Continuous Culture

In continuous culture the substrate is fed to the fermentor at a constant rate, and the culture is harvested at the same rate, so that the culture volume remains constant. Continuous culture is superior to batch culture in productivity, uniformity of operation, and ease of automation but is more susceptible to contamination (104). Very little published information is available on the production of citric acid by free cells of A. niger in continuous culture (59,88,153,154). Kristiansen and...

Immobilized Cell Bioreactors

Highly productive immobilized cell bioreactors have been developed for the production of butanol. In these reactors productivities as high as 6.5-15.8 g L1 h1 have been achieved as compared to < 0.50 g L1 h1 in batch reactors. Due to space limitations we can not describe further details of these reactors however, a brief overview will be presented in section 11 (Butanol Fermentation Limitations). The cost of recovery of butanol is high because its concentration in the fermentation broth is...

Factors Affecting Citric Acid Production 1541 Nutrients

The composition of the media used for the production of citric acid by A. niger depends on the strain of the microorganism used and the type of process. Generally, strains that can use one carbon source efficiently fail to show good acid production when cultured in a medium containing another (3). Aspergillus niger grows well in media containing carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, mannose, and starch), nitrogen (as ammonium or nitrate ions), phosphate, low amounts of potassium,...

Editorial Advisory Board

Barbosa-C novas Washington State University-Pullman P. Michael Davidson University of Tennessee-Knoxville Mark Dreher McNeil Nutritionals, New Brunswick, NJ Richard W. Hartel University of Wisconsin-Madison Lekh R. Juneja Taiyo Kagaku Company, Japan Marcus Karel Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ronald G. Labbe University of Massachusetts-Amherst Daryl B. Lund University of Wisconsin-Madison David B. Min The Ohio State University Leo M. L. Nollet Hogeschool Gent, Belgium Seppo...

Algae Based Industrial Products Of Food Processing

Seaweeds have been commercially exploited for hydrocolloids since 1658, when the gelling properties of agar, extracted with hot water from red seaweed, were first discovered in Japan. Various red and brown seaweeds are used to produce three hydrocolloids, namely agar, alginate, and carrageenan (Table 19.10). A hydrocolloid is a noncrystalline substance with very large molecules which dissolves in water to give a thickened (viscous) solution. Industrial uses of seaweed extracts expanded rapidly...

Scale Up Of Fermentation Processes

Scale up is crucial to the successful development of a fermentation process. Many large scale fermentation processes produced lower yield when compared to laboratory results (170,171). The traditional method for scaling up a fermentation system is based on empirical criteria such as constant power per unit volume, a constant mass transfer coefficient, constant mixing time, or constant impeller tip speed (172). The empirical criteria are subject to lacunae when there is a change in the...

Aeration and Agitation

Aspergillus niger is an aerobic microorganism and therefore requires oxygen. Aerating and agitating the fermentation broth normally satisfies the oxygen demand of a fermentation process. The effect of agitation and aeration on citric acid production in submerged fermentation is extremely important for the fermentation's successful progress. Agitation is important for adequate mixing, mass transfer, and heat transfer. It not only assists mass transfer between the different phases present in the...

Genetic Engineering Technology For Yeast

The discovery over two decades ago that yeast could be transformed as easily as bacteria, allowing stable modification of the genome, revolutionized the genetic analysis of Saccharomyces. It was then possible to isolate any gene of interest in the test tube and transfer the wild type or mutated allele to yeast. A second important discovery was the ease with which yeast genes could be disrupted, allowing mutations to be made at any known locus. As a consequence, any chromosomal allele could be...

Historical Perspectives

Algae have been long recognized as a heterogeneous group of organisms, ranging from pro-karyotic blue greens to distantly related eukaryotic lines. Their growth modes range from phototrophy through photoheterotrophy to heterotrophy. Each growth mode in turn can be either obligate or facultative (1). The genetic diversity of microalgae is evident still further in their ecological diversity and ubiquitous distribution. Different species can grow in water ranging from fresh water to hypersaline...

LGlutaminase

L-glutaminase (L-glutamine amidohydrolase - E.C. 3.5.1.2) is an important enzyme deam-idating L-glutamine, which plays a major role in the cellular nitrogen metabolism of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. L-glutaminase is useful in the food industry as it increases the glutamic acid content of the fermented food, thereby imparting a unique flavor. Because the sources for L-glutaminases are limited, the search for potential microbial strains that produce the enzyme in high titres with novel...

Microorganisms Used For The Production Of Citric Acid

The selection of a suitable fungus strain is critical to the production of citric acid, because he fungus plays a central role in the process. A strain used in an industrial scale operation should have long term stability, high sporulation, good growth in the substrates, a short fermentation time, resistance to other microorganisms, and produce a high concentration of the acid (70.0-100.0 g L) in different fermentation systems. Citric acid's production stability is difficult to maintain because...

Genetics Of Clostridium Beijerinckii

The hyper-amylolytic C. beijerinckii BA101 mutant was generated using N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), together with selective enrichment on the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (14). Amylolytic enzyme production by C. beijerinckii BA101 was 1.8- and 2.5-fold higher than that of the parent strain grown in starch and glucose, respectively. Dramatically elevated levels of butanol and acetone resulted in higher butanol and total solvent yields for hyper-amylolytic C....

Production Of Exopolysaccharides

SSF use in the production of exopolysaccharides such as xanthan and succinoglycan is growing. Xanthan is nontoxic and does not inhibit growth. It is nonsensitizing and does not cause skin or eye irritation. On this basis, xanthan has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive without any specific quantity limitations (131). Xanthan gum has been used in a wide variety of foods for a number of important reasons, including emulsion...

Mutagenesis For Overproduction Of Metabolites

Increased yields of microbially produced food additives can often be achieved by the selection of overproducing mutants. Such desirable mutants will frequently be produced spontaneously or by a mutagenic agent. There are three fundamental types of mutational events (1) nucleotide deletions, (2) base-pair substitutions, and (3) gene duplications. Mutants that result from large deletions have the greatest stability. Mutants exhibiting high levels of reversion to wild-type cells are usually...

Brief History Of Classical Biochemistry

The beginnings of biochemistry have their roots in chemists' attempts to define the molecular principles of the world in which we live. In 1803, Englishman John Dalton, a school teacher who studied chemistry in his spare time, postulated the modern atomic theory, in which he stated (1) that all matter must be composed of submicroscopic units named atoms, (2) that each element has its own kind of atom, and (3) that atoms of different elements come together in defined numbers to make the numerous...

Culture Media And Upstream Components

The ideal culture medium will use inexpensive components to supply their complex nutrient requirements. Miller and Churchill (13) provide an excellent summary of inexpensive media components and their makeup. These ingredients are crop, animal, marine or yeast based components. The culture medium alone can represent 30 to 70 of the fermentation production costs. Slight changes in medium micronutrients can have a major impact on the fermentation (14,15). Thus, the food industry demands a...

Tools For Genetic Manipulation Of Dairy Starter Cultures

The development of molecular tools for dairy cultures began thirty years ago in the 1970s, with the study of plasmids and gene transfer in Lactococcus lactis (126) and related pathogenic bacteria (127). Since then, tools have been developed for various purposes for all the bacteria of dairy interest, but are much more sophisticated for the LAB, especially L. lactis, Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus. Molecular tools are essential for many purposes, including understanding the roles of specific...

Comparison of Surface Fermentation and Submerged Fermentation

Surface fermentation is easy to control and to implement. It needs no aeration or agitation of the fermentation broth, so it needs no instrumentation for aeration and agitation. The separation of citric acid from the mycelium is easy because the microorganism is not dispersing into the medium (151). Only the temperature and humidity of the fermentation chamber need controlling. It can be used easily in small plants as well as in third world countries. With surface fermentation, the fermentation...

Improvement Of Oenological Traits Of Yeast Strains

The genetic engineering of wine yeast can be divided into two broad categories modifications that serve to enhance existing or intrinsic properties of wine strains and those that aim to introduce novel traits (Figure 12.8, Figure 12.9). The modification of existing traits may take the form of (1) the in vitro creation of a specific allele, (2) isolation of a specific Heterologous gene construction strategy for wine yeast Strength Induction Repression Timing Unmodified Modified localization...

Microorganism Selection And Development

Microorganisms are the biocatalysts that produce and maintain a host of enzymatic pathways that are used to produce the food component of interest. The characteristics of a good industrial microorganism for the production of food ingredients are (1) it must be effective in producing large quantities of a single product, (2) it can be efficiently isolated and purified, (3) it is easy to maintain and cultivate, (4) it is genetically stable, (5) it grows best in an inexpensive culture medium, and...

Future Developments And Perspectives

Classical procedures of strain breeding by mutation combined with selection and screening procedures have proven in the past to be powerful tools for providing efficient amino acid producing strains. With easy access to modern molecular techniques, strain improvement on the basis of detailed biochemical knowledge becomes more and more important. The obvious strategy applied previously was directed toward identifying and overcoming metabolic bottleneck reactions. This strategy, however, was...

Microbial Polysaccharides Incorporated As Food Additives

In the US, polysaccharides which are to be used as food additives are subject to Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) regulations and must be approved by the USDA. Currently only two microbial polysaccharide products have such approval - xanthan and gellan, although curdlan may also be under evaluation. Previously dextran was also an approved food additive, but it is not currently used in food manufacture. In Japan, a wider view is taken and microbial EPS are regarded as natural products. One thus...

Upstream Processing

The upstream processing in a fermentation process includes preparation of the fermentation medium, sterilization of air and fermentation medium and inoculation of the fermentor. Metabolic activity can only be maintained if the necessary nutrients are available to the cell. A medium is defined as the substance surrounding the cells, which enables the microorganisms to grow and form products. While the single components of a medium are defined as substrates, generally, only the carbon source is...

Process

The work horse of the industry is batch and fed-batch fermentation. Batch fermentations are closed fermentations (28). The fermentation sequence starts with medium sterilization, reactor inoculation 1 to 2 (v v) typically , incubation for complete microbial growth cycle with lag, log, and stationary phases, fermentation termination, draining the reactor for product recovery down stream, cleanup of the reactor, and starting over. Percentage yield is calculated by taking the concentration of the...

Novel Traits

There are several enzymatic activities that would be of benefit if expressed in wine yeast during the fermentation. These novel activities impact grape flavor and aroma or facilitate the processing or stability of the wine. A relatively recent suggestion is to generate yeast strains that will enhance the antioxidant character or potential of a wine. There are three goals of the creation of more flavorful yeast (1) the use of yeast to enhance the natural grape flavors and aromas, (2) the...

Summary And Future Prospects

Forms of algae have been used from time immemorial as an alternative source of food. Several civilizations have adopted this efficiently, and developed recipes, which helped human beings in meeting the nutritional needs for their wellbeing. Algae were often used as a famine food by virtue of its availability under drought conditions. Persistent consumption from generation to generation established the safety of such algal food materials. The need for ensuring nutritional security has lead to...

Preface

Major challenges facing the world today are not just those of food production and food quality for meeting protein and calorie needs (basic nutritional needs), but also those related to better health. A significant challenge is the outbreak of oxidation-linked disease epidemics caused by calorie sufficiency and excess calories. This nutritional epidemic is occurring not only in the developed world, but also in newly industrialized countries such as China, Brazil, Mexico, and India, which have...

The Algae Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria are conventionally called blue-green algae. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of obligate photoautotrophs ( 2,000 known species), as reflected by their widespread occurrence (except for those environments at lower pH), frequent abundance, and morphological diversity. These O2-producing photosynthesizing prokaryotes are ultra-structurally and biochemically similar to both eubacteria and the chloroplasts of microal-gae or higher plants (12,13), and thus possess both bacterial and...

Inhibitors and Stimulants

When certain inhibitors are added to the medium, more specific product may be produced or a metabolic intermediate that is normally metabolized is accumulated instead. In most cases the inhibitor is effective in increasing the concentration of the desired product and reducing the yield of undesired related products. Inhibitors have also been used to affect the structure of the cell wall and increase its permeability for release of metabolites (104). Stimulants are chemical substances that...

Legislative Acceptability Of Microbial Polysaccharides

Before new microbial polysaccharides can be permitted for use as food additives, they must be submitted to a process of approval. In addition to the technological justification for the inclusion of the polymer in foodstuffs, evidence has to be provided of the need to use the polysaccharide and of its safety in use. The producer must also demonstrate that the new additive will benefit the consumer. This covers various categories 1. The presentation of the foodstuff 2. The need to keep the food...

Info

Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure Appl. Chem. 63 141-146, 1991. Palozza, P., N.I. Krinsky. Antioxidant effects of carotenoids in vivo and in vitro an overview. Packer, L., ed., San Diego Academic Press, 1992. Jyonouchi, H., L. Zhang, M. Gross, Y. Tomita. Immunomodulating actions of carotenoids enhancement of in vivo and in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens. Nutr. Cancer 21 47-58, 1994. Tso, M.O., T.T. Lam. Method of retarding and...

Fermentation Process

Food Biotechnology Images

The fermentation process involves actual growth of the microorganism and formation of the product under agitation and aeration, to provide uniform environment and adequate oxygen to the cell for growth, survival, and product formation. A fermentation system is usually operated in one of the following modes batch, fed batch, or continuous fermentation. The choice of the fermentation mode is dependent on the relation of consumption of substrate to biomass and products. 3.5.2.1.1 Batch...

Safety Of Single Cell Oils

The arrival of SCO on the food scene is a relatively recent event - the first commercial SCO (Oil of Javanicus) not being produced commercially until 1985 (see Section 17.3.2.2.1) - well after regulations and regulatory bodies relating to food safety were in place. Therefore the safety of these food products had to be determined and proven to the regulatory authorities and the general public. The safety of Oil of Javanicus was relatively easy to confirm as both the producing organism (Mucor...

Exopolysaccharides As A Source Of Flavor Components

As many microbial exopolysaccharides contain appreciable amounts of 6-deoxysugars, it has been suggested that the polymers might be used as sources of these sugars (102). The 6-deoxyhexoses in turn, could then be used as intermediates in the synthesis of furaneol and its derivatives. These compounds can be used as flavoring agents for the food industry. Furaneol yields a powerful caramel-like flavor, but when modified by the addition of various short chain fatty acid esters gives a range of...

Plasmid Biology Of Dairy Starter Cultures

While bacterial plasmids were first observed in the early 1960s (16), they were not detected in the dairy LAB until the early 1970s in the laboratory of Larry McKay at the University of Minnesota (17). Dairy starter lactococci had long been known to loose the ability to grow in milk if they were grown for long periods in laboratory media. This instability in phenotypes prompted McKay's group to search for plasmids, which were known to be readily lost from bacteria if they do not contain...

Bioreactor Monitoring Systems And Design

Diagram Agitator And Dosing Tank

The stirred tank bioreactor design is the most common fermentor and consists of agitator, baffles, aeration sparger for aerobic culture growth, sterilizable monitoring probes for pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and antifoam, filling and draining ports, and often culture medium sterilization capabilities in the reactor tank. Reactor agitation is essential for temperature control, pH adjustments, oxygen absorption into the liquid medium, overall culture health, and mixing of any required...

References

Microorganisms as a potential source of oils and fats. Proc. Biochem. 9(9) 14-22, 1974. 2. Ratledge, C. Microbial production of oils and fats. In Food from Waste, Birch, G.G., K.J. Palmer, J.T. Worgan, eds., London Applied Science 1976, pp 98-113. 3. Lundin, H. Fat synthesis by microorganisms and its possible applications in industry. J. Inst. Brew. 56 17-28, 1950. 4. Woodbine, M. Microbial fat microorganisms as potential fat producers. Prog. Ind. Microbiol. 1...

Ara Acid Microalgae Mysore

Dubinsky, S. Aaronson. Algal nutrition. In Handbook of Microalgal Mass Culture, Richmond, A., ed., Boca Raton, FL CRC Press, 1986, pp 147-198. 2. Lee, R.E. Phycology, 2nd ed. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 1989, p 170. 3. Pohl, P. Marine Biology An Ecological Approach. New York Harper and Row, 1982, p 446. 4. O'colla, P.S. Mucilages. In Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae, Lewin, R.A., ed., New York Academic Press, 1962, pp 337-356. 5. Dangeard, P. Sru une...

Food Biotechnology References

Salzburn. Production of citric acid according to the submerged fermentation process. Process. Biochem. October November 9-11, 1981. 2. Smith, J.E., A. Nowakowska-Waszczuk, J.G. Anderdson. Organic acid production by mycelial fungi. Ind. Aspects Biochem. 297-317, 1974. 3. Kapoor, K.K., K. Chaudhary, P. Tauro. Citric acid. In Prescott and Dunn's Industrial Microbiology, Reed, G., ed UK MacMillan Publishers Ltd, 1983, pp 709-747. 4. Johnson, M.V. The citric acid...

Bioreactor Configurations 341 Submerged Fermentor Systems

Bioreactor Parts

The fermentor is the heart of any biochemical process in which microbial, mammalian, or plant cell systems are employed for the economic production of fermentation products. A properly designed fermentor should be used to provide an aseptic, controlled environment to facilitate optimal growth and product formation of a particular cell system. In view of the broad scope of the fermentor for cultivation of microbial, mammalian, or plant cells, it is more commonly referred to as a bioreactor this...

Regulation Of Pectinase Production In Aspergillus

Aspergilli that produce pectic enzymes are known to grow over a wide pH range. In A. kawachi, it was demonstrated that the pH of the culture broth influenced the type of polygalacturonase produced by the fungus 48 . Thus, a role for the pH regulatory protein PacC was identified in pectinase gene regulation. Generally, pH regulation is mediated by pac genes, pacC, padA, palB, palC, palF, paM, and pall. Mutations that mimic acidity, alkalinity, and neutrality gene expressions have been obtained....

Lipases

Lipases are essential for the bioconversion of lipids from one organism to another or within the organism itself. Microbial lipases glycerol ester hydrolases, EC 3.1.1.3 catalyse a wide range of reactions, specifically hydrolysis and interesterification. They also catalyse alcoholysis, acidolysis, esterification, and aminolysis 63 . They possess the unique feature of acting as an interface between the aqueous and nonaqueous phase, which distinguishes them from esterases. Lipases are...

Mushroom Production

Mushrooms have entered the new era of food technology as a common universally accepted nutritive food. Their commercial cultivation involving SSF has rapidly spread globally, due to their innumerable applications. They are a rich source of protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals 2,19 . Folic acid content in mushrooms has been found to be higher than in liver and spinach. In addition to their nutritive value, mushrooms also possess medicinal properties 1,2,19,20,127-129 . They demonstrate...

Agitation System Design

Typical agitation equipment consists of the prime mover usually an electric motor coupled to the shaft through a reduction gear. Impellers and baffles are fitted to the shaft and vessel, respectively, to give the desired liquid motion. The shaft may enter from the top, side or bottom, and is usually fitted with a mechanical seal at the vessel wall. The number and location of impeller units depends on the vessel. The general practice is to use one impeller for each diameter of depth. The type of...

Trehalose In Plants And Drosophila

With the exception of the resurrection plants, Selaginella lepidophylla and Myrothamnus flabellifolius, which utilize trehalose to survive extreme desiccation, the disaccharide was thought to be largely absent in plants 79 . At the same time, however, extending the protective effects of trehalose to plants had been a sought after goal of work in stress tolerance 80,81 . A number of exciting recent discoveries have dispelled the notion that trehalose is rare in plants. Equally striking is the...

Asepsis In Fermentation Process

Asepsis in biotechnology means freedom from unwanted microorganisms, just as in clinical medicine it means freedom from pathogenic microorganisms 179 . However, there do exist many fermentation industries e.g., ethanol, baker's yeast, and vinegar, where asepsis is not a matter of concern. Economic considerations suggest that a contamination probability of 1 in 100 is acceptable for batch fermentations, considering a contamination probability of 1 in 1000 taken into design calculations for a...

Other Important Molecular Techniques

2.6.4.1 The Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR Probably no other technique developed since the mid-1980s has revolutionized molecular genetics like the polymerase chain reaction PCR . Developed by Kary Mullis, PCR solved the major problem of analyzing genes that are rare targets in a genome that could contain hundreds of thousands of genes 18 . The core premise of PCR exploits certain features of DNA replication by DNA polymerase. First, because DNA polymerase requires a small section of DNA to...

Downstream Processing

The products of fermentation are usually found in complex mixtures of dilute solutions and must be concentrated and purified. The separation of the product of interest from the fermentation broth depends on the accumulation of the product, which may be intracellular or extracellular. The typical downstream operations and the unit operations involved in the processing of fermentation broth 148 are 1. Cell separation settling, centrifugation, dead end filtration, and cross flow filtration 2. Cell...

Aspects Of Microbial Evolution

One of the foremost examples of microbial evolution and its impact on society involves E. coli O157 H7. E. is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Molecular phylogeny studies indicate that it is closely related to other mammalian pathogens such as Vibrio, Shigella, Salmonella, and Haemophilus 27 . The enterobacteria are facultative anaerobes, allowing them to live anaereobically as commensulate organisms inside the mammalian intestine and aerobically in various terrestrial environments....

Inulinase

Microbial inulinases 2,1- -D-fructan fructanohydrolase EC 3.2.1.7 are usually inducible and exoacting enzymes, which catalyse the hydrolysis of inulin by splitting off terminal fructosyl units D-fructose by cleaving the glycosidic linkages in polymer moiety. They play an important role in the hydrolysis of inulin for its commercial exploitation. Inulin, a polyfructan, consists of linear -2,1 linked polyfructose chains, terminated by a glucose residue attached through a sucrose-type linkage. It...

Cardohydr Res 2001 331 183-194

Heteropolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 23 153-177, 1999. 2. Laws, A.P., Y. Gu, V.M. Marshall. Biosynthesis, characterization and design of bacterial exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. Biotechnol. Adv. 19 597-625, 2000. 3. Sutherland, I.W. Structure function relationships in microbial exopolysaccharides. Biotechnol. Adv. 12 393-448, 1995. 4. Cerning, J. Exocellular polysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS...

Production Of Pigments

Pigments are the normal constituents of the cells or tissues that give color. Pigments play a vital role in the food industry, to make food decorative and appealing. Natural pigments contain provitamin A, and have anticancer activity, and other desirable properties such as stability to heat, light, and pH. There are pigments which are chemo-synthetic counterparts of regular food components, that are referred as natural-identical. Microbial production of pigments has usually been carried out in...

Plafractor Bioreactor Capacity

SSF bioreactor with forced aeration no mixing C Figure 3.2 Solid state bioreactor systems 65 , and those incorporating continuous agitation of the solid medium such as a rotating drum bioreactor 66 , a perforated drum bioreactor 67 and a horizontal paddle mixer. The former are easy to operate in large numbers and commonly used for the screening of substrates or microorganisms for research purposes, while the latter offer the advantage of temperature control due to continuous agitation. 3.4.2.2...

Yeasts

Yeasts can be divided into two metabolic groups facultative anaerobes and obligate aerobes. The facultative anaerobes are capable of anaerobic growth and fermentative conversion of sugars to ethyl alcohol, CO2, and cell mass, in addition to the aerobic conversion of sugars to CO2 and H2O, and much higher yields of cell mass. Fermentative yeasts such as S. cerevisiae Figure 1.1 , when grown in the presence of 3 ppm of the DNA intercol-lating agent acriflavine, can have their mitochondrial DNA...

Tannase

Tannase, or tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20 , is an inducible enzyme, which catalyses the breakdown of hydrolysable tannins and gallic acid esters. It transforms tannic acid into glucose and gallic acid. Tannase is used in the industrial processing of fruit juices and coffee flavored soft drinks as a clarifying agent, and in the manufacture of instant tea it is also used in the production of wine and beer. Generally tannase is obtained form microbial sources. A wide number of bacterial,...

. Bajpai B. Patil S. Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Ec 3.1.1.20 Activity Of Aspergillus Penicilium Fusarium And Trichoderma.

Solid-substrate fermentations. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 28 201-237, 1982. Aidoo, K.E., R. Hendry, B.J.B. Wood. Mechanized fermentation systems for the production of experimental soy sauce koji. J. Food Technol. 19 389-398, 1984. Soccol, C.R. Biotechnology products from cassava root by solid-state fermentation. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 55 358-364, 1996. Banerjee, R., A. Pandey. Bioindustrial applications of sugarcane bagasse a technological perspective. Int. Sugar J....

Longobardi G. Batch Fermentation Bakers Yeast . Bioprocess Engineering

Preservation and fermentation past, present and future. Intl. J. Food Microbiol. 79 3-16, 2002. 2. Hulse, J.H. Biotechnologies past history, present state and future prospects. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15 3-18, 2004. 3. Linko, Y.Y., P. Javanainen, S. Linko. Biotechnology of bread baking. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 8 339-344, 1997. 4. Linko, M., A. Haikara, A. Ritala, M. Penttila. Recent advances in the malting and brewing industry. J. Biotechnol. 65 85-98,...

Production Of Aroma Compounds

One of the significant applications of SSF in food applications involves production of food aroma compounds. There are two main advantages of SSF as an alternative technology for the production of aroma compounds 1 release of the products from the microbial membranes is facilitated by the higher concentration in liquid phase, and 2 sometimes the solid substrates or byproducts can be used directly in SSF without any pretreatment of the starting substrates. SSF has been successfully employed for...

Food Microbiology

Principles of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Patrick P. McCue and Kalidas Shetty Fermentation Technology and Bioreactor Design A. Eugene Raj and N.Ganesh Karanth Process Developments in Solid-State Fermentation for Food Applications Ashok Pandey and Sumitra Ramachandran Metabolic Engineering of Bacteria for Food Ingredients Technologies Used for Microbial Production of Food Ingredients Anthony L. Pometto III and Ali Demirci Production of Carotenoids by Gene Combination in Production of...

Section 2 Plant And Animal Food Applications And Functional Foods

Chapter 2.01 Methods in Plant Tissue Culture Hector G. Nunez-Palenius, Daniel J. Cantliffe, Harry H. Klee, Neftali Ochoa-Alejo, Rafael Ramirez-Malagon, and Eugenio Perez-Molphe Chapter 2.02 Clonal Screening and Sprout Based Bioprocessing of Phenolic Phytochemicals for Functional Foods Kalidas Shetty, Fergus M. Clydesdale, and Dhiraj A. Vattem Chapter 2.03 Genomic Basics for Food Improvement Gabriela Olmedo, Socorro Parra, and Plinio Guzman Chapter 2.04 Molecular Design of Soybean Proteins for...