Natural Remedies for Food Cravings

Sugar Belly Secret

Joe Bovino is not only the creator of this book of strategies but also the author of other four amazon number one bestsellers. Having done extensive research and consulted professionals, he has formulated a strategy on how to get rid of that extra fat and lose weight. That is after almost a decade and a half year. He has also experienced other products prior to researching the natural ways of having a good strategy for weight loss. He can, therefore, be trusted. It entails a fun and simple strategy of having weight loss that melts away the extra pound without exercise or dieting. At times, it is quite hard to stay motivated to work out on a daily basis, especially when you are busy with work and getting older, it is hard to find the time and maintain your workouts! With this book of strategies, you learn how to continue with your usual work and enjoy life with your friends and family while at the same time lose that extra weight and belly, without any shed of sweat. It will help you; Rejuvenating and refreshing your skin, Supercharge your energy levels and become activated most of the time, You will still continue eating your preferred food and drinks without restrictions., Melt away extra pounds and keep them off for a long time. Read more...

Sugar Belly Secret Summary

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Highly Recommended

The author presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this ebook are precise.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Biosynthesis of Starch and Sucrose

During active photosynthesis in bright light, a plant leaf produces more carbohydrate (as triose phosphates) than it needs for generating energy or synthesizing precursors. The excess is converted to sucrose and transported to other parts of the plant, to be used as fuel or stored. In most plants, starch is the main storage form, but in a few plants, such as sugar beet and sugarcane, sucrose is the primary storage form. The synthesis of sucrose and starch occurs in different cellular compartments (cytosol and plastids, respectively), and these processes are coordinated by a variety of regulatory mechanisms that respond to changes in light level and photosynthetic rate.

Fructose fruit sugar

The UV method contained in Austrian, German, Italian, Swiss laws and European regulation, standardised by Deutsche Norm DIN, European standard EN, Nederlandse Norm NEN, Russian Standard GOST, approved by AOAC, recommended by ALVA, MEBAK, IFU, A.I.J.N. and OIV (see also D-glucose and sucrose) Free D-fructose is mostly found in plants, where it is a very important sugar component, e.g., of fruit. D-Fructose is an important ingredient of honey it is a sugar substitute in food for diabetics. D-Fructose is sweeter than sucrose and causes less formation of dental plaque than does sucrose. D-Fructose is a component of di-, tri- and oligo-saccharides (sucrose, lactulose raffinose oligo- 3-fructosanes) and is also a component of the poly-saccharide inulin. In food analysis not only the sum of D-glucose and D-fructose ('reducing sugars') is of interest but often the ratio D-glucose to D-fructose (e.g., for the detection of adulterations by the prohibited addition of 'sugar').

Synthesis of Sucrose Esters see Note

Preparation of Sucrose Acetals (9 and 10a) Two sucrose ketals, 4,6-0-isopropylidenesucrose (9) and 2,1' 4,6-di-0-isopropylidenesucrose (10a) (Fig. 3), were prepared according to published procedures (13-16) with the minor modifications described below. A solution of sucrose (8.55 g, 25 mmol) in dry N,A-dimethylformamide (100 mL) containing molecular sieve pellets (Type 3A) was stirred with 2-methoxypropene (3.2 mL, 32.5 mmol, 9 and 12 mL, 125 mmol, 10a) in the presence of p-TSA. The reaction was allowed to proceed for 40 min at 70 C. The reaction mixture was then cooled, neutralized with sodium carbonate, and filtered and the solvent removed by rotary evaporation. The desired sucrose acetal was purified by column chromatography. The following yields were obtained 3.2 g, 32 (9) 3.8 g, 36 (10a). A crude mixture of isopropylidene sucrose was prepared as described for 10a. This typically contained some unreacted sucrose, 60-70 of 10a, 30-35 of 9, and a small quantity of a sucrose...

Total Reducing Sugar

In order to obtain the standard curve, prepare five tubes containing 3 mL diluted standard solution (standard reducing solution prepared as described in Subheading 2.2., item 11, plus water), with different concentrations of reducing sugar. 6. The difference in absorbance between the tubes containing sugar and the blank gives the amount of reducing sugar, when read on the standard curve obtained (plot of reducing sugar mg mL vs absorbance units).

The Contribution of Sucrose to Energy Intake

The contribution of macronutrients and individual sugars to total energy intakes in industrialized nations is shown in Table 2. Sucrose is at the top of the league table for sugars, contributions coming from both the naturally occurring sources of sweetness such as fruit and vegetables and also from refined sucrose. Sucrose, like all carbohydrates, is burned (oxidized) in the body to yield energy, specifically 16kJg_1. This is only half the energy yield of a gram of fat (37kJg_1) and much less than that Table 2 The contribution of different types of carbohydrate and sucrose to energy intake in industrialized nations

Changes in Sucrose Consumption

It is a much more straightforward business to enquire about sugar (refined sucrose) consumption than honey consumption in preindustrial times. All sugar supplies, in Europe, came from imports, so customs records constitute a readily accessible record of national consumption. In the 1520s, the Dissolution of the Monasteries reduced demand for bees-wax for church candles and brought about a small decrease in the production of honey. Almost simultaneous with this came an increase in the supply of refined sucrose, imported from the new European colonies. Sugar was still considerably more expensive than honey, but this combination of events gained it a more complete following among the wealthy. Cookery books were used exclusively by the well-to-do at this time and clearly illustrate that, for this section of society, sugar had, by the 1550s, usurped honey's place in the diet. It was not until the early 1700s, however, when the supply of sugar boomed, its price fell, and coffee, tea, and...

Digestion and Absorption of Sucrose Digestion

In the mouth, food is mixed with saliva and masticated. The physical matrix that encases the sucrose, e.g., the plant cell wall, is partially disrupted in the process. Mixing occurs very effectively in the stomach and sucrose is dispersed throughout the gastric contents. Peristaltic movements drive the semifluid material, called chyme, through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum. The rate of stomach emptying varies as a function of the volume and acidity of the stomach contents as well as the osmolality of the chyme in the small intestine. Solutions that are acidic and hyperosmotic are emptied more slowly. Thus an acidic, high-sucrose food such as sweetened yogurt will be emptied relatively slowly. Once in the small intestine, sucrose is too large to cross the epithelial cell membrane and must therefore be hydrolyzed for absorption to take place. The enzyme responsible for sucrose digestion is an a-glucosidase called sucrase, located in the microvillous brush border lining the...

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

Refined sucrose is added to foods for more than just its sweetness. The difficulties inherent in producing low-joule products using intense sweeteners attest to this. For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding...

Sucrose

Dietary Sucrose and Disease B Caballero 212 SUGAR see CARBOHYDRATES Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance GALACTOSE. GLUCOSE Chemistry and Dietary Sources Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level Glucose Tolerance. SUCROSE Nutritional Role, Absorption and Metabolism Dietary Sucrose and Disease SUPPLEMENTATION

What Is Sucrose

Sucrose is a pleasant tasting substance that contributes most of the sweetness in our diet. It has played a role in human diets ever since primates began evolving on a diet of fruit and berries in the tropical forests of Africa 50 million years ago. Sucrose is chemically classified as a carbohydrate and a simple sugar, specifically a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose (Figure 1). Its proper scientific name is The natural sweetness of fruit and honey comes from mixtures of sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The mild sweetness of milk comes from another disaccharide, lactose, composed of glucose and galactose. Because sweetness comes from a mixture of sugars (not just sucrose) in many sources, we use different terms to define the original source, e.g., naturally occurring sugars, refined sugars, added sugars, concentrated sugars, intrinsic sugars, and extrinsic sugars. Refined sucrose is also known as table sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar. Unfortunately, the term 'sugar' means...

Honey versus Sucrose

It is therefore possible that intakes of honey at various times during history may well have rivalled our current consumption of refined sugar. There are implications therefore for the role of sugar in modern diets. Refined sugar may not have displaced more nutrient-rich items from our present-day diets but only the nutritionally comparable food, honey.

Snacking and Soft Drink Consumption

In restaurants and cafes combined with an increase in snacking. Snacks, including soft drinks, now contribute a significant proportion of the daily energy intake of adolescents. Concerns about the possible impact of snacks on measures of overweight and nutrient composition have not been borne out by the evidence, although it is acknowledged that data collection in this area is complicated by the myriad of definitions for 'snack.' A number of observational studies have found that frequent snackers have similar nutrient intakes to those who snack infrequently. With respect to body size, snacking tends to relate to a lower body mass index rather than one that is high. Intervention studies also provide valuable evidence on the effects of snacking. A study in adults, which attempted to increase consumption of snacks to around 25 of daily energy using a variety of low- and high-fat products, found that the subjects compensated for the additional energy by reducing the amount eaten at meals....

Principles Of Animal Nutrition And Feeding

Nutrients required for livestock, just like for humans, can be categorized into six functional or chemical classes carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water. All carbohydrates or saccharides are related structurally and chemically and contain the same amount of gross energy. Carbohydrates are comprised primarily of hexose (C6H1206) and pentose (C5H10O5) molecules. Tetrose and triose molecules are present in small quantities but are generally not important in animal nutrition. Carbohydrates are usually categorized as monosaccharides, disac-charides, and polysaccharides based on how many hexose and pentose molecules are linked together. Common monosaccharides, also called simple sugars, consist of glucose, fructose, and galactose. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides linked together with hydroxyl groups of each sugar unit. The common monosaccharides include sucrose (table sugar), maltose, and lactose. Polysaccharides have the empirical formula (C6H10O5)n and...

The Flow of Electrons Provides Energy for Organisms

Nearly all living organisms derive their energy, directly or indirectly, from the radiant energy of sunlight, which arises from thermonuclear fusion reactions carried out in the sun. Photosynthetic cells absorb light energy and use it to drive electrons from water to carbon dioxide, forming energy-rich products such as glucose (C6H12O6), starch, and sucrose and releasing O2 into the atmosphere

The Bottom Line Optimizing Health

Nutrition experts agree that when you lower the total fat, saturated fat, and added sugar in your diet and increase the vitamins, minerals, and fiber by eating more fruits, vegetables, and grains, you can improve your quality of life and help prevent many of the diseases that are the leading causes of death. Now that you know the goals and guidelines for healthful eating, we will provide you with the nutrition and food selection knowledge you need to put those guidelines into practice.

Hidden Sugar in Common Foods

Try to eat high-sugar foods less frequently or in smaller amounts. Check labels and compare similar foods choose those that are lower in sugar content. Go easy on adding sugar to food. The increase in sugar consumption also has been attributed to the increasing availability of low-fat versions of such dessert and snack foods as cookies, cakes, and frozen desserts. Often, the sugar content of these foods is high because sugar is used to replace the flavor lost when the fat is decreased. Sugar promotes tooth decay, when consumed in forms that allow it to remain in contact with the teeth for extended periods (see sidebar Hidden Sugar in Common Foods, this page). Starch is the form of carbohydrate that is found in grains, some fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds. It provides energy for newly sprouting plants. Fiber is the tougher material that forms the coat of a seed and other structural components of the plant (see illustration on page 20). Starches are digested by our...

Cultivation and Media for Metabolite Profiling

In general, agar media for optimal secondary metabolite and mycotoxin production have been based on media containing yeast extract. Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth was introduced as a semisynthetic broth medium for aflatoxin production by Davis et al. (1966). It was later shown to be a very effective general secondary metabolite production medium when used with a crude yeast extract (DIFCO or SIGMA) and formulated as an agar medium (YES agar) by Frisvad (1981) Frisvad and Filtenborg (1983), and has been used for Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Alternaria, and many other fungal genera (Andersen et al. 2002 Thrane 2001). Other media including Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, Potato dextrose (PD) agar can be used to supplement YES agar, depending on the genus being considered, as seen in Table 1. Some of these semisynthetic agar media can occasionally give problems as certain brands of yeast extract, malt extract, potato extract, agar, peptone, or tryptone, etc. may differ...

Direct Coupling of Oligosaccharides to Proteins

The easiest method is to attach naturally available oligosaccharides to the amino groups of proteins. This process does not require any chemical manipulations other than the conjugation process by reductive amination. Some of the readily available di- and oligosaccharides are lactose, maltose, cellobiose, meli-biose, N-acetyl-lactosamine, di-N-acetyl-chitobiose, and a number of milk oligosaccharides. An example of coupling of lactose by reductive amination to protein using sodium cyanoborohydride or pyridine borane as reducing agent, which preferentially reduces aldimine (Schiffs base) over aldehyde, is shown in Figure 1. This method relies on the fact that reducing sugars in acyclic aldehydo form, although present in a very minor proportion, are in equilibrium with the cyclic forms. As the aldehydo form of oligosaccharide is consumed, more will become available by conversion from the cyclic forms. However, the conjugation by this simple method is a very slow process, requiring...

Using Synthetic Carbohydrate Derivatives

Synthesis of oligosaccharides having complex structure is still a tedious and difficult task. Therefore, it is prudent sometimes to utilize naturally isolable oligosaccharides, if the quantity of neoglycoprotein needed is not too large. Natural oligosaccharides, pre-existing or obtained from natural glycoconjugates by enzymatic cleavage, can be made more reactive by first reducing them with sodium borohydride (to convert the reducing sugar residue into acyclic alditol) followed by mild periodate oxidation (e.g., 10 mM NaIO4 for 10 min at room temperature), which will preferentially oxidize acyclic glycols to generate aldehydo group(s) without affecting the rest of the cyclic sugar residues. The newly generated aldehyde can be used in the reductive amination reaction as described above.

Implication for taste coding

For decades taste quality coding has been a fiercely debated field (Smith et al. 2000, Herness 2000). In principle, two competing models exist (Hellekant et al. 1998, Smith and St John 1999). The labelled line model favours a separate coding of the five basic taste qualities (Hellekant et al. 1998). Therefore, this model suggests the existence of specialised taste receptor cells for each taste quality, which are innervated by dedicated fibres (Hellekant et al. 1998). Thus, for example, a sweet stimulus such as sucrose will activate sweet taste receptor cells. Subsequently, solely sweet taste receptor cell innervating fibres will convey the signal to the brain. Consequently, in this model, the information of the taste quality is encoded at the level of the taste receptor cells.

Functional analysis of the sweet receptor TAS1R2 and TAS1R3

Sweet taste is elicited by compounds of various chemical classes (Chon 1914). Natural sweeteners include sugars such as glucose and sucrose, sweet amino acids such as D-tryptophane, glycine, sweet proteins such as monellin, thauma-tin, but also some other chemically quite diverse compounds including stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalone (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). Most relevant sugars and sweet amino acid are low potency sweeteners (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). This likely serves as a quantity check because only high concentrations of these compounds can indicate food sources of nutritional value (Lindemann 1996). In addition, various high potency artificial sweeteners of various chemical structures such as saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and alitame are known (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). Interestingly, the perception of sweet compounds varies across species. Rodents, for example, do not perceive the sweetness of the sweet proteins monellin, thaumatin, and the artificial...

Comparison of human taste sensations and functional expression of the taste receptors in vitro

Interestingly, for the sweet taste receptor similar observations were made. The human threshold values for the sweeteners sucrose, D-tryptophane, aspartame and saccharin are correlated with the concentrations necessary to activate the human TAS1R2 TAS1R3 receptor (Li et al. 2002). Therefore, the dose response curves obtained from the functional expression of sweet and bitter receptors might reflect the sweet and bitter intensities perceived by humans. These results appear very promising. However, due to the small set of tested compounds a fortuitous coincidence cannot be fully excluded. Further experiments with more tastants on more receptors will show if this holds true.

Recommended readings

The overall strategy for assessing food additives has received strong endorsements from the scientific community, and only the details have been modified to keep pace with scientific advancements. Figure 4.1 gives a schematic representation of the safety decision tree protocol proposed by the U.S. Food Safety Council. The first step involves the careful selection and characterization of the substance to be tested. Preliminary evaluations of the substance are made by assessing physical and chemical properties of the test substance. A literature search is done to collect any available information regarding the toxicity testing of the substance. Exposure assessment involves gathering information on probable human exposure, i.e., estimated intake levels for the population as a whole or any subpopulation that might be vulnerable to significant levels of the substance. An example of a subpopulation is diabetic patients when the test substance is a new sugar substitute.

Proteins RAPs and Natural Compounds in Corn That Inhibit Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin Contamination

In another investigation, an examination of kernel protein profiles of 13 corn genotypes revealed that a 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor protein (TI) is present at relatively high concentrations in seven resistant corn lines, but at low concentrations or is absent in six susceptible lines (Chen et al. 1998). The mode of action of TI against fungal growth may be partially due to its inhibition of fungal-amylase, limiting A. flavus access to simple sugars (Chen et al. 1999b) required not only for fungal growth, but also for toxin production (Woloshuk et al. 1997). The TI also demonstrated antifungal activity against other mycotoxigenic species (Chen et al. 1999a). The identification of these proteins may provide markers for plant breeders, and may facilitate the cloning and introduction of

Reception of taste compounds and neural processing 231 Taste cells taste receptors

Identification of bitter and sweet tastes was made recently (see Montmayeur and Matsunami (2002) for a review). Studies started with the assumption that genes coding receptors for bitter-tasting compounds should be found in chromosome loci involved in the ability to detect some bitter compounds. Genetic studies had localised such loci for the ability to detect propyl-thiouracil (PROP) (Guo and Reed 2001) in man and sucrose octaacetate in mice (Capeless et al. 1992). A multigene family coding for candidate bitter taste receptors called T2R was identified (Adler et al. 2000, Matsunami et al. 2000). T2Rs belong to the GPCR superfamily. Twenty-six T2R genes have been identified in humans and 33 in mice. Several of them present polymorphism. T2Rs show a variety of sequences that is compatible with their ability to detect several types of bitter compounds.

Peripheral representation of tastes

Neural representation of taste is a complex issue. It has been and remains a subject of controversy between proponents of different versions of two rival assumptions the 'labelled line' theory and the 'across-fibre pattern' theory. These opposite views are closely related to those that oppose partisans of four (or five) discrete basic tastes to authors that conceive taste qualities as a continuum. The reason is that data brought by electrophysiological recordings from taste cells, gustatory nerve single fibres and taste relay neurons presented ambiguous features and differences according to species. The earliest electrophysiological experiments on taste fibres by Pfaffmann (1941) and subsequent studies demonstrated that peripheral axons often responded to stimuli representing more than one of the familiar qualities of salty, sweet, sour and bitter. Therefore, single fibre activity could not unambiguously represent a single quality. Pfaffmann proposed that a taste quality is...

Sweet And Milk Chocolate

U.S. definitions and standards for chocolate are quite specific. Sweet chocolate must contain at least 15 chocolate liquor by weight and must be sweetened with sucrose or mixtures of sucrose, dextrose, and corn syrup solids in specific ratios. Semisweet chocolate and bittersweet chocolate, though often referred to as sweet chocolate, must contain a minimum of 35 chocolate liquor. The three products, sweet chocolate, semisweet chocolate, and bittersweet chocolate, are often simply called chocolate or dark chocolate to distinguish them from milk chocolate.

Dietary Sources and Intakes

The term 'sugar' includes monosaccharides and dis-accharides. The most common monosaccharides are glucose (or dextrose), fructose, and galactose. Glucose is found in fruit, honey, maple syrup, and vegetables. Glucose is also formed from sucrose hydrolysis in honey, maple syrup and invert sugar, and from starch hydrolysis in corn syrups. The properties of glucose are important for improving food texture, flavor, and palatability. Glucose is the major cell fuel and the principal energy source for the brain. Fructose is found in honey, maple sugar, fruit, and vegetables. Fructose is also formed from sucrose hydrolysis in honey, maple syrup, and invert sugar. It is commonly used as a sweetener in soft drinks, bakery products, and candy in the form of high-fructose corn syrups. Galactose is found primarily in milk and dairy products. The most common disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Sucrose is mostly found in sugar cane and beet, and in lesser amounts in honey, maple sugar,...

Requirements and Recommendations

The DRIs for carbohydrate consumption of individual groups and lifestages are outlined in Table 2. These values are based on the average minimum amount of glucose needed for brain function. A UL for carbohydrates was not set because no studies have shown that excessive consumption of carbohydrates has a detrimental effect on health. Based on the dilutional effect of added sugars on micronutri-ents, the expert panel suggests a maximal intake of less than 25 of energy from added sugars. Total sugar intake can be decreased by limiting foods high in added sugars and consuming naturally occurring sugar products, like milk, dairy products, and fruit.

Oxidation of Fats and Amino Acids

Obviously, glucose is not the only fuel used by living things. Our foods contain other sugars, such as lactose in milk and fructose in the disaccharide sucrose (table sugar). The success of dieters hinges on the body's ability to use fat as fuel of course, this is why the body stores fat in the first place. Under starvation conditions, the body obtains its energy for basic cell function by cannibalizing itself, by oxidizing its proteins. The sugars are converted fairly easily into either glucose or another intermediate in the glycolysis pathway. In the case of sucrose and glycogen, these polysaccharides are split into simple sugars by phosphorolysis (splitting by phosphate) instead of hydrolysis. This results in glucose-6-phosphate, the intermediate in glycolysis that just follows the point where an ATP is reacted with glucose to get things going. Thus, the extra ATP is not needed, and glycolysis yields one more ATP than for glucose itself.

Effect Of Color On Sensory Perceptions

The levels of basic tastes in most foods are well above threshold levels and taste-color associations vary with specific foods. Color was shown to be a distraction in correctly identifying the sweeter sample in a paired comparison test of pear nectar, but it was not confirmed that the color green lowers the perception of sweetness, a result obtained in an earlier study (19). It was concluded that the effect of color varied considerably between individuals. The intensity of red color has been shown to affect a subject's perception of sweetness in beverages and solutions (20). A red color in fruit-flavored beverages was associated with an increase in perceived sweetness although the sucrose level was constant. Sweetness of darker red solutions was reported to be perceived as being 2-10 greater than the uncolored reference when actual sucrose concentrations were 1 less. There is an interrelationship between color and flavor, for example, the introduction of blue color to cherry- and...

Renal Anatomy and Basic Concepts and Methods in Renal Pathology

Lesions are often in the form of intracellular accumulations, manifestations of either local metabolic abnormalities or systemic processes. For example, lipid inclusions in proximal and, less commonly, distal tubular cells result from hyperlipidemia and lipiduria of nephrotic syndrome, and protein reabsorption droplets (hyaline droplets) accumulate in proximal tubular cells in association with albuminuria and its reabsorption by tubular epithelium. Additional locally induced abnormalities include uniform fine cytoplasmic vacuolization consequent to hypertonic solution infusion (e.g., mannitol, sucrose). Tubular cells may be sites of storage of hemosiderin in patients with chronic intravascular hemolysis, high iron load, or glomerular hematuria. Few metabolic storage diseases affect tubular epithelium among others are cystinosis with crystals and glycogen storage diseases and diabetes mellitus with abundant intracellular glycogen. Vacuoles, especially large and irregular, may be...

Absorption and Transport

In the intestinal lumen (Figure 3) where carote-noids are released from the food matrix, cleavage of carotenoproteins and fatty acid esters by carboxylic ester hydrolase, which is secreted by the pancreas, can occur. Carotenoids are then solubilized into lipid micelles. These hydrophobic compounds are thus more efficiently absorbed when accompanied by at least a small amount of fat. The amount of fat for optimal carotenoid absorption seems to differ among carotenoids. For example, lutein esters require more fat for optimal absorption than -carotene. These differences have not been quantified for each carotenoid. In addition, the presence of a non-absorbable, fat-soluble component was shown to decrease carotenoid absorption. Sucrose polyester, a nonabsorbable fat replacer decreased carotenoid

Behavioral Questionnaires

A behavioral questionnaire is a series of questions, often in Likert-type format, that include item content designed to assess the functional relations of extrinsic variables with a target behavior. In contrast to traditional clinical questionnaires, behavioral questionnaires usually include questions that assess antecedent events, the effects of the behavior problem, and acquire data on one or more behavioral dimensions. For example, Cepeda-Bineto, Gleaves, Williams, and Erath in 2000 designed a food cravings questionnaire with items that assess cues that trigger food cravings, positive reinforcement that comes from eating, relief from negative states as a result of eating, physiological states associated with hunger, and emotions surrounding food cravings and eating.

Soil Nitrogen and Network Topology in Microcosms

0.10 1.00 Monosodium glutamate (g l) Figure 2 Biomass increase with nitrogen supply, accompanied by suppression of cord development in Coniophora puteana at nitrogen content over 0.25 mg l_1. Basal medium, g T sucrose, 20 KH2PO4, 1 MgSO4 7H2O, 0.5 FeSO4 7H2O, 0.01. When C. puteana mycelium, pre-grown on a permeable cellulose membrane over nitrogen-free agar medium, was transferred to a split plate with uniform high carbon as sucrose on one side but only nitrogen on the other, there was a striking differentiation of behaviour on each side of the plate. Mycelial extension, accompanied by cord development, accelerated on the N-limited side, apparently supplied with nitrogen by the cords that developed across the carbon-only medium. Extension ceased on the N-rich side, and cord development did not occur. However, biomass increased threefold, and metabolism appeared to alter, the mycelium releasing a dark brown pigment into the medium, presumably as a result of the onset of secondary...

Dental Paleopathology

Caries (cavities) is very much a disease of civilization but has probably always been associated with humans and is found in wild apes as well. Caries have been noted in Australopithecines, Homo erectus, and Neanderthals. Neolithic populations show caries in 2-10 of all teeth. For the Roman period and the middle ages the figure is slightly higher, 5-14 , but with the increase in the use of more refined sugars and flours in the diet over the past 1,000 years the incidence has risen to the modern figure of 50-90 .

Time Following Handling Treatment

FIGURE 2.2 Sucrose and glucose concentrations in control and handled norchip tubers (7 months in storage 9 C, 90 RH) as influenced by increasing times between handling and sugar analysis (0, 5, 10, and 20 days). (From Orr, P. H., ASAE Paper No. 85-6024, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI, 1985. With permission.) the amino acid tyrosine. Phenols including chlorogenic and caffeic acid are now involved.40 High storage temperatures after the inflection of the bruise accelerates the development of this undesirable coloration. The undesirable color of potato chips after months in storage is due to the rough handling of the tubers upon loading to and unloading from the storage.68 Usually in dry handling of potatoes, bulk scoops, hoppers, and multi-tiered conveyors are employed. Potato-on-potato tumbling can inflict damage to the tubers and it has been claimed68 that a rapid increase of sucrose in the handled samples was induced by stress on the tubers (Figure 2.2)....

Vacuole In Electron Microscopy

Phosphate buffer generally is chosen because it mimics certain components of extracellular fluid and is nontoxic to cells in culture. However, it should be aware that phosphate buffer is more likely to cause precipitates during fixation than other buffers and can slowly be contaminated with micro-organisms. Sorenson phosphate buffer consists of two components a monobasic sodium phosphate (NaH2PO4 2.78g 100 mL H2O) and a dibasic sodium phosphate (Na2HPO4 5.36g 100 mL H2O). The pH will be adjusted according to the variation of the volume of each stock solution that is shown in Table 1. Osmolarity at pH 7.2 is 226 mosmols, and an addition of 0.18 M sucrose can raise it to 425 mosmols. glutaraldehyde fixative to stabilize vacuolar saps (e.g., phenols). Caffeine precipitates phenols within vacuoles and prevents its release into the cytoplasm. If required, CaCl2 (1-3 mM), sucrose or NaCl can be added in the final concentration of the fixative to adjust osmolarity.

Problems associated with edible coatings

Even though some edible coatings have been successfully applied to fresh produce, other applications adversely affect quality. Modification of the internal atmosphere by the use of edible coatings can increase disorders associated with high carbon dioxide or low oxygen concentration (Ben-Yehoshua, 1969). Smock (1940) indicated that waxing apples and pears inhibited normal ripening rate and if sufficient wax was applied, respiration was greatly inhibited and alcoholic flavors were developed by anaerobic fermentation. Smith and Stow (1984) reported that apples (cv. Cox's Orange Pippin) coated with sucrose fatty acid ester had fewer detrimental changes in terms of fruit firmness, yellowing and weight loss but had increased incidence of core flush. Park et al. (1994c) reported that tomatoes coated with 0.6 mm zein film produced alcohol and off-flavors inside the tomatoes which were attributable to an internal gas composition that was too low in oxygen and too high in carbon dioxide. Smith...

Fermentable Carbohydrate

Acidogenic bacteria metabolize (ferment) simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose) to acids. Sugars may be present as a result of their direct consumption or as a result of the enzymatic breakdown of starches within the mouth by salivary amylase. Thus, a substantial proportion of a typical diet will contain a source of fermentable carbohydrate, and many, if not all, eating and drinking occasions will give these bacteria one of these metabolic precursors. The more frequently an individual consumes carbohydrate, the more the acido-genic bacteria thrive and other, less acid tolerant, bacteria are disadvantaged. A wide variety of foods contain carbohydrate that is capable of giving rise to acids as a result of bacterial metabolism (fermentation) within dental plaque. Of the common dietary sugars, sucrose, fructose, and glucose are found in fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, jams, honey, chocolate and other confectionary, and an immense variety of composite foods...

Protection from and Prevention of Dental Caries

Variations among individuals, and with time, will arise as a result of differences in acid generation from sugars at different localities within the dentition. These variations may be influenced by changing dietary habits and by the extent of the colonization of the relevant tooth surface by acido-genic bacteria. They may also be affected by changes in saliva flow, for example as a result of the use of certain medications or radiotherapy.

Other Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Caries

Experimental studies using chewing gum (usually sugar-free). Reductions in caries incidence were seen when subjects were encouraged to chew the gum, especially between and immediately after meals, while continuing their normal regular oralhygiene practices. Convincing evidence of an effect at the population level, however, is awaited. Chemistry and Dietary Sources. Sucrose Dietary Sucrose and Disease. Vitamin D Rickets and Osteomalacia.

Relations With Other Psychological Variables

Two other experiments, both studies of taste sensitivity, showed the same parallel prediction between the two measures (Hopmeyer & Stevens, 1989 Stevens, Dooley, & Laird, 1988). If people who are more responsive to personal cues or are high in body consciousness are more tuned in to sensations from their bodies, they might also be more sensitive to other sensations. To test this, subjects were asked to taste a series of concentrations of sucrose. The degree to which subjects are sensitive to sensory changes is expressed as the slope of the psychophysical function relating chemical concentration to taste intensity. As predicted, subjects who were more responsive to personal cues produced significantly steeper psychophysical functions, as did subjects higher in body consciousness. However, once again, responses to personal cues and body consciousness were not themselves significantly related.

Monosaccharides Are Reducing Agents

T Monosaccharides can be oxidized by relatively mild oxidizing agents such as ferric (Fe3+) or cupric (Cu2+) ion (Fig. 7-10a). The carbonyl carbon is oxidized to a carboxyl group. Glucose and other sugars capable of reducing ferric or cupric ion are called reducing sugars. This property is the basis of Fehling's reaction, a qualitative test for the presence of reducing sugar. By measuring the amount of oxidizing agent reduced by a solution of a sugar, it is also possible to estimate the concentration of that sugar. For many years this test was used to detect and measure elevated glucose levels in blood and urine in the diagnosis of dia-

Nonnutritive Sweeteners

Saccharin Sweet and Low, Sweet Twin, Sweet'N 0 200-700 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and Aspartame Nutrasweet, Equal, Sugar Twin (blue box) 4 160-220 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and produces limited glycemic response Acesulfame-K Sunett, Sweet & Safe, Sweet one 0 200 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and produces no glycemic response Sucralose Splenda 0 600 times sweeter than sucrose noncarcinogenic and

Disaccharides Contain a Glycosidic Bond

Disaccharides (such as maltose, lactose, and sucrose) consist of two monosaccharides joined covalently by an O-glycosidic bond, which is formed when a hydroxyl group of one sugar reacts with the anomeric carbon of the other (Fig. 7-11). This reaction represents the formation of an acetal from a hemiacetal (such as glu-copyranose) and an alcohol (a hydroxyl group of the second sugar molecule) (Fig. 7-5). Glycosidic bonds are readily hydrolyzed by acid but resist cleavage by base. Thus disaccharides can be hydrolyzed to yield their free monosaccharide components by boiling with dilute acid. -glycosyl bonds join the anomeric carbon of a sugar to a nitrogen atom in glycoproteins (see Fig. 7-31) and nucleotides (see Fig. 8-1). The oxidation of a sugar's anomeric carbon by cupric or ferric ion (the reaction that defines a reducing sugar) occurs only with the linear form, which exists in equilibrium with the cyclic form(s). When the anomeric carbon is involved in a glycosidic bond, that...

Lipidbased Emulsifiers A Molecular Characteristics

The most important types of lipid-based emulsifier used in the food industry are small-molecule surfactants (e.g., Tweens, Spans, and salts of fatty acids) and phos-pholipids (e.g., lecithin). The principal role of lipid-based emulsifiers in food emulsions is to enhance the formation and stability of the product however, they may also alter the bulk physicochemical properties by interacting with proteins or poly-saccharides, or by modifying the structure of fat crystals 9 . All lipid-based emulsifiers are amphiphilic molecules that have a hydrophilic head group with a high affinity for water and lipophilic tail group with a high affinity for oil 8,10,11 . These emulsifiers can be represented by the formula RX, where X represents the hydrophilic head and R the lipophilic tail. Lipid-based emulsifiers differ with respect to type of head group and tail group. The head group may be anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, or nonionic. The lipid-based emulsifiers used in the food industry are...

Enhancement of Enzyme Activity Using Salt Hydrate Pairs

It is well known that a salt hydrate pair can control the water level in the reaction mixture by taking up or releasing water as required to keep a constant aw condition during the reaction. Each kind of salt hydrate pair has a typical aw (5). When a hydrated salt and its corresponding lower hydrate or anhydrous form are present together, ideal behavior implies a fixed equilibrium water vapor pressure and, hence, constant aw, whatever the relative quantities of the two forms. Although the salts may affect enzyme activity in other aspects of water activity when they are added into the reaction medium directly, many reports have shown that salt hydrate pairs could control the water activity of the reaction system and they increased the reaction rate and yield. We also investigated the effect of various salt hydrate pairs on the lysophospholipid synthesis and sucrose-monoester synthesis in a solvent-free system. 2.2.2. Sucrose-Monoester Synthesis sugar monoesters. It is difficult to...

Biocontrolspecific Gene Expression In Trichoderma

In the laboratory, high-level induction of extracellular cellwall lytic enzymes is usually obtained by growing Trichoderma on purified chitin, fungal cell walls, or mycelia as sole carbon sources. No, or much less, induction is normally obtained when related compounds such as chitosan, cellulose, unpurified chitin, or laminarin are used. In addition, formation of most chitinolytic enzymes does not occur or is even inhibited by glucose, sucrose, and chitinolytic end-products (Carsolio et al. 1994 Garcia et al. 1994 Lorito et al. 1996a Margolles-Clark et al. 1996 Peterbauer et al. 1996), suggesting that direct induction and or catabolic repression are major regulatory parameters for chitinase formation. Some researchers also found trace quantities of some chitinases (e.g. the 102-kDa N-acetyl-p-d-glucosaminidase, the 42-kDa endochitinase and the 33kDa endochitinase) are produced constitutively (Carsolio et al. 1999 Garcia et al. 1994 Haran et al. 1995 Inbar and Chet 1995 Margolles-Clark...

Organelle Structure and Energy Production

Often described as the power plant of the cell, mitochondria generate ATP by extracting energy from sugar, fats, and other fuels with the help of oxygen. Mitochondria generate most of the energy in animal cells through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. In this process, electrons are passed along a series of protein complexes that are located in the inner mito-chondrial membrane. The passage of electrons between these protein complexes releases energy that is stored in the membrane, and is then used to make ATP from ADP.

The case of the unstressed rats

Findings, however, led her to conclude that, whereas the drinking of sucrose solution was said to be reduced when rats were subjected to a battery of mild stresses, the drinking of sucrose solution was significantly increased when the rats were further stressed. After subsequent discussion with the professor she repeated her experiment using, first, outbred rats - with the same result - and then with inbred rats.The experiment with these last rats demonstrated a transient reduction in sucrose drinking after mild stress, but this returned to normal after three weeks, and after two further weeks the stressed rats increased their sucrose drinking just as the rats in her two previous experiments had done. When she conducted the experiment with the rats yet again, she found no difference in sucrose drinking at all between the two groups. She sought to find a reason why her experimental findings failed to match the model and came up with a possible explanation. Regardless of this, however,...

Physicochemical Properties

C. deGraff et al., Nonabsorbable Fat (Sucrose Polyester) and the Regulation of Energy Intake and Body Weight, Am. J. Physiol. 270, R1386-R1393 (1996). 29. S. M. Kelly et al., A 3-Month, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial of Feeding With Sucrose Polyester in Human Volunteers, Br. J. Med. 30, 41-49 (1998).

Gross and Metabolizable Energy

The traditional way of measuring the energy content of foostuffs is to use a 'bomb calorimeter' in which the heat produced when a sample of food is combusted (under high pressure of oxygen) is measured. When the food is combusted, it is completely oxidized to water, carbon dioxide, and other incompletely burned elements. The total heat liberated (expressed in kilocalories or kilojoules) represents the gross energy value or heat of combustion of the food. The heat of combustion differs between carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. There are also important differences within each category of macronutrient. The gross energy yield of sucrose, for example, is 16.5 kJg-1, whereas starch yields 17.5 kJg-1. The energy yield of butterfat is 38.5 kJg-1 and of lard 39.6 kJg-1. These values have been rounded off to give 17.3 kJg-1 for carbohydrates rich in starch and poor in sugar, 39.3 kJg-1 for average fat, and 23.6 kJg-1 for mixtures of animal and vegetable proteins.

Anaerobic Degradation of Carbohydrates in Wastewater

The anaerobic degradation of biopolymers in general and of cellulose in particular can be divided into hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic, and methanogenic phases (Fig. 1.3). Hydrolysis and fermentation of the hydrolysis products can be catalyzed by the same trophic group of microorganisms. The distinction of the two phases is of more theoretical than practical relevance. Concerning reaction rates in a methane fermenter that is fed with a particulate substrate, the rate-limiting step is hydrolysis rather than the subsequent fermentation of the monomers, if acetogenesis and me-thanogenesis proceed faster. The hydrolysis rates of polymers can be very different. Hemicellulose and pectin are hydrolyzed ten times faster than lignin-encrusted cellulose (Buchholz et al., 1986, 1988). In the acidification reactor of a two-stage anaerobic process, hydrolysis of polymers to monomers is normally slower than fermentation of monomers to fatty acids and other fermentation products. For this...

Water and Electrolyte Balance

Many studies have shown that the ingestion of fluid during exercise can significantly improve performance. Adding an energy source in the form of carbohydrate confers an additional benefit by providing an energy source for the working muscles. Addition of small amounts (perhaps about 2-8 ) of carbohydrate, in the form of glucose, sucrose, or maltodextrin, will promote water absorption in the small intestine as well as providing exogenous substrate that can spare stored carbohydrate. The addition of too much carbohydrate will slow gastric emptying and, if the solution is strongly hypertonic, may promote secretion of water into the intestinal lumen, thus delaying fluid availability. Voluntary fluid intake is seldom sufficient to match sweat losses, and a conscious effort to drink is normally required if dehydration is to be avoided. Palatability of fluids is therefore an important consideration. If exercise is prolonged and sweat losses high, the addition of sodium to drinks may be...

Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption

Ingested starch is first attacked by salivary a-amylase in the mouth. Because the optimal pH of this enzyme is 6.7, its activity is inhibited by the acidic gastric juice when food enters the stomach. In the lumen of the small intestine, both the salivary and the pancreatic a-amylase act on starch. The hydrolytic products are a mixture of oligosaccharrides maltose (disaccharide), maltotriose (trisaccharide), and a-dextrins. These products of luminal carbohydrate digestion cannot be absorbed by the mucosa, but must be further degraded into monosaccharides through mucosal (membranous) digestion. Specific car-bohydrases for mucosal digestion are produced by epithelial cells, bound to surface membrane, and transported to the tip of the brush border. Some of these membrane-bound enzymes have more than one substrate a-dextrinase (isomaltase) and maltase hydrolyze maltose, maltotriose, and a-dextrins into glucose. Sucrase breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose, as well as maltose and...

Competition of Sulfate Reducers with Methanogens in Methane Reactors

Municipal wastewater or wastewater from sugar production, slaughterhouses, breweries, etc., normally contains less than 200 mg L-1 of sulfate. If sulfuric acid is used, e.g., to clean stainless steel containers and pipes in the dairy industry or to maintain an acid pH in bioreactors for bakers' yeast or citric acid production, or if ammonium sulfate is used to inhibit metabolic routes in bakers' yeast for the production of biochemicals, the wastewater contains large amounts of sulfate. Sulfite-containing wastewater is also generated by the starch and cellulose industry during bleaching of the raw products.

Fermented Products from Vegetables

Vegetables have low buffering capacity. After harvest, vegetables have a heterogeneous population, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Chromobacterium, and a variety of enteric organisms lactic acid bacteria (the organisms responsible for fermentation) exists in relatively small numbers. However, once the material is placed under anaerobic conditions with the addition of 2.5 salt, lactic acid bacteria quickly predominates and initiates a favorable fermentation process. Such is the case in sauerkraut making. Shredded cabbage has 3 to 6 sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose). The first group of organisms growing are En-terobacter cloacae, Erwinia herbicola, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides (a heterofermentative lactic). As the lactic

Gammaglobulin preparations

Intravenous infusion of gammaglobulin concentrates (initially the fraction II of the Cohn-Oncley process) was first attempted in the 1950s. Unfortunately, these infusions resulted in severe reactions in a number of instances, probably because of complement activation due to the infusion of aggregates. However, over time, various methods of modifying the immunoglobulin solutions were devised to produce products suitable for intravenous use. These methods included enzymatic treatment of immunoglobulin addition of chemical groups to prevent aggregation reduction, sulfonation, or reduction followed by alkylation addition of stabilizers (maltose, sucrose, albumin, glycine, mannitol) ion exchange column filtration and precipitation of aggregates by polyethylene glycol.

Consequences of Plant Diversity on the Quality of Carbon Input

However, not only the quality of biomass produced depends on the species composition. The amount and composition of carbon flow to roots for exudation are also species-dependent (Grayston et al. 1997). The relative amount of root exudate as fraction of plant carbon assimilation varies thusly 40 for Liriodendron tulipifera, 60 for Pinus sylverstris, and even 78 for Pseudotsuga menziesii. In general, the exudates consist of various carbohydrates, amino acids, aliphatic and aromatic fatty acids, sterols, and enzyme- and hormone-like substances (Grayston et al. 1997). The composition of the exudates varies greatly between different species. For example, deciduous trees exude preferentially the amino acids cysteine and homoser-ine, whereas evergreens have no preferential amino acid exudation pattern. Exudation patterns of carbohydrates, like glucose, fructose and sucrose, and organic acids, such as acetic, succinic, and oxalic acid, all of which may be major...

On The Role Of Body Size In Mutualism Webs

Frugivore and pollinator species use only a subset of the available plant species, because they respond differentially to the chemical composition of their food source (e.g., the ratio of sucrose hexose in nectar the presence of tannins and secondary metabolites in fruits), and there are also physical constraints on mutualistic links that are imposed by the size and morphology of the consumer and the resource. This size-dependent coupling can be very tight, especially where mutualistic links have coevolved for a long time, as is true, for instance, of many orchids and their specialist pollinators. The ratio between gape width and fruit size is important in Neotropical birds (Wheelwright, 1985) and Canarian frugivorous lizards (Valido and Nogales, unpublished manuscript) small animals cannot use large fruits (i.e., body size influences the linkage level (the number of links per species)). Similarly, the range of beak corolla tube length ratios determines linkage level among long-beaked...

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

An individual's dietary and social patterns are major contributors to one's oral health. The quality of life can be greatly impacted as a result of poor oral health leaving a negative impact on self-esteem, eating ability, and social functioning (Moynihan, 2005). Several oral diseases can be linked back to poor nutrition, and as teeth deteriorate the conditions are exacerbated. Studies (Johansson et al., 1994, Norlen et al., 1993) have shown edentulous individuals are more apt to have inadequate dietary intake (high carbohydrate, high fat, low nutrient density foods) than dentate individuals. Sugars, specifically sucrose, are recognized as being a major contributor to dental caries' etiology. Other social factors such as alcohol and tobacco use, drug abuse, poor hygiene, and poor nutrition are also cited as being major contributory factors to oral diseases. Most foods are noncariogenic, and do not contribute to oral diseases. However, some foods have anticariogenic properties that...

Cleanness Of Separation

Freezing point versus crystal diameter for ice in a 30 sucrose solution. Source Reprinted courtesy of Niro Process Technology B.V. Figure 2. Freezing point versus crystal diameter for ice in a 30 sucrose solution. Source Reprinted courtesy of Niro Process Technology B.V.

Some expectations in the mood

Making the more of active agents (aroma, salt, sugar) contained by food systems There are different reasons for aiming at getting as high a sensory gratification as possible from the available bulk of flavour components. For a long time, efforts have been merely spent on cutting production costs. For instance, care was taken to make parsimonious use of expensive flavourings. Nowadays, the leading trend is towards a healthy diet. Sucrose and common salt are widely involved in food elaboration as taste compounds whereas they are currently blamed for a negative contribution to nutritional status. Apart from turning towards alternative taste compounds, the challenge is to maintain taste while cutting down on quantities. Regarding food emulsions, a single strategy is unlikely to care for simultaneous savings of both the hydrophobic odorants and

Selected Examples Of Amino Acids

Phenylalanine production is particularly important because of its use in the synthesis of the low calorie sweetener aspartame (methyl ester of the dipeptide L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine), which is 150-200 times sweeter than sucrose. Besides fermentation, phenylalanine is also produced using chemical synthesis. For microbial production of L-phenylalanine mainly E. coli and C. glutamicum (and related species) are used (98). Strains have been obtained which are able to produce up to 50g l of L-phenylalanine (99).

Properties and Sources of Fructose

Fructose has a fruity taste that is rated sweeter than sucrose. Sweetness ratings of fructose are between 130 and 180 (in part dependent on the serving temperature) compared to the standard, sucrose, rated at 100 . Both sucrose and fructose are used extensively in foods to provide sweetness, texture, and palatability. These sugars also contribute to the appearance, preservation, and energy content of the food product. Natural sources of dietary fructose are fruits, fruit juices, and some vegetables. In these foods, fructose is found as the monosaccharide and also as a component of the disaccharide, sucrose (Table 1). However, the primary source of fructose in Western diets is in sugars added to baked goods, candies, soft drinks, and other beverages sweetened with sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS is produced by hydrolyzing the starch in corn to glucose using -amylase and glucoamylase. This is followed by treatment with glucose isomerase to yield a mixture of glucose...

Fructose and Lipid Metabolism

When large amounts of fructose are ingested, the glycolytic pathway becomes saturated with intermediates. In these circumstances, the intermediates become substrates for triacylglycerol synthesis DHAP can be converted to glycerol, and acetyl-CoA can enter the lipogenic pathway to form fatty acids that are then esterified to the glycerol molecule to form triacylglycerols. During the initial step of lipogenesis, malonyl-CoA is formed. This intermediate serves to inhibit the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they are oxidized. By this regulatory mechanism, esterification of the newly synthesized fatty acids is reinforced. Studies have shown that the ingestion of fructose results in increased synthesis of fatty acids compared to ingestion of a comparable amount of glucose. The increased availability of fatty acids and subsequent triacylglycerol synthesis results in the production and secretion of triacylglycerols from the liver in the form of very low-density...

Fructose and Glucose Metabolism

Consumption of large amounts of fructose is also associated with an impairment of glucose disposal. Prolonged feeding of fructose or sucrose to animals impairs insulin signaling and induces insulin resistance. Less is known about the effect of fructose ingestion on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in humans because the scientific literature contains conflicting results. However, the lipogenic effects of fructose may contribute to insulin resistance indirectly since increased blood levels of triacylglycerols and fatty acids and deposition of lipid in liver and skeletal muscle have been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance.

Carbohydrate Sweeteners

Other sugars that can be used are glucose syrup, dextrose, invert sugar syrup, and honey. When other sugars are substituted for sucrose in jam, the effects on the HM-pectin gelation are as follows Inversion of sucrose reduces gel strength and lowers the gelling temperature. Maltitol syrups are used in the manufacture of sugar-free jellies. Suitable selection of the maltitol content needs to complement the acidified and nonacidified gelatin to deliver the appropriate applications (8). A study was developed to compare some effects of gelling agents and sweeteners in high- and low-sugar-content carbohydrate gels (9). HM pectin, LM pectin, carrageenan, and alginate gels were the gelling agents, while sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) were the sweeteners. Soluble solids ranged from 35 to 65 with polydextrose as the bulking agent. The properties compared were bound water, water activity, syneresis (35 soluble solids), closely simulated HM-pectin gels because of the comparable...

Growth kinetic models

Models have the ability to predict the growth of foodborne pathogens under conditions different from those tested experimentally, but within the experimental studied range of parameters used to generate the data. These models are less useful close to the boundary between growth and no growth. This problem is alleviated by the use of probability models, where the objective is to determine whether or not the microorganisms can grow under specified conditions. As part of an effort to better characterize the behavior of E. coli 0157 H7 and develop predictive models, several researchers (Buchanan et al., 1993 Buchanan and Klawitter, 1992 Buchanan and Bagi, 1994 Sutherland et al., 1995) have assessed the effects of incubation temperature, initial pH, sodium chloride content, and or sodium nitrite concentration on growth of this pathogen. These researchers reported that as incubation temperature decreased, as sodium chloride concentration increased, and as pH increased, the growth of E. coli...

A historical view of edible coatings

Several attempts have been made to develop other materials that could be used to coat produce and modify internal gas composition for short-term storage. Zhang and Quantick (1997) suggested that chitin and chitosan (deacetylated chitin) from marine invertebrates could be used to make a transparent film for application as an edible coating on fruits and vegetables. In 1982, Lowings and Cutts (1982) reported an edible coating material that is non-phytotoxic, tasteless, odorless and effective in preserving fruits. This coating material is a mixture of sucrose fatty acid esters (SFAE), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and mono-and diglycerides. SFAE was originally developed as an emulsifier. However, it has been established that the ripening of fruits can be retarded by a coating of SFAE. SFAE mixtures have been commercially available for coating fruits and vegetables since the 1980s, under the trade names 'TAL Pro-long' and 'Semperfresh' (Banks, 1984 Chu, 1986 Santerre et al., 1989). Park...

Other High Energy Feeds

Molasses is a liquid sugar by-product derived from sugar cane, sugar beet, citrus fruit, and corn starch (glucose) processing that is used in ruminant diets to increase DM intake. The energy value for ruminants is equal to that of a good quality grain when the amount added to the diets does not exceed 10 . 1 Table sugar (sucrose) is usually not fed to livestock, because of its cost, although it can be an excellent source of energy for most livestock, except for baby pigs that lack adequate intestinal sucrase production. 16-

Centrifugation Steps. You Proceed With The Purification Using The Supernatant Fraction That Contains Mostlyintact

Each step of the purification on ice or in a walk-in cold room. You homogenize the beef heart tissue in a high-speed blender in a medium containing 0.2 m sucrose, buffered to a pH of 7.2. Why do you use beef heart tissue, and in such large quantity What is the purpose of keeping the tissue cold and suspending it in 0.2 m sucrose, at pH 7.2 What happens to the tissue when it is homogenized

Microbial Polysaccharides In Food

In the hope that LAB EPS with improved physical properties can be developed, or that strains can be produced with higher yields of EPS, various groups have recently studied the biosynthesis of these polymers. Normal yields of EPS are usually in the range 100-250mg litre1. (12) Yields are much lower than those obtained for xanthan or gellan. In Lactococcus lactis strain NIZO B40, the genes for EPS synthesis were encoded on a 40kb plasmid (103). A 12 kb region contained 14 genes with products having sequence homologies to other gene products involved in EPS, LPS, and teichoic acid biosynthesis. As with production of xanthan and similar EPS, synthesis involved an isoprenoid lipid carrier and genes responsible for transfer of sugars from sugar nucleotides to this carrier were identified. Comparison of the eps gene clusters of S. thermophilus and L. lactis also revealed considerable homology between genes with similar putative functions (103). It also proved possible to introduce the eps...

Diversity in small molecular weight solutes and osmoregulation

Photosynthesis is closely linked to the generation of low molecular weight organic solutes (Figure 4.6) that are involved in osmoregulation. The formation of simple sugars, in particular, results in the formation of a range of osmotically-active compounds which are diagnostic for particular algal groups (Table 4.5). These compounds are important in the osmotic balance within freshwater environments, where algal cells are surrounded by a hypotonic medium. In such conditions the tendency for water to enter by endosmosis is either counterbalanced by cell wall pressure, or (in naked algae) requires continuous expulsion of water by contractile vacuole activity. In conditions of increasing salinity, where the external medium becomes hypertonic, higher intracellular concentrations of osmotically-active solutes are required to balance the elevated external molarity.

Molecular Characteristics

The principal role of surfactants in food emulsions is to enhance their formation and stability (Charalambous and Doxastakis 1989, Dickinson 1992, Hasenhuettl and Hartel 1997) however, they may also alter emulsion properties in a variety of other ways (e.g., by interacting with proteins or polysaccharides, by forming surfactant micelles, or by modifying the structure of fat crystals (Dickinson and McClements 1995, Bergenstahl 1997, Bos et al. 1997, Deffenbaugh 1997). By definition, a surfactant is an amphiphilic molecule that has a hydrophilic head group which has a high affinity for water and a lipophilic tail group which has a high affinity for oil (Myers 1988, Hasenhuettl 1997). Surfactants can therefore be represented by the formula RX, where X represents the hydrophilic head and R the lipophilic tail (Dickinson and McClements 1995). The characteristics of a particular surfactant depend on the nature of its head and tail groups (Table 4.6). The head group may be anionic, cationic,...

Feeder Pathways for Glycolysis

Functional Groups Sucrose

Many carbohydrates besides glucose meet their cata-bolic fate in glycolysis, after being transformed into one of the glycolytic intermediates. The most significant are the storage polysaccharides glycogen and starch the disaccharides maltose, lactose, trehalose, and sucrose and the monosaccharides fructose, mannose, and galactose (Fig. 14-9). Sucrose Sucrose

General principles of membrane processing

Ultrafiltration (UF) operates in the approximate molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) range 500-500 000 Daltons. Generally, lower molecular weight species, such as simple sugars or amino acids, can pass through into the permeate, while macromolecules, such as proteins, polysaccharides or fats, will be retained.

Importance Of Hydrophobicity In Functionality Of Food Proteins

Functional properties of food proteins have been defined as those characteristics, other than nutritional ones, that affect their utilization. This includes a diverse range of functionality, such as solubility, viscosity, water- and fat-binding properties, emulsification, foaming, film formation, gellability or coagulability, elasticity, and flavor. Functionality depends on the interaction of the protein molecules with other components in the food system, including water macromolecules such as other proteins, complex carbohydrates, and lipids and small molecules such as salts, simple sugars, and flavor compounds. These interactions may take place in the bulk phase, or at a surface or interface. The interplay of electrostatic, hydrophobic, and steric parameters, important in predicting biological activity of molecules (2), also holds true for the elucidation of the relationship between structure and functionality of food proteins (17,62). Computer-assisted studies for quantitative...

Freezing Point Depression

Eutectic Freeze Crystallization

Solutes depress the freezing point of water. Therefore, as ice forms and solute concentrations increase, the freezing point decreases. Figure 1 shows how the freezing points of wine and some juices depend on concentration (1). The freezing point depression is roughly inversely proportional to the solute's molecular weight. Thus, at equal concentrations, freezing point depressions for juices (eg, apple juice) in which the main solutes are fructose and glucose are greater than those for juices (eg, orange juice) containing greater amounts of sucrose. Depending on the fruit juice involved, solute concentrations in the 50 range can be obtained by cooling juice to 8 to - 14 C. Cooling to -13 to 18 C is required to obtain 60 concentration.

Bacterial primary productivity

Figure 4.11 Absorption spectra of intact cells of photo-synthetic bacteria and the green alga Chlorella, recorded in saturated sucrose solution. The bacteria were a Chro-matium okenii (purple bacterium containing bacterio-chlorophyll-a) c Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum (green bacterium, bacteriochlorophyll-c) d Chlorobium phaeo-bacteroiodes (green bacterium, bacteriochlorophyll-d). In the bacteria, a major portion of the solar radiation used for photosynthesis comes from the infrared part of the spectrum. In algae, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) coincides with the visible light range (figure adapted and redrawn from Pfennig, 1967) Figure 4.11 Absorption spectra of intact cells of photo-synthetic bacteria and the green alga Chlorella, recorded in saturated sucrose solution. The bacteria were a Chro-matium okenii (purple bacterium containing bacterio-chlorophyll-a) c Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum (green bacterium, bacteriochlorophyll-c) d Chlorobium phaeo-bacteroiodes (green...

Disorders of Fructose Metabolism

There are three disorders of fructose metabolism, all inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Fructose is widely distributed in the diet as the primary sugar in fruits, vegetables, and honey. It is also derived from sucrose and sorbitol, which are found in large variety of products, including infant formulas and intravenous fluids. The toxic effect of fructose is due to inhibition

Aroma interactions with mono and disaccharides

Mono- and disaccharides are molecules that elicit a sweet taste and that clearly influence flavour perception as anyone can experience it. Sucrose, for example, Thanks to their hydroxyl groups, small carbohydrates such as mono- and disaccharides are generally very soluble in water. Hence, sugars in foodstuffs strongly interact with water thus contributing to the physicochemical properties of many food matrices. The departure from Raoult's Law of concentrated solutions of sugars indicates that the hydration number of glucose and fructose approaches respectively 2 and 5 molecules of water per molecule of sugar. Moreover, NMR studies revealed a primary hydration layer comprising an average number of water molecules even higher 3.7 for glucose and 6.6 for sucrose. Thus mono- and disaccharides could be expected to generate a 'salting out' effect in aqueous systems, meaning that the presence of such non-volatile solutes would increase the concentration of volatiles in the gas phase. On the...

Influence of mono and disaccharides on the static partition of aroma compounds

Nawar (1966, 1971) observed, for example, a salting out effect when sucrose or glucose were added in water solutions containing highly volatile compounds such as dimethylketone but conversely a decreased release for aroma compounds of higher molecular weight such as heptanone and heptanal. It is not clear, however, whether these results were statistically significant or not. Hansson et al. (2001) found that sucrose and inverted sugar increased the release of five out of six flavour compounds tested (isopentyl acetate, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, L-menthone and linalool) for sugar concentrations over 60 (w w) in a pectin sugar aqueous solution. Noticeably, the behaviour of limonene was not influenced by the addition of sugars in contrast with the previous volatiles which are more polar. The effect was even more pronounced for inverted sugar (i.e. glucose + fructose) than for sucrose at the same mass concentration, which suggests that inverted sugar (whose molar...

Dynamic aspects of aroma retention and release

Using a flavour release vessel simulating mouth conditions, Roberts et al. (1996) measured the dynamic release of seven aroma compounds from aqueous solutions thickened with either sucrose, guar gum or carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Their results show a decreased release of the most volatile compounds (a-pinene, ethyl-2-methylbutyrate and 1,8-cineole) when the solution was thickened with sucrose as compared with guar gum and CMC at comparable viscosity level. The release was further decreased when the sucrose concentration increased from 52 to 69 w w. This reduced volatility, however, could not be explained by the increase of viscosity, since the solutions containing guar gum and CMC were adjusted to the same viscosity. More likely, this effect could result from steric hindrance. The reduced water activity at this range of sucrose concentrations affects aroma release, although no clear explanation can be given to explain this phenomenon. Eventually, the authors suggest that...

Extension Of Substrate Range

A blend of beet and cane molasses is commonly used in the commercial propagation of yeast. Sucrose is the main sugar, accounting for more than 40 by weight. Molasses also provides essential nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, and some amino acids. This composition has made molasses the most widely extended substrate for baker's yeast production. Nevertheless, molasses is not the ideal culture medium for yeast propagation. Both cane and beet molasses can contain harmful substances that inhibit yeast growth and baking performance. They also contain a great deal of suspended solids that must be removed, at least in part, before yeast production. This pretreatment increases the cost of the process, reducing the product profit margin. In addition, molasses may vary significantly in quality from batch to batch, especially in terms of sugar content. On top of this, the introduction of modern sucrose extraction procedures has reduced the availability of this carbon source for growth. For...

Influence of the matrix physical state

Polysaccharides (see later in this chapter), but mono- and disaccharides also play a role. Levi and Karel (1995) measured the retention of n-propanol from a sucrose matrix and from the sucrose raffinose system (raffinose is a tri-saccharide, made of a galactose, a glucose and a fructose unit). These two systems allowed them to compare matrices with different structures (crystallised and amorphous) and under different physical states (glassy and rubbery). They observed a concomitant sucrose crystallisation and propanol release. The sucrose raffinose system which is less prone to crystallisation shows a rapid initial release of propanol above the glass transition temperature (Tg) attributed to the collapse of the matrix, followed by a slower diffusional release.

The Role Of Genetic Manipulation In Bioseparations

Secreted proteins are synthesised as precursors which include an additional series of amino acids on the N-terminal end. This signal sequence identifies the protein as a product for export and directs its passage through the cell membrane (Randall et al, 1987). The incorporation of signal sequence code into recombinant protein genes often results in the liberation of the desired product into the growth medium. This strategy has been widely investigated for the production of bovine chymosin by microorganisms. Cullen et al (1987) obtained high levels of chymosin secretion from Aspergillus niger by coupling the structural gene of the enzyme to the transcriptional, translational and secretory control regions of the fungal glucoamylase gene. High secretion levels have also been achieved in the bacterium Proteus mirabilis using the secretion and expression control regions of streptococcal exotoxin (Klessen et al, 1989). Another example of a food-related target for this type of technology is...

Heterologous Enzyme Production

The reducing sugars produced by the action of a-amylases not only supply the yeast with the substrate for the proper production of gas, but they serve to improve the aroma and color of bread. Furthermore, the addition of a-amylase enhances bread volume, which results in a softer crumb (169,171).

Production of AcetylCoA Activated Acetate

In aerobic organisms, glucose and other sugars, fatty acids, and most amino acids are ultimately oxidized to CO2 and H2O via the citric acid cycle and the respiratory chain. Before entering the citric acid cycle, the carbon skeletons of sugars and fatty acids are degraded to the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA, the form in which the cycle accepts most of its fuel input. Many amino acid carbons also enter the cycle this way, although several amino acids are degraded to other cycle intermediates. Here we focus on how pyruvate, derived from glucose

Secondary Lactase Deficiency

Secondary lactase deficiency is distinct from genetically determined loss of lactase with age. Secondary lactase deficiency is frequently associated with diseases of the small intestine. Enteric viruses, such as rotavirus and Norwalk agent, can induce lactase deficiency by penetration of the enterocyte in the small intestine Rotaviruses are a principal cause of diarrhea and lactose intolerance in infancy. Denudation of the brush border of the jejunal mucosa associated with diarrhea can lead to the loss of the other two disaccharides, maltase and sucrose. Continued diarrhea may also lead to severe complications such as monosaccharide intolerance. Giardiasis have also

Visceral Representation And Function

Magnetoencephalography Response

Recent evidence has shown for the first time that it is possible to obtain a clear representation of visceral sensation in the human insular cortex similar to that observed in the rodent. fMRI was used to identify regions of the human brain that were activated in response to a series of tests designed to stimulate cardiopulmonary and gustatory receptors. Cardiopul-monary activation included maximal inspiration, Valsalva's maneuver, and maximal handgrip to elevate arterial blood pressure. These maneuvers consistently resulted in discrete changes in activity in the anterior insular cortex, with a time course corresponding to the changes in arterial blood pressure and heart rate they produced (Fig. 7). Gustatory stimuli, such as salt and sucrose perfusion of the tongue, resulted in activation of the inferior anterior insular cortex.

Definitions Of Lipids

The traditional definition of total fat of foods used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been the sum of the components with lipid characteristics that are extracted by Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) methods or by reliable and appropriate procedures.'' The FDA has changed from a solubility-based definition to total lipid fatty acids expressed as triglycerides'' 4 , with the intent to measure caloric fatty acids. Solubility and size of fatty acids affect their caloric values. This is important for products that take advantage of this, such as Benefat Salatrim, so these products would be examined on a case-by-case basis. Food products containing sucrose polyesters would require special methodology to calculate caloric fatty acids. Foods containing vinegar ( 4.5 acetic acid) present a problem because they will be considered to have 4.5 fat unless the definition is modified to exclude water-soluble fatty acids or the caloric weighting for acetic acid is...

Carbohydrate Modification

This type of modification can also produce interesting varieties. For example, high-sucrose beans that have a better taste (less beany) and greater digestibility were introduced recently, and about 25,000 acres were planted in the U.S. in 1998 (Riley and Hoffman, 1999). Starch modification in

Heterogeneous particleliquid reactions

Subsequent surface collapse can then lead to shock waves which break the particle apart. Cavitation bubble collapse in the liquid phase near to a particle can force it into rapid motion. Under these circumstances the general dispersive effect is accompanied by interparticle collisions that can also lead to erosion, surface cleaning and wetting of the particles and particle size reduction. It is also possible to use ultrasound to adjust the particle size of sugar after crystallisation (Roberts and James, 1992). When a 74 sucrose solution is crystallised and then treated with ultrasound (20 kHz, 11 Wcm 2 for 15 minutes) the particle size is considerably reduced.

Products From Lactose

Lactose is a reducing disaccharide with the aldose d-glucose at its reducing end. Reduction (hydrogenation) yields the disaccharide alditol (polyol), lactitol (1,4) (see the article Carbohydrates classification, chemistry, labeling). Lactitol can be crystallized as either a monohydrate or a dihydrate, both of which are nonhygroscopic. Therefore, it can be used in the manufacture of products such as chocolate that require that there be no moisture pickup during processing and bakery products that should remain crisp. Lactitol provides a clean, sweet taste (30-40 of that of sucrose) and provides foods with a bulk and texture similar to that provided by sucrose. Its solubility is slightly less than that of sucrose. Its heat of solution is slightly higher than that of sucrose and much below that of sorbitol. Lactitol is not acted on by human digestive enzymes, so it does not effect an increase in blood glucose or insulin levels and, thus, is safe for diabetics. Neither is it cariogenic....

Reagents and equipment

Non-electrolyte buffer (or electrofusion medium), either mannitol solution, consisting of 0.3 M mannitol with 0.5 polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP-0930, Sigma) in double-distilled water, pH7.2 or Zimmerman's fusion medium, freshly prepared, consisting of 9.584 g sucrose, 0.011 g magnesium acetate tetrahydrate ((CH3CO2)2 Mg.4H2O), 0.002 g calcium acetate monohydrate ((CH3CO2)2Ca.H2O,), 0.017 g dipo-tassium phosphate, and 0.003 g glutathione dissolved in 80ml double-distilled water, adjusted to pH7.0 with 1M HCl and to 100 ml, supplemented with 1 mg BSA (Cat. No. A4378, Sigma) and filtered

Phenolic Phytochemical Ingredients And Benefits

Flavonoids are subdivided into several families such as flavonols, flavones, flava-nols, isoflavones, and antocyanidins, which are formed as a result of hydroxylation, meth-ylation, isoprenylation, dimerization, and glycosylation of the substituents in the aromatic rings (2,11). Phenolic phytochemicals are often esterified with sugars and other chemicals such as quinic acid to increase their solubility and to prevent their enzymatic and chemical degradation. Esterification also helps to target the phenolics to specific parts of the plant (11). Phenolic phytochemicals esterified via their hydroxyl groups to sugars are called glycosides. The sugar most commonly involved in esterification is glucose. However, the glycosides of phenolics with galactose, sucrose, and rhamnose are also found in some plant species (11).

Current Trends Worldwide

The jam, jelly, and preserve market is expected to reach 1.5 billion by 2000, with the upscale market showing the greatest potential for growth. Gourmet fruit spreads, preserves, jams, and jellies, including more imports and exotic flavors, are the new products. According to Food & Beverage Marketing, the estimated growth rate for these products is 3 per year. The nutritional and health benefits take the forms of less sugar and more fruit no sugar is added because high-sugar fruit juice is used instead of 100 fruit (18,21). A more convenient packaged powdered pectin has sugar added to it to be used as a sugar and pectin mix for preparing jams and jellies at home. Argentina has a line of dietetic jams, the Netherlands markets lower-calorie jams and preserves, and Japan produces a jelly drink.

Floc Density And Porosity

Andreadakis66 made use of interference microscopy for floc density determination and used the above equation to calculate floc porosity. Density determinations for aggregates are usually based upon observations of terminal velocity, although a method based upon a series of sucrose solutions of incremented densities has been presented by Lagvankar and Gemmell.67 Ozturgut and Lavelle59 employed a linear-density stratified column which allows flocs to settle to their isopycnic levels to measure low density but settleable wastewater effluent flocs. Dammel and Schroeder68 used a similar density gradient centrifugation technique, which allows the flocs to settle in a fluid of continuous increasing density until the flocs become stationary, to measure the density of activated sludge flocs. This technique, however, does not measure floc size concurrently with its density, thus, a size and density relationship might not be established easily. In addition, the ionic strength of the suspension...

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