Introduction

The goal of this chapter is to supplement the industrial microbiology components in the first edition of Food Biotechnology by Knorr (1) and to present an updated overview of various technologies currently under investigation and employed by the food industry for the production of microbial food ingredients. For the detailed description of industrial microbiology principals, Demain and Davies Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2nd edition (2) is highly recommended.

For the food industry, the bottom line is cost. They are selling commodity products (food) with various levels of preconsumer processing. The goal is always to produce the most nutritious and safe product at the lowest possible cost.

For centuries microorganisms have been employed for the production of fermented food products (i.e., cheese, soy sauce, sauerkraut, wine, and bread). The consumption of some live microbial cultures (probiotics) has proven to provide a health benefit to humans and animals (3,4). Some foods containing live cultures are yogurt, buttermilk, and aci-dophilus milk. These microbial fermented food products also have an extended shelf-life compared to the perishable starting raw material. Thus, microorganisms not only provide a nutritional benefit to humans but act to extend the shelf-life of the food supply.

Microorganisms employed by the food industry include bacteria, yeasts, and molds. These microorganisms have several morphological and physiological differences. Morphologically bacteria are small and difficult to remove, yeasts are larger and will sometime settle out of solution, whereas molds are filamentous and are typically removed by filtration. Physiologically they differ in pH preferences (yeasts and molds prefer a lower pH than bacteria), nutrient requirements (different concentrations and types of nitrogen and other trace elements), growth rates (bacteria grow much faster than yeasts and molds), and more. Thus, different culture media, fermentation methods, and product recovery methods are required depending on the microbial system being cultured.

Vegetarian Food and Cooking

Vegetarian Food and Cooking

Switch To A Vegetarian Diet And Live To Be A 100. Are You Suffering From Weak Bones And Digestive Disorders? Did You Ever Wonder About Why You Feel Restless, Listless Or Anxious Without Any Plausible Reason? The Answer Probably Lies In Your Dietary Habits.

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