* Molecular structure of PE-series surfactants $ Data for 1 wt% aqueous solution.

The mean diameters (Dw) and the standard deviations of the water droplets are summarized in Table 6 together with monodispersity ratio (U) and the values for critical pressure of water penetration (Pc). U is the ratio of weight-mean diameter(Di) to number-mean diameter(D2), U=Di/D2, and Pc is the water pressure when the permeation of water through the SPG membrane was started.

As can be seen in Table 6, continuous and batch methods using Membrane 1 gave fairly constant Dw values of ca. 0.66-0.70 nm over the entire range of PE-64 concentration studied. For the Membrane 2 system, Dw values were almost constant ca. 1.59-1.87 nm. Also, the monodispersity ratio was close to 1.0. On the contrary, a large Dw value and broad size distribution were obtained from the

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