Stop Folliculitis Naturally
Mural folliculitis is a term that denotes a new syndrome recognised in cats. The common histological theme is lymphocytic and histiocytic infiltrate of the hair follicle in the outer sheath in the isthmus and infundibular regions. The infiltrate may extend to the epidermis, including neutrophils and eosinophils, and the follicles may be ablated by a pyogranuloma-tous inflammation leading to atrophy. Another form of mural folliculitis is associated with dermatophyte infection. Other cases of mural folliculitis are associated with a variety of underlying causes. In some cases the cats seem to have a poor prognosis and may succumb to a neoplastic process, suggesting that mural folliculitis is a cutaneous reaction pattern, in some instances, for neoplasia - akin to paraneoplastic alopecia, hepato-cutaneous syndrome and thymoma disease. There may be an association with diet in some cases in one report the lesions were histologically associated with an lymphocytic interface dermatitis and...
Elas, cellulitis, folliculitis and furunculosis are examples of such common infections. Recruitment, activation and functionality of polymorphonuclear cells in infected skin is dependent upon the correct production of chemokines and interleukins such as IL-8, the proper display of surface integrin molecules by polymorphonuclear cells, the upregulation of endothelial cell counter-integrin receptor molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), the presence in polymorphonuclear cells of normal phagocytic and enzymatic capabilities, and a preserved ability of polymorphonuclear cells to degranulate. Folliculitis is an infection of hair structures. Although most cases are due to gram-positive organism such as S. aureus, gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species can also be causative agents. Superficial folliculitis is characterized by pustule formation at the follicular opening. Deep folliculitis can manifest as a furuncle, or boil or as a...
SLE is considered to be a rare, multisystemic, autoimmune disorder that most frequently involves the musculoskeletal, haematopoietic, cutaneous and urinary systems. Cutaneous manifestations of feline SLE are exceptionally rare and may include generalised alopecia, scaling and crusting, involving the face, pinnae, neck, ventrum and limbs, and crusting of all digital pads. The histological features may include interface dermatitis, interface folliculitis, epidermal basal cell and follicular basal cell vacuolation with necrosis. The immunological basis for the latter changes is thought to involve keratinocyte apoptosis mediated by T-lymphocytes that infiltrate the epidermis evidence for this process is lacking in the cat. In addition, there is often immunohistochemical evidence of immune complex deposition at the basement membrane zone. Glucocorticoid therapy with 4 mg kg per day for 1 month initially was effective in establishing control of one case with a positive ANA titre, oral...
Miliary dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction pattern a response to a variety of stimuli that induce self trauma and overlicking. The principal differential diagnosis is flea-bite hypersensitivity other allergic causes include food allergy, atopy and possibly intestinal parasite hypersensitivity, although the latter is considered exceptionally rare. Infectious causes include dermatophytosis and bacterial folliculitis. Parasitic causes may include lice, Cheyletiella, Otodectes and trombiculid mites. Rare causes include EFA deficiency and hypereosinophilic syndrome.
STAPHYLOCOCCAL SOFT TISSUE ABSCESSES Staphylococcus species are ubiquitous throughout the skin and have a particular affinity for hair follicles, where infection is common. Inflammation of a hair follicle caused by bacterial invasion is known as folliculitis and is best treated noninvasively with warm soaks. A deeper invasion into the soft tissue surrounding a hair follicle can lead to a localized abscess formation called a furuncle (boil). These are most commonly found on the face, neck, back, axilla, and inner thigh. Unless severe, warm compresses usually are adequate to promote spontaneous drainage. In the thick skin on the back of the neck, several furuncles may coalesce to form a large area of infection containing many interconnected sinus tracts and abscesses. This is known as a carbuncle and often requires surgical wide excision for complete resolution. Carbuncles are seen much more commonly in diabetics and may demonstrate signs of systemic involvement.
In addition to the infections mentioned above, numerous other infections can occur on the face. In children, impetigo on the face is common, as is dermatophyte infections (tinea faciei and tinea barbae). Staphylococcal folliculitis is also seen on the face. The face and scalp are also a common site of involvement in secondary syphilis in which individuals develop moth-eaten alopecia, scaly or moist papules around the nose and at the angles of the mouth. Flat warts are frequently seen in males as a result of spreading the virus by shaving. Numerous molluscum contagiosum on the face of an adolescent or adult are suggestive of HIV. Patients with this disorder should be tested for HIV.
Generalized cutaneous conditions, such as xerosis (dry skin), seborrheic eczema, and pruritus, are common and may be manifested prior to development of opportunistic infections. Treatment is with emollients and, if necessary, mild topical steroids. Pruritus may respond to oatmeal baths and antihistamines. Other infections, including S. aureus (manifested as bullous impetigo, ecthyma, or folliculitis), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (which may present with chronic ulcerations and macerations), and syphilis are frequently seen and should be treated with standard therapies. Several specific dermatologic conditions are discussed in more detail below.
A proportion of individuals fail to respond to antibiotics - epidemiological studies estimated that this is between 10 180 and 17 181 of individuals. Theories that have been proposed include individual differences in the absorption, distribution and elimination of the antibiotic as well as poor compliance, the follicular microenvironment and P. acnes resistance.180 The underlying severity of the disease may also determine response to antibiotics, as severe acne and acne of the trunk has been shown to respond less well than moderate acne,182,183 possibly as a result of the higher sebum excretion rate184 diluting follicular drug concentrations.180 Clinically another important impact of alteration in cutaneous microflora is the possibility of the development of gram-negative folliculitis, which presents with profuse
Dermatophytosis has been called one of the great pretenders because there are so many potential kinds of presentation. The classic signs include alopecia and scale with central healing. One can also see just alopecia, (nasal facial) folliculitis and furunculosis, onychomycosis and granulomas. Paronychia may be the only sign in some cats. Occasionally one may see a pustular form that may appear like a bacterial pyoderma or even mimic pemphigus foliaceus or erythematosus (Plate 6.12).