Cleanability Or Sanitation Of Microcarrier Bioreactor Design

3.1 Historical Perspective

3.2 Fermentation in Food Biotechnology

3.3 Types of Fermentation

3.3.1 Submerged Fermentation

3.3.2 Solid-State Fermentation

3.4 Bioreactor Configurations

3.4.1 Submerged Fermentor Systems

3.4.1. 1 Stirred Tank Bioreactor

3.4.1.2 Air Lift Bioreactor

3.4.1.3 Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

3.4.1.4 Microcarrier Bioreactor

3.4.1.5 Membrane Bioreactor

3.4.1.6 Photobioreactor

3.4.1.7 Innovative and Special Bioreactors

3.4.2 Solid-State Fermentor Systems

3.4.2.1 Laboratory Scale SSF bioreactor

3.4.2.2 Industrial Scale SSF Bioreactor

3.5 Stages in a Fermentation Process

3.5.1 Upstream Processing

3.5.1.1 Fermentation Medium

3.5.1.2 Optimization of Fermentation Medium

3.5.1.3 Components of Industrial Fermentation Medium

3.5.1.4 Sterilization

3.5.1.5 Inoculation

3.5.2 Fermentation Process 3.5.2.1 Modes of Operation

3.5.2.2 Agitation

3.5.2.3 Aeration

3.5.2.4 Process Monitoring and Control 3.5.3 Downstream Processing

3.6 Fermentation Systems in Practice

3.6.1 Microbial Cultivation

3.6.2 Mammalian Cell Cultivation

3.6.3 Plant Cell Cultivation

3.7 Scale Up of Fermentation Processes

3.8 Asepsis in Fermentation Process

3.9 Bioreactor Design

3.9.1 Design Criteria

3.9.1.1 Mechanical Aspects

3.9.1.2 Process Aspects

3.9.2 Standard Dimensions

3.9.3 Jackets and Coils

3.9.4 Safety Codes

3.9.5 Material of Construction

3.9.6 Baffles

3.9.7 Sparger

3.9.8 Nozzles and Manways

3.9.9 Piping and Valves

3.9.10 Steam Locks

3.9.11 Welds and Joints

3.9.12 Surface Treatment and Finish

3.9.13 Cleanability

3.9.14 Sterility Aspects

3.10 Agitation System Design

3.10.1 Impeller Design

3.10.2 Drive Location

3.10.3 Seals

3.10.4 Power Requirement

3.11 Natural Bioreactors Using Transgenic Technology

3.11.1 Animal Bioreactors

3.11.2 Plant Bioreactors

3.11.3 Insect Cell Bioreactors

3.12 Conclusions and Future Perspective References

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