Contents

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Background 97

5.2.1 Fractal Aggregate Properties 97

5.2.2 Model Development 99

5.2.2.1 Conceptual Fractal Model of Aggregation 101

5.3 Experimental Setup 103

5.3.1 Image Analysis 103

5.3.2 Materials and General Procedures 105

5.3.2.1 Experiment Set 1 106

5.3.2.2 Experiment Set 2 106

5.3.2.3 Experiment Set 3 107

5.4 Results and Discussion 109

5.4.1 Observations and Analysis of Data 109

5.4.1.1 Coagulation-Flocculation 109

5.4.1.2 Particle Size and Shape 110

5.4.1.3 Density and Porosity 113

5.4.1.4 Collision Frequency Function 113

5.4.1.5 Settling Velocity 116

5.5 Conclusions and Recommendations 117

Nomenclature 118

References 119

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