Microbial Taxonomy

1.4.1 General

After Anton van Leeuwenhoek developed the microscope (circa 1700), Carle Linnaeus developed the binomial system of nomenclature in which each biological entity is allocated to a genus and species. The first letter of the genus designation is always capitalized, the species is entirely lower cased, and both are in italics, e.g., Pénicillium roquefortii, Schizosaccharomyces octosporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Xanthomonas campestris,

Conidia

Conidiophore

Conidiophore

Conidia

Swollen tips (which bear conidia)

Botrytis

Swollen tips (which bear conidia)

Oval arthrospores (aerial)

Rectangular arthrospores (submerged fragmented hyphae)

Oval arthrospores (aerial)

Rectangular arthrospores (submerged fragmented hyphae)

Botrytis

Geotrichum (Oospora)

Geotrichum (Oospora)

Conidiophore

Sickle shaped multicelled ^macroconidium

Sickle shaped multicelled ^macroconidium

Conidiophore

Microconidium ¡onidiophore

Fusarium

Microconidium ¡onidiophore

^Conidiophore

Cladosporium

Conidia

^Conidiophore

Fusarium

Cladosporium

"Conidia

Two celled conidium

^^Conidiophore

Trichothecium

"Conidia

Two celled conidium

^^Conidiophore

Trichothecium

Figure 1.5 Shape and configuration of conidiospores and associated structures of representative members of the class Fungi imperfecti.

Lactobacillus acidophilus. The concept of a bacterial genus usually encompasses a well-defined group that is clearly separated from other genera. Interestingly, there is no general agreement on the definition of a genus in bacterial taxonomy (5). The composition of numerous bacterial genera are presently considered to involve a significant level of subjectivity (5).

Species are frequently divided into subspecies, called varieties, serotypes, or biotypes, using the abbreviations "var." or "subsp.", e.g., Saccharomyces italicus var. melibiase, Escherichia coli subsp. communior. An organism is occasionally found in the literature under several names; e.g., Candida utilis, Torula utilis, Torulopsis utilis. Only one of the names is usually correct, the others being synonyms. In this case Candida utilis is correct (6). However, when two organisms can be confused in the text resulting from such contractions, e.g., the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) vs. the protozoan Entamoeba coli (E. coli), alternate contractions, solely for the purpose of clarity, are then used, e.g., Esch. coli vs. Ent. coli.

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