Nozzles and Manways

Nozzle design must take into consideration the following:

1. To ensure aseptic connections to external piping for sizes up to 4 in (10 cm), the best choices are sanitary clamps (3-A), Ingold nozzles, and vacuum seals (Ultraseal or VCO). Above 4 in, welded flanges with flat gaskets are used.

2. In order to facilitate free draining, the nozzle is mounted at an angle of about 5°-15° off the horizontal.

3. For proper and safe cleaning of the nozzles, protrusions inside the vessel should be as minimal as possible.

4. Addition of feed through nozzles to the fermentor to take care that the added liquids do not dribble down the interior surfaces.

5. The use of manways obviates the need for full opening heads on larger vessels. Standard manway diameters range from 12 in to 28 in, usually in 2 in increments. A 16 in manway is the minimum practical size, but 18 in is usually better. The maximum size is determined by the vessel diameter. The manway collar should be kept as short as possible to make it easy to clean.

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