Fermentation In Food Biotechnology

Fermentation is an important part of our lives. The relevance of fermentation to day to day life is evident from the fact that food can be both spoiled and made by fermentation. Many of the foods used for human consumption are fermented foods. Fermentation is one of the oldest techniques used for food preservation. Muscle cells use fermentation to provide energy for a quick response. The oldest food biotechnological processes include the baking of yeast leavened breads, brewing of beer, sake and wine, and production of yogurt and cheese. Biotechnology can improve the baking process with improvements in cereal grains and starter culture through recombinant DNA technology, use of enzymes as processing aids, and application of advanced batch and continuous fermentation technologies (3). Brewing is regarded as a typical example of traditional or old biotechnology, because of its long history (4). Preservation of food remains one of the major objectives of fermentation. In addition, there are other aspects such as wholesomeness, acceptability, and overall quality, which have to be maintained in food fermentations (5).

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