Flavouring Substances

Nature Identical and Artificial Flavouring Substances

Since ancient times the delicious taste and aroma of foods, herbs, spices and essential oils have been inspiring human beings in different cultures, geographical locations and ages 1 . Over thousands of years people have developed a wealth of recipes, techniques and technologies for food preparations, mainly driven by flavour, comprising aroma, taste, texture, viscosity, temperature as well as cooling, tingling and pungency 2 . Starting from distillation and extraction in the world of ancient...

Single Stage Extraction

Countercurrent Multistage Extraction

In the case that carrier and solvent are immiscible, the concentration of solute in extract and raffinate can be graphically depicted with the equilibrium curve in the loading diagram. Together with the volumes of feed and solvent, the mass balance for the solute leads to the amount of solute that can be recovered. Whenever the miscibility of the two phases varies and is dependent on concentration, a triangular diagram is employed Fig. 2.5 . Here the three corners of the equilateral triangle...

Countercurrent Distillation Rectification

Countercurrent Distillation

The equipment for continuous distillation can only separate one stage in the equilibrium diagram. Countercurrent distillation, also called rectification, has found widespread application with normal pressure and coarse vacuum distillation when complex mixtures or components with small relative volatility factor are to be separated. The fundamentals are discussed above 2.1.3.3.2 the technical side will be dealt with here 41-45 . Laboratory equipment for the two important types is depicted in...