Examination Of Eps Bound And Associated Molecules

Due to its chemical heterogeneity the EPS of biofilms is an important site for the sorption of carbon, metals, contaminants, and enzymes.12 A number of studies indicate that the EPS of biofilms functions to maintain long-term reserves of metabolizable carbon.63,64 Wolfaardt et al.65 demonstrated that autofluorescence could be used to localize the herbicide diclofop methyl in biofilm polymers and to follow its sorption and subsequent metabolism. Antibodies may be used to map the locations of specific enzymes, specific compounds such as pesticides, and a variety of other biologically relevant molecules. Specific enzyme activity associated with EPS may be localized using antibodies or fluorescent reporters of enzyme activity.66 Figure 6.10 shows the results of incubation of biofilm material with ELF 97 (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), illustrating the binding of the lectin Phaseolus vulgaris-TRITC and the combination of the exopolymer image with ELF positive locations in the biofilm. This shows the presence of both cellular and EPS localized phosphatase activity. Lawrence et al.67 localized the herbicide atrazine within river biofilms using antibody staining. As indicated in the publication of Wuertz et al.68 ion or metal sensitive probes such as

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