanist Joseph Kolreuter studied the consequences of experimental hybridization in plants. Kolreuter (as referenced by Darwin 1859, pp. 246-247) found that hybrids from het-erospecific crosses were often sterile, a result that cast doubt on the possibility of hybrid species formation. As with Kolreuter, Darwin seemed most impressed by the fact that heterospecific crosses were difficult to form and that the offspring from such crosses (i.e. 'mongrels') were generally highly infertile. Such observations led Darwin to conclude that the...

Special Circumstances The Full Stomach

Upper airway obstruction is always a matter of concern to the anaesthetist. Patients often require anaesthesia in order to assess the cause of the obstruction and may require a period of endotracheal intubation or a formal tracheostomy. Inhalational induction is the preferred route in a patient with respiratory obstruction. This should be performed under controlled conditions by a senior anaesthetist in an operating theatre environment using full monitoring. Equipment for a difficult intubation must be available, and if necessary a surgeon should be standing by to perform an emergency tracheostomy. The conduct of the induction will depend on the age and fitness of the patient and the severity of the obstruction. Venous access should be secured before induction unless the patient is a child when crying can precipitate complete obstruction. Patients often prefer to sit up and should be induced in this position. Halothane in 100 oxygen is a suitable agent being potent and relatively non...

Robotic Technology in Laparoscopic Living Donor Nephrectomy

From its introduction in Boston in 1954 by Murray, living-donor nephrectomy performed in an open fashion has proven over the years to be a safe and effective procedure. In the following four decades, thousand of patients affected by end-stage renal failure have been successfully treated with living-donor kidney transplantation. The data generated have confirmed the safety of a healthy donor to donate one kidney in terms of physical performances and quality of life 6, 7 . Although safe and technically very successful, open ne-phrectomy is quite traumatic for the donor, and causes significant pain and discomfort. The consideration of the altruistic nature of kidney donation has motivated the transplant community to focus not only on avoiding potential surgical complications, but also on obtaining a rapid and complete restoration of donor health and physical fitness. Laparoscopic techniques were evaluated in the mid-1990s to achieve these goals.

Genetic exchange is pervasive

Studies of natural hybridization in plants and animals indicate that this process cannot be ignored as a type of evolutionary noise. Rather, examples of introgression and reticulate evolution continue to be reported for an increasing number of plant and animal taxa. These reports take on added significance because fitness estimates for some hybrid genotypes are equal to or greater than those of their parents. However, this leads to the following,

Common Orthopedic Implants Stabilizing Soft Tissue To Bone

The fitness craze of the last 15 years has led to a greater number of sports-related injuries. This has also resulted in greater need for reliable methods of stabilizing avulsed ligaments or tendons to bone. Graft implants are also more commonly used and must be stabilized while they heal to the host bone. These type of implants are most commonly used in the knee.

Binge Eating Disorder

Psychotherapy research involving binge eating disorder has been largely based on treatments for bulimia nervosa and, because substantial numbers of binge eating disorder patients are overweight or obese, on psychotherapy treatment research for obesity. Because obesity is a common comorbid condition, researchers have been concerned with how to relate treatments designed to reduce binge eating behavior with those designed to enhance weight loss. Based on available studies, most experts agree that initial therapeutic aims should focus on reducing binge eating episodes. Once binge eating has been controlled weight loss programs may be more effective. Nevertheless, when results are examined at 5 years after treatment the enduring impact of weight loss programs is not very impressive. For obese patients, non-diet approaches that stress self-acceptance, improving body image, and improving health and fitness through exercise and better nutrition, are being developed as alternatives to...

Mycorrhizal Commercialization Techniques and Their Formulations

Plant inoculation with AM fungi results in the formation of a mycorrhizosphere with selective consequences on other important soil micro-organisms. Therefore the use of AM fungi in plant production needs an appropriate inoculum technology compatible with that used for other beneficial soil micro-organisms. Development of second generation inocula, derived from mixing AM fungi with other inocula, is one such major activity. The use of such inocula will improve plant fitness, and soil aggregation and stability, so increasing yield by biological means. Some of the important issues related to AM biofertilizer commercialization

Snp Analysis In Coding And Noncoding Dna Regions

Of genes, such as in promoter sequences, may influence the susceptibility of individuals to particular disorders. The majority of SNPs are considered to have no known effect on the fitness of the organism however, those SNP loci that affect the fitness of the organism have been the focus of interest to the medical community. The field of medical genetics has recently started to develop a number of diagnostic tests based upon single base-pair mutations in the human genome. A number of genetic diseases are the result of such single base-pair mutations, such as cystic fibrosis and beta thalassaemia. 14,15 In parallel to the investment made in STRs by the forensic community, genetic diagnostics has focused on many such single point mutations. When the mutation becomes a common type, with the rarer allele at more than 1 of the frequency of the common allele, such loci are termed SNPs. 16

Sequelae of Altered Metabolism in Visceral

In obesity and type 2 diabetes, there is an increased content of lipids within and around muscle fibers. Researchers have suggested that the accumulation of triaclyglycerols within the skeletal muscle may play an important role in insulin resistance. In obese individuals with elevated amounts of visceral adipose tissue, there is a strong correlation between visceral adipose tissue and insulin resistance independent of subcutaneous (abdominal and nonabdominal) adipose tissue and cardiovascular fitness. It has been suggested that the discrepancies in the literature regarding the independent effect of visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue on insulin resistance are due to the large variations of abdominal obesity within the study populations.

Best Practice Guidelines For Cardiac Rehabilitation And Secondary Prevention

Dalgleish, J., Dollery, S. (2001) The Health and Fitness Handbook (ed. Frankam, H). Pearson Education Ltd Harlow England. Howley, E.T., Franks, B.D. (1997) Health Fitness Instructor's Handbook, Human Kinetics, Leeds. Tharrett, S.J., Peterson, J.A. (1997) ACSM's Health Fitness Facility Standards and Guidelines, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Variability in estimated METs

For box-stepping exercise performed in healthy young individuals, the variability (based on the 95 limits of agreement) in the estimated versus actual MET (VO2) values was found to be up to 1.3 METs ( (Buckley, et al., 2004). This work on box stepping is presently being replicated by Buckley with older individuals and cardiovascular patients as participants. It is anticipated that such variability would not be less than that found in the younger, healthier and more active individuals reported above. Another step test being suggested for rehabilitation settings is the Chester step test (CST) (Sykes, 1995). The CST is a sub-max, multi-stage test lasting for 10 minutes with a choice of four step heights. It has been shown to be valid in the estimation of aerobic capacity in a non-clinical sample with a range of fitness levels (Sykes and Roberts, 2004). This novel test would appear to be promising in the CR setting. The estimated MET values for step heights and stepping...

Evolution Of The Motor System

The motor system was born, not made, and many of the characteristics of the human motor system reflect its history. The CNS's chief function involves the acquisition of a behavioral repertoire, which can be stored both genetically and epigenetically, and the selection from that repertoire of the actions most likely to enhance an individual's fitness, in the inclusive sense of that term.

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