Contents

20.1 Introduction 408

20.2 Unifying Principles of Flocculation 409

20.2.1 Common or Different Issues and Principles 409

20.2.1.1 Definition of a Floc 410

20.2.1.2 Coagulation Theory and Floc Kinetics 410

20.2.1.3 Modeling within the Smoluchowski Framework 410

20.2.1.4 Settling Dynamics 411

20.2.1.5 Hindered Settling 411

20.2.1.6 Suspended Solids Concentration 412

20.2.1.7 Emphasis on Gross Morphology 412

20.2.1.8 Microbial Activities 412

20.2.1.9 Floc Stability 412

20.2.1.10 Response to Stressors — Function and Structure 413

20.2.1.11 Chemical Gradients 413

20.2.2 Common or Different Parameters and the Methods Used to Investigate Them 413

20.2.2.1 Floc Size 414

20.2.2.2 Settling Velocity 414

20.2.2.3 Density and Porosity 414

20.2.2.4 Shape (Fractals) 415

20.2.2.5 Strength 415

20.2.2.6 Stickiness 415

20.2.2.7 Microbial Ecology 416

©2005 by CRC Press 407

20.2.2.8 Surface Properties 416

20.2.2.9 Large Number of Common Variables 417

20.2.3 Field and Laboratory Studies 417

20.2.4 Latitude for Linkage of Freshwater, Saltwater, and Engineering Principles, Methods, and Analysis 418

20.2.5 Emerging Issues and Challenges 419

20.3 Conclusion 420

Acknowledgments 421

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