Vitamins

SSF has been used for the formation of water soluble vitamins such as vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, riboflavin, thiamine, nicotinic acid, and nicotinamide. Rhizopus oligosporus, R. arrhizus, and R. stolonifer formed riboflavin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and vitamin B-6 (153). The final concentrations of these substances depended on the different strains involved and on the fermentation time. Isolates of R. oligosporus were generally the best vitamin producers. The molds did not produce physiologically active vitamin B-12.

Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the best capabilities for physiologically active vitamin B-12 production (152,153).

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