Contents

7.1 Introduction 143

7.2 Characterization of the Major Aquatic Colloids 144

7.2.1 Inorganic Colloids 145

7.2.2 Allochthonous Macromolecules: Humic Substances 148

7.2.3 Autochthonous Macromolecules: Proteins, Lipids, and Polysaccharides 149

7.3 Principal Mechanisms of Colloidal Stabilization and Destabilization 150

7.3.1 Charge Modification 152

7.3.2 Bridging Flocculation 152

7.3.3 Depletion Flocculation 153

7.3.4 Steric Stabilization 154

7.4 Primary Colloidal Interactions in Freshwaters 154

7.4.1 Homocoagulation 154

7.4.2 Heterocoagulation: Role of HS 156

7.4.3 Heterocoagulation: Role of Rigid Polysaccharides and Peptidoglycans 157

7.4.4 Heterocoagulation: Contributions of Other Types of Organic Matter 159

7.5 Summary and Future Perspectives 162

Acknowledgments 164

References 164

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