Enzymes have become an integral part of human need in day-to-day life, playing a varied role in several industries, particularly the modern food industry. Production of a variety of food products, ranging from baked foods, syrups, and fruit juices to flavoring agents and dairy products, commonly involves the use of several food enzymes. Almost all the micro-bial enzymes can be produced using SSF systems. Industrially important food enzymes, which include alpha amylase, glucoamylase, lipase, protease, pectinase, inulinase, glutaminase, and tannase, have been widely studied (4,5,19,24-33).
Enzyme production in SSF has often resulted in higher yields in comparison to SmF. Studies conducted to examine the reasons why SSF produced higher enzyme yields than SmF have been unable to explain it fully, although some of the characteristics of SSF provide conditions for the microbes more like the habitat from which they were isolated, and this may be the major reason for higher enzyme production. Most of the SSF processes for the production of food enzymes involve agro-industrial residues as the substrate, although inert materials such as polyurethane foam are also used. These have been mentioned earlier and are also indicated in Table 4.1 (15-18,28,34-37).
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