Growth rate

Doubles in 2-7 days

Doubles in 14 days

liquid elements flowing through the open pore structure of the initially empty foam matrices. Once physically entrapped, the cell aggregates grow or adhere to each other to fill the rest of the available space with foam. Some of plant cell culture processes producing valuable products in bioreactor are shown in Table 3.5 (167).

With minor alterations to the conventional stirred tank bioreactor, it is possible to obtain practicable bioreactor systems suitable for use with immobilized plant cell cultures, such as the circulating bed bioreactor and the sheet bioreactor (168). In the former, the bioreactor is initially operated as a packed bed with foam particles held stationary between two retractable stainless steel grids. Once the cell aggregates are fully immobilized, the grids are retracted and the bioreactor is operated as a circulating bed. To achieve efficient immobilization, it is necessary to hold the foam particles stationary in the bioreactor. A modification of the STR with foam matrices in the form of sheets held stationary as vertical baffles around the central impeller is referred to as a sheet bioreactor. Microbial, mammalian, and plant cell cultivation is compared in Table 3.6 (169).

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