Fundamentals of Liquid Liquid Equilibria

The thermodynamic equilibrium requires that the chemical potential of a component in two coexisting phases is equal ja'i0 + RT ln a'i + RT ln a''i with the activity coefficient defined as yi ai xi x'i y'i x' * y' This leads to the relation that the distribution coefficient (partition coefficient) is only influenced by the activity coefficients for both phases and depends only on pressure, temperature and concentration. The relationship of the Gibbsche excess enthalpy to the activity coefficient...

Natural Flavouring Substances Manufactured by Physical Processes

Physical processes (see chapter 2) for isolation of natural flavouring substances include distillation, solvent extraction (including supercritical carbon dioxide), and chromatography. Major sources are essential oils. These may be derived from various parts of aromatic plants such as fruits (e.g. citrus, fennel), fruit parts (e.g. mace), flowers (e.g. safflower), flower parts (e.g. saffron), flower buds (e.g. clove), bulbs (e.g. onion), barks (e.g. cinnamon), leaves (e.g. basil), leaves and...

Introduction

Citrus fruits play an important role in modern nutrition. Their pleasant, refreshing taste is always associated with their nutritional value and healthy image. Citrus products constitute an important source of vitamins and bioflavonoids, while offering a fresh, fruity taste. This accounts for the development of citrus products into a major industrial factor within the last century. The main growing areas are situated in North and South America, southern Europe and northern Africa 1 . Apart from...

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Dielectric Constant, DIN 53483 D Dipole Moment in Debye d_ Density at 20 C in g cm3 vpM Vapour Pressure mbar at 20 C bp Boiling Point C at 1013 mbar soL j Solubility in H O at 20 C in g 1 i.t. Ignition Temperature C t Dynamic Viscosity in cP d.c. Dielectric Constant, DIN 53483 D Dipole Moment in Debye d_ Density at 20 C in g cm3 vpM Vapour Pressure mbar at 20 C bp Boiling Point C at 1013 mbar soL j Solubility in H O at 20 C in g 1 i.t. Ignition Temperature C t Dynamic Viscosity in cP Expl....

Dln p HVRT2 dT 21332 Rectification

A column in which the ascending vapour is in contact with the refluxing liquid is used for this purpose. The reflux is generated by an overhead condenser. Due to the phase transfer in the column, a height equivalent of theoretical plate HETP can be defined where the two phases, liquid and vapour, are in thermodynamic equilibrium. The theoretical plate number is defined as It is dependent on the mass transfer across the interface of a two-phase system. The maximum transfer rate is obtained when...

Nature Identical and Artificial Flavouring Substances

Since ancient times the delicious taste and aroma of foods, herbs, spices and essential oils have been inspiring human beings in different cultures, geographical locations and ages 1 . Over thousands of years people have developed a wealth of recipes, techniques and technologies for food preparations, mainly driven by flavour, comprising aroma, taste, texture, viscosity, temperature as well as cooling, tingling and pungency 2 . Starting from distillation and extraction in the world of ancient...

Extraction of Liquids

Truly continuous is the extraction of liquids if the extractor is replaced by a column. The liquid is pumped continuously onto the head of the pressurised column and flows down by gravity. Supercritical fluid extraction is normally operated in the so-called droplet regime and not in the film regime. This means the liquid in contact with the supercritical gas breaks up into droplets. A large surface is created by coalescence and redispersion of the droplets by impingement. The type of column...

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Challenges and Opportunities

In the course of the last decade, this enormous challenge led to nearly revolutionary structural changes, especially in the technological sector. This was the only way to answer the trends towards natural systems, while simultaneously increasing cost effectiveness. This resulted also in the transferral of biotechnological basic knowledge into large areas of industrial production processes 16 . Additionally, gentle, modern technologies, such as reverse osmosis, ultra-filtration, column...

Juice Extraction

Fruit Pulp Can Cutter

The fruit is directed to suitable fruit extracting systems for juice recovery. In the case of citrus juices two of the best known juice extractors were mentioned above. While squeezing citrus fruit, undesirable peel oil can easily get into the juice. To avoid this, some extractor systems are eliminating and collecting the peel oil before the juice is extracted. This is achieved by rasping and pricking the peel. The resulting oil raspings are spray washed off the peel and conveyed to a press...

Cell Culture Reactors

Preparation Callus Pic

The production of flavour substances by cell or tissue cultures is still a dream for the future in most cases. Today the extraction of product from intact living plants is still less expensive than the production by isolated cells and tissues. On the other hand, it is very attractive to make use of the secondary metabolism of plant cells for the synthesis of natural flavours in a controlled way to avoid contaminating by-products and thus considerably simplify downstream processing. Further...

List of Companies Institutes and Authors

Riedstra e 64295 Darmstadt Germany www.doehler.com L tgenb rger H.-J. Miedema J.-P. Schildknecht E. Tretzel J. Germany Ziegler M. www.erich-ziegler.com FLAVEX Naturextrakte GmbH Gerard D. German Research Center for Food Chemistry Grosch W.* Lichtenbergstrasse 4 85748 Garching Germany Ingenieurb ro f r Verfahrenstechnik Simon M. 53810 Neunkirchen-Seelscheid Germany Institute of Biological Chemistry Rossmann A. Vottinger Strasse 40 Werner R. A. 85350 Freising-Weihenstephan Germany Institute of...

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Fig. 3.5 Oxidative degradation of ricinoleic acid by Candida lipolytica 40 Table 3.9 Examples of biotransformation by microorganisms 20, 29, 40-67 Table 3.9 Examples of biotransformation by microorganisms 20, 29, 40-67 Organoleptic properties of product 8 Benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol or phenyl-alanine Polyporus tuberaster, Pichia pastoris Ricinolic acid, oleic acid or 3-decen-4-ol-ide Candida lipolytica, Sporobolomyces odorus, baker's yeast Ricinolic acid, cor-rolic acid, Massoia lactone or...

Surface Fermentation

Submerged Fermentation Images

The oldest and a relatively simple method for production of complex flavour extracts is the fermentation of flavour raw materials by bacteria and moulds aspergillus, mucor on solid nutrient media. The media is placed in simple thermostatic boxes on baking-tray like plates to which the micro-organisms are inoculated. This technique which has originated in Japan for the production of Koiji seasonings is still used today for the production of soy sauce made from rough-ground cereals and soy beans...

Production of Flavourings from Natural Products

Phase Diagram Fructose Water

Finished mixtures for the food sector are often prepared with powdered flavourings. Especially if natural finished flavourings are called for, the use of freeze-dried products should be taken into consideration. The dry matter of a natural extract contains carbohydrates, proteins and other nitrogen compounds, fats and waxes, minerals, vitamins, acids and flavouring substances, which all have an impact on the drying behaviour. It is advisable to perform a concentration step before drying. The...

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering Interesting Parts

Genetic engineering comprises the modification of organisms in order to support traditional screening methods to alter metabolic pathways and products by manipulation of the DNA in the genes 18 . Figure 2.69 shows the cloning of a gene as example for a production process based on genetically engineered bacteria. The toolbox of a genetic engineer is depicted in Figure 2.70. Genetic engineering provides organisms which may produce products of normal metabolism in considerably enhanced yields or...

Downstream Processing

Downstream Processing

Depending on the remainder of the product synthesized by the micro-organisms inside the cell or secreted to the media downstream processing commences either with a disruption of the cell walls or directly with the separation of biomass and particulate matter from the fermentation broth by centrifugation, decantation or filtration. Further processing and purification of the product is achieved by salting-out, fluid extraction, distillation or concentration by evaporation of the fermentation...

Countercurrent Distillation Rectification

Countercurrent Distillation

The equipment for continuous distillation can only separate one stage in the equilibrium diagram. Countercurrent distillation, also called rectification, has found widespread application with normal pressure and coarse vacuum distillation when complex mixtures or components with small relative volatility factor are to be separated. The fundamentals are discussed above 2.1.3.3.2 the technical side will be dealt with here 41-45 . Laboratory equipment for the two important types is depicted in...

Equipment

One Stage Mixer Settler

When performing single-stage extraction on the laboratory scale, the chemist employs a separating funnel as mixing and precipitating vessel 23, 31 . On an industrial scale, the following requirements for extraction equipment are called for - high turbulence in the mixing zone - homogeneous droplet distribution - generation of high mass transfer coefficient - prevention of axial back-mixing - fast phase separation after solute transfer. In technical applications, mixing of the two phases is...

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Engineering Design For Perfume Industry

Basically, three main subdivisions can be distinguished 6 - essential oils and natural extracts - formulated flavours and fragrances. While essential oils and natural extracts, which are obtained from natural resources by various processes, mainly constitute complex mixtures, aroma chemicals are uniform compounds, which can be both of natural or synthetic origin. A number of representatives of frequently used aroma chemicals show an enormous discrepancy between synthetic and natural material....

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Spinning Cone Evaporator

On the technical scale, different types of reboilers have been developed 38 . Depending on the distillation requirements, various reboiler constructions can be used. The simplest ones are heat exchangers or double jackets evaporators constitute more elaborate technical constructions. The advantage of the latter systems is generally the short residence time and the handling of products with difficult physical properties, such as those with high viscosity or a tendency to crystallisation. These...

Centrifugal Extractors

Here centrifugal force is used for mixing and separating the two phases at high flow rates and small density differences are already sufficient. The centrifugal extractors are arranged in such a way that countercurrent flow is achieved. The low volume hold-up as well as the short residence time are big advantages of these units. As described in single-stage extraction, centrifugal mixers and separators are set in series in such a way that countercurrent flow of feed and solvent is established....

Selection of Companies Supplying Equipment Solid Liquid Extraction

Alfa Laval GmbH, Wilhelm-Bergner-Str. 1, D-21509 Glinde, Germany Crown Iron Works Co., PO Box 1364, Minneapolis, MN 55440-1364, USA De Dietrich Process Systems, SAS, PO Box 8, F-67110 Zinswiller, France E amp E Verfahrenstechnik GmbH, D sternstr. 55, D-48231 Warendorf, Germany Flottweg GmbH amp Co. KGaA, Industriestra e 6-8, D-84137 Vilsbiburg, Germany F.T. Industrial Pty. Ltd, 680 Pacific Highway, Killara, NSW-2071, Australia i-Fischer Engineering GmbH, Dachdeckerstr. 2, D-97297 Waldb...

Specific Artefacts

There are other cases where steam distillation is responsible for more specific problems of artefact formation which can be avoided if CO2-extraction is applied for essential oil separation. One example is the blue colour of distilled German camomile oil. This is caused by the transformation of matricin, which is the genuine plant ingredient, into chamazulene 4 . Both substances have anti-inflammatory properties but the matricin, which is preserved during CO2-extraction, is believed to have the...

Single Stage Extraction

Countercurrent Multistage Extraction

In the case that carrier and solvent are immiscible, the concentration of solute in extract and raffinate can be graphically depicted with the equilibrium curve in the loading diagram. Together with the volumes of feed and solvent, the mass balance for the solute leads to the amount of solute that can be recovered. Whenever the miscibility of the two phases varies and is dependent on concentration, a triangular diagram is employed Fig. 2.5 . Here the three corners of the equilateral triangle...