101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

Using this simple 4-step system is the easiest, fastest, and most powerful way to distinguish which food ingredients are toxic to your overall health and which are healthy to consume. There are hundreds, even thousands, of such toxic ingredients that food manufactures use, and it could take you months or maybe even years to dissect all of that information. This program is designed to restore your health and eliminate any Toxic ingredients that may be slowly causing your health to deteriorate. However, as a side effect, you may lose weight due to the change in your diet. If you exercise and lift weights, you may notice an increase in muscle and energy as well. You will immediately notice results within the first week of applying the concepts in this system. All you have to do is follow the proven plan I give you and you will instantly have more energy and vitality. The key is to use the alternative foods in your diet consistently to see the results. Read more...

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Overview

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Functionality Of Food Additives

Adopted from the National Academy of Sciences national survey of food industries the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses the following terms to describe the physical or technical effects for which direct human food ingredients may be added to foods Flavor enhancer. Substance added to supplement, enhance, or modify the original taste and or aroma of a food, without imparting a characteristic taste or aroma of its own Flavoring agent or adjuvant. Substance added to impart or help impart a taste or aroma in food

Food Additives and Herbal Supplements

Pregnant women often express concern about food additives. However, all additives have to be approved as safe for almost all but a small proportion of the population who may experience rare reactions to them before they can be used in foods. The presence of an 'E' number demonstrates that it has passed safety tests and been approved for use by the European Community. In the United Kingdom, COT sets an Acceptable Daily Intake for each additive, which is the amount that can be eaten daily with no risk to health. This may limit the amount of an additive used or restrict its use to certain food products. Even when an additive has been approved, new research is constantly reviewed and approval for any additive will be withdrawn if doubt is raised about its safety.

Joint Food and Agriculture Organization World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives

For the evaluation and assessment of the safety, specifications, and intake analysis of food additives and contaminants. Procedures for the preparation of a toxicological monograph, an intake assessment, and the specifications for the FAO and WHO are discussed in the FAO and WHO procedural guidelines (3,4) and on their Web sites (5,6). JECFA provides scientific advice to FAO, WHO, member governments, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission operating under the Joint FAO WHO Food Standards Programme, which was created to develop food standards, guidelines, and related texts such as codes of practice for the protection of health of consumers, ensure fair trade practices in food trade, and promote coordination of all food standards' work undertaken by international governmental and nongovernmental organizations. JECFA provides advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and its specialist committees. The Commission works with many aspects of food involving the protection of consumers and...

Microbial Polysaccharides Incorporated As Food Additives

In the US, polysaccharides which are to be used as food additives are subject to Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) regulations and must be approved by the USDA. Currently only two microbial polysaccharide products have such approval - xanthan and gellan, although curdlan may also be under evaluation. Previously dextran was also an approved food additive, but it is not currently used in food manufacture. In Japan, a wider view is taken and microbial EPS are regarded as natural products. One thus finds the bacterial product curdlan being used in various foodstuffs, while pullulan (from the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans) is also acceptable. In the case of pullulan, the polysaccharide also has potential value as a food packaging material, a role which is also strictly controlled.

Description Of Major Food Additives

Practically every food manufacturing operation depends in some degree on the use of food additives, but the range of additives necessary for the formulation varies (Table 2). Of the variety of ways food additives have been classified, most involve functional grouping. Although chemical classifications may be useful, because they place molecules of similar structure and physical-chemical properties in comparable categories, compounds of a single chemical family may perform different functions in the food industry. Therefore, the following brief description of the major food additives is based on functional classification. Table 2. Selected Food Additives and their Major Uses Table 2. Selected Food Additives and their Major Uses

Food Additives Colors and Flavors

The 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires that if food processors wish to add a substance to food, they must submit a petition to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with documentation on chemistry, use, function, and safety. On careful review that the substance is safe, the FDA will authorize it with specific conditions. When this amendment was passed, many substances were exempted from complying with the FDA procedure because there were no known hazards in their use at that time. The list of substances became known as the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) list. Since 1958, some substances on the GRAS list have been reviewed, and a few, such as cyclamate and red dye 3, were removed because new information linked them to health problems. However, many of the chemicals on the GRAS list have not been rigorously tested and it is likely they will not be tested because of their long-time histories of use without any proof of harm or because their...

Food Additives

Direct food additives are those that have been intentionally added to food for functional purpose, in controlled amounts, usually at low levels (from parts per million to 1-2 by weight). Basic foodstuffs are excluded from the definition, although ingredients that are added to foods (eg, high-fructose corn syrup HFCS , starches, and protein concentrates) are often included among food additives. Although the safety issue is far from subsiding, the scientific consensus is that food additives are indispensable in the production, processing, and marketing of many food products, and that the judicious use of chemical additives typically in the range from a few parts per million (ppm) to less than 1 by weight of the finished food contributes to the abundance, variety, stability, microbiological safety, flavor, and appearance of the food supply. While food additives offer a major contribution to the pal-atability and appeal of a wide variety of foods, their level of use is relatively...

Antimicrobial Compounds

Food antimicrobials are chemical compounds added to or present in foods for the purpose of retarding microbial growth or killing microorganisms. The major targets for antimicrobials are bacteria, molds, and yeasts that are either pathogenic or cause spoilage of foods. The effectiveness of food antimicrobials against viruses and parasites carried by foods is less well characterized. Food antimicrobials are sometimes referred to as food preservatives however, the latter include food additives that are antimicrobials, antibrowning agents, and antioxidants. Under normal use conditions, food antimicrobials are bacteriostatic or fungistatic rather than bactericidal or fungicidal. The former indicates inhibition of growth of cells while the latter indicates killing of a population. Bacteriostasis is often reversible. Because food antimicrobials are generally static in nature, they will not preserve a food indefinitely. Depending on storage conditions, the food product eventually spoils or...

Organic Acids And Esters

Many organic acids are used as food additives, but not all have antimicrobial activity. The most effective antimicrobials are acetic, lactic, propionic, sorbic, and benzoic acids. The activity of organic acids is related to pH and the undissociated form of the acid is primarily responsible for antimicrobial activity (7). The use of organic acids is generally limited to foods with a pH less than 5.5, since most organic acids have piiTa's of pH 3.0 to 5.0 (7). Another factor affecting potential activity is polarity. This relates both to the ionization of the molecule and contribution of any alkyl side groups or hydrophobic parent molecules. Antimicrobials must be lipophilic to attach and pass through the cell membrane but also be soluble in the aqueous phase (8).

Spices and Their Essential Oils

Spices are roots, bark, seeds, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants added to foods as flavoring agents. It has been known since ancient times that spices and their essential oils have varying degrees of antimicrobial activity. Cloves, cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and, to a lesser extent, sage and rosemary have the strongest antimicrobial activity among spices.

Food Uses of Aluminum Compounds

Aluminum compounds that may be employed as food additives are listed in Table 1. Although most are present in foods as trace components, others may be present in significant quantities. For example, aluminum-based baking powders, employing sodium aluminum phosfate (SALP), may contain more than 10mgg_1 of aluminum, and bread or cake made with these may contain 5-15 mg of the element per slice. American processed cheese may contain as much as 50 mg of aluminum per slice due to the addition of Kasel, an emulsifying agent. Pickled cucumbers may contain 10 mg of aluminum per fruit when alum has been employed as a firming agent. Aluminum anticaking agents may also be present in significant quantities in common table salt. Table 1 Permitted aluminum-containing food additives and uses

Metabolic Control For Enhanced Metabolite Production

A number of microbial processes in the production of various food additives involve limiting one or more critical nutrients. The submerged production of citric acid by A. niger involves limiting both iron and phosphate to achieve maximum yields (14). The production and excretion of maximum amounts of glutamic acid by Corynebacterium glutamicum is dependent on cell permeability. Increased permeability can be achieved through biotin deficiency, through oleic acid deficiency in oleic acid auxotrophs, through the addition of saturated fatty acids or penicillin, or by glycerol deficiency in glycerol auxotrophs (15).

Preclinical Testing For An Essentially New Excipient

Materials used in the food industry may be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for human use and or have established acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) based on toxicological data as established by, e.g., the Joint Food and Agriculture (FAD) and World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee (JECFA). Use of this information in a robust expert literature review may reduce the need for pre-clinical testing if the material is being considered as an excipient, although such data is of little use for nonoral products. Also, the reviewed toxicity data may be old and unreliable and, indeed, raise specific toxicological concerns, or the new proposed level of use may be higher than the oral ADI, all necessitating new investigations. Thus, although the CDs had a well-established history of use in food products, a full package of preclinical investigations, including metabolism work, short- to long-term rodent and nonrodent toxicity, reproduction toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity...

Biologically Stable Intermediates

Example, when the inhabitants of the hot dry desert areas used to bury dates, figs, and grapes in the hot dry sands to dehydrate them. With partial removal of water, the sugar content of the fruit was high enough to prevent the growth of microorganisms, and the fruit would keep for long periods of time. The fruit could be consumed at a later date without the need for further processing. A number of other technologies were also developed to accomplish this. These include simple dehydration, chemical preservation, pickling, fermentation, canning, freezing, and, more recently, a number of more-sophisticated approaches such as irradiation, hypobaric applications, pulsed light, and so on. All of these were concerned with processing food in a manner that would make it edible at a later date. But with the increasing importance of food fabrication, another concept emerged. Food commodities were essential as ingredients in many formulated foods, and a need arose to have food ingredients...

Implication for taste coding

Taste (Zhao et al. 2003, Max et al. 2001). These findings are consistent with the specific expression pattern of the various taste receptor molecules in taste receptor cells. The expression of a receptor for the synthetic opiate spiralidone under control of the Taslr2 promoter resulted in a high preference of the transgenic animals for this opiate while wild type mice are indifferent to it (Zhao et al. 2003). This result strongly argues that sweet taste sensation is encoded by a specific subpopulation of taste receptor cells and not by the sweet receptor protein itself. Activation of any one receptor in this cell population would be perceived as sweet. Thus, a considerable amount of independent observations strongly point towards a labelled line coding of taste information in the periphery by different subtypes of taste receptor cells. This leads, of course, to the question how these results can be reconciled with the apparent broad tuning of taste receptor cells (Sato and Beidler...

Functional analysis of the sweet receptor TAS1R2 and TAS1R3

Sweet taste is elicited by compounds of various chemical classes (Chon 1914). Natural sweeteners include sugars such as glucose and sucrose, sweet amino acids such as D-tryptophane, glycine, sweet proteins such as monellin, thauma-tin, but also some other chemically quite diverse compounds including stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalone (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). Most relevant sugars and sweet amino acid are low potency sweeteners (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). This likely serves as a quantity check because only high concentrations of these compounds can indicate food sources of nutritional value (Lindemann 1996). In addition, various high potency artificial sweeteners of various chemical structures such as saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and alitame are known (Schiffman and Gatlin 1993). Interestingly, the perception of sweet compounds varies across species. Rodents, for example, do not perceive the sweetness of the sweet proteins monellin, thaumatin, and the artificial...

Generally Recognized as Safe Food Status

Exempt from the food additive regulations and process are food ingredients considered to be GRAS. Under FDA regulations (12), a food ingredient is GRAS when (i) there is a GRAS of the ingredient among qualified experts and (ii) that recognition is based on scientific procedures, or experience with the ingredient in foods prior to 1958. If the GRAS status is to be determined on the basis of scientific procedures, this requires studies of the same sort as are required for food additive petitions. GRAS substances that are formally recognized by the FDA are listed in the regulations at 21C.F.R. 182, 184, and 186. GRAS status does not depend on formal FDA recognition, and as FDA notes in its regulation, ''it is impractical to list all such substances that are GRAS'' (13). Nevertheless, for pharmaceutical excipient purposes, it is unlikely that an ingredient that does not have some formal status with the FDA will be accepted by the agency as safe for use in a new drug without the full...

Worldwide Food Additive Status

For many years, international chemical companies and related food and pharmaceutical companies have had no formal legal mechanism to provide some indicia of safety for ingredients, especially pharmaceutical excipients. As a result, these companies turned to the U.N. in a manner similar to the way that U.S. companies informally used the FDA food additive and GRAS processes to give an indicia of government acceptance regarding the safety of ingredients in the United States. The JECFA was established in 1956 under the auspices of the U.N. and is made up of committees from two U.N. constituent organizations, the FAO and the WHO, as an international committee of experts (primarily toxicologists) to evaluate food additives. The WHO part of JECFA would review all of the available toxicological data on an ingredient, and, where appropriate, establish acceptable daily intake levels. The FAO part of JECFA would establish chemical specifications for the ingredient. The recommendations of JECFA...

Recommended readings

Over the years, many tests have been devised to determine the adverse effects of chemicals in living organisms. Procedures are available for use with intact animals, laboratory-cultured single-cell organisms, isolated organs (perfused liver or lungs), or mammalian cell lines. Toxic endpoints used by investigators range from the traditional acute lethality, weight loss, and carcinogenesis to exciting new tests for effects of immunosuppression, behavioral aberrations, and genetic injury. Given this spectrum of procedures, an orderly and systematic approach to toxicity testing is undeniably needed. One of the first proposals in the U.S. for a systematic strategy involved the safety decision tree approach of the Food Safety Council Scientific Committee in 1980. In 1982, the publication titled Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives used in Foods (also known as Redbook I) was developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bureau...

Genetic variations of taste receptors and their consequences on human taste perception

PTC tasters and non-tasters differ drastically in their bitter perception of PTC but also many other N-C S group containing compounds (Harris and Kalmus 1949, Barnicot et al. 1951). Some of these chemicals are natural food ingredients that occur, for example, in cruciferic vegetables such as brussel sprouts and cabbage (Drewnowski 2001) leading to rejection by the consumer. These observations support the hypothesis that food choice is influenced by individual taste sensitivity. Thus, inherited differences in taste perception could lead to different dietary habits and might therefore contribute to nutrition-related diseases. Although various research groups tried to correlate the PTC taster phenotype with differences in food liking or disliking and consumption, this issue is still far from being understood (for a review, see Prescott and Beverly 2004). To some extent these studies are hampered by technical problems (Prescott and Beverly 2004). Due to the recent discovery that...

Amino Acids and Protein

The nonessential amino acid glutamate (GLU) is an excitatory neurotransmitter, causing neurons that express GLU receptors to depolarize. Because GLU is excitatory, responsive neurons can become overexcited, when subjected to prolonged GLU exposure, and die. The term excitotoxicity was coined to describe this effect, and led to the concern that GLU ingested in food (as a constituent of dietary proteins as a flavoring agent) might cause the brain to become flooded with GLU, causing

Monitoring and Control of Hazards

The position in the US up to 1958 was similar to that in the UK. Food was considered adulterated if injury could arise from its use. Legislation was based on traditional food, added substances, and unavoidable added substances (contaminants). For added substances, listed in an inventory of over 3000 chemicals and often referred to as 'Everything Added to Food in the United States' (EAFUS), the food was considered adulterated if the added substance could render the food injurious to health for unavoidably added substances, a balance was applied between the essential nature of the food material and the degree of contamination. These strictures applied to both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic toxicants. In 1958 a change in emphasis was introduced through the Food Additives Amendment. This established a licensing scheme for substances deliberately added to foods or for substances that could migrate into food, but excluded materials that were generally, through usage, regarded as safe...

Food Safety Assessment Compliance with Regulations

The conduct of nonclinical research is a highly regulated function. In the U.S., the substances tested, the manner in which they are tested, and who tests them is governed by guidelines promulgated by the regulatory branch of the federal government. The reasons for regulations are primarily to safeguard the public by ensuring that mechanisms to test food additives, drugs, and other substances adhere to a uniform standard that provides a way to consistently measure the risks and benefits they might pose to the public. Thus, good laboratory practices (GLPs) are regulations that define conditions under which a toxicology study should be planned, conducted, monitored, reported, and archived. Many agencies from the U.S. and other nations have adopted GLPs. In 1983, the U.S. EPA implemented GLP regulations under the mandate of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA, see later) and the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) for pesticide and toxic chemical registration...

Near Critical Gas Solvents

In addition to the general benefits, carbon dioxide which is the only solvent of practical relevance for industrial scale processes, exhibits additional advantages. It is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS-status) for the production of food ingredients by the FDA. It is bacteriostatic and not flammable. It is readily available at high purity and it is inexpensive, the price being largely independent from oil price movements.

The companys place in the food system

Vertical integration has been an important innovation strategy in the past, for example in the chicken industry, and in large multinationals which have combined ingredients processing with food manufacturing. Recently in some companies there has been a breaking of the integration with selling off the ingredients processing section by large food companies and of contracting farmers instead of owning farms in the production, processing and marketing integration. Retailers increasingly have a high degree of integration, although not always ownership, with production, processing and manufacturing, and are more strongly involved in innovation in the food system. Food manufacturers are increasingly directed in innovation by the food ingredients' processors and the retailers. It is interesting to speculate how the food manufacturers will develop innovation strategies in the future it would appear that today's strong influence on their innovations of retailers and ingredients suppliers may...

Encapsulated Ingredientscommercial Types And Applications

The encapsulated food ingredients that are commonly discussed in the literature may represent just the tip of the iceberg. There are more than 20 companies advertising services in encapsulation, granulation, and agglomeration (21). Much of their work is done on a custom basis, and volumes and applications are unknown. There is also a significant amount of encapsulation being done by companies for captive use on a proprietary basis. However, there has developed since the late 1960s a major market for encapsulated ingredients, in addition to the dry flavor business, that by that time had already been established.

Future Development

A new and better technique to microencapsulate food ingredients may be developed in the next 10 years, and perhaps the new process will be more economical than the current state of the art. However, if the available technology stays the same, the market for encapsulates in the food industry will certainly keep growing at an accelerating rate. The benefits are significant.

Regulatory Activities

With supplementary substances (as minerals, vitamins, and condiments). Like regular foods, enteral diets are formulated with items that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) or items approved as food additives by the FDA. The development of more specialized enteral formulas for specific diseases has placed these formulas under increasingly intense secrutiny by the FDA. In 1988, the orphan drug amendment created a new category of food called medical food, which was defined as follows The term medical food means a food which is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician and which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements based on recognized scientific principles, are established by medical evaluation (112). Implicit in this definition is the notion that disease conditions can change an individual's nutritional requirements or food intake leading to a deficiency...

Ssf Processes For Food Enzymes

Enzymes have become an integral part of human need in day-to-day life, playing a varied role in several industries, particularly the modern food industry. Production of a variety of food products, ranging from baked foods, syrups, and fruit juices to flavoring agents and dairy products, commonly involves the use of several food enzymes. Almost all the micro-bial enzymes can be produced using SSF systems. Industrially important food enzymes, which include alpha amylase, glucoamylase, lipase, protease, pectinase, inulinase, glutaminase, and tannase, have been widely studied (4,5,19,24-33).

Molecular Genetic Basis Of Biocontrol

Their mechanism of action thus awaits to be elucidated. 6-pentylapyrone is probably the most frequently studied of these metabolites, as it also exhibits a pronounced coconut-aroma which can be used as a (for humans) nontoxic flavoring agent. Its biosynthesis has been claimed to be derived from linolenic acid (Serrano-Carreon et al. 1993), but this conclusion was criticized by Sivasithamparam and Ghisalberti (1998), who consider it to be a product of polyketide biosynthesis. No other of the genes or proteins involved in Trichoderma secondary metabolism has as yet been characterized.

Background And Historical Significance Society and Risk Analysis

Delaney Clause of 1958 (Table 3.4. item 6), which imposed a zero-risk cancer standard designed to prohibit food additives including pesticides with carcinogenic potential from concentrating in processed foods. A zero-risk standard does not require quantitative risk assessment, but rather a simple statistical test at some prescribed level for the presence of a carcinogen hazard in a processed food.

Interaction of Water with Dipolar Solutes

Many food ingredients contain molecules which are either dipolar or contain dipolar groups, including alcohols, sugars, proteins, polysaccharides, and surfactants (Fennema 1996a). Water is capable of participating in dipole-dipole interactions with dipolar solutes (Franks 1973, 1991). By far the most important type of dipole-dipole interaction is between water and those solutes which have hydrogen bond donors (e.g., -O-H8+) or acceptors (e.g., 8-O-). The strength of hydrogen bonds between water and this type of dipolar solute is similar to that between two water molecules (Table 4.4). The addition of a dipolar solute to water therefore has much less influence on the mobility and organization of the water molecules in its immediate vicinity than does a similarly sized ionic solute (Fennema 1996b). The influence of dipolar solutes on the properties of water is largely governed by the ease with which they can be accommodated into the existing tetrahedral structure of the water molecules...

Uses In The Food Industry

The physicochemical properties of individual fiber sources determine their usefulness in the food industry. Many synthetic or modified fibers are used as thickening agents, tex-turizers, or stabilizers. Gums, also called hydrocolloids, are considered food additives. To achieve desired properties in food systems, they are used at levels of less than 2 . Some examples of gums include seaweed extracts such as alginates, agar, and carrageenan. Gums are also isolated from seeds (locust bean, guar) or dried resins that are expelled from trees (gum arabic, gum ghatti, gum karaya, gum tra-gancanth).

Models Used in the Determination of Low Dose Response

Public chemophobia has had a marked influence on the way regulatory agencies have handled their determination of permissible levels of toxic compounds. The 1958 Delaney Clause, described in Chapter 5, is an example of such a regulatory product, which excluded approval of a food additive found to induce cancer in humans and animals or the so-called zero tolerance (de minimis) approach to food additives and contaminants. However, the value of zero is completely contingent on the sensitivity of the methods used by the analytical chemist to detect the toxicant. What was available in 1958 in the analytical chemist's instrument arsenal has been far exceeded, going from part per million (ppm) to part per trillion (ppt) and beyond. Thus, in 1958, 1 DDT per million could be detected and currently DDT can be detected in everything, which presents a dilemma for the risk assessor, who has to consider zero tolerance and the increase in detection ability because of analytical advancement.

HERP Values for Selected Substances

Estimated extent of human exposure to the chemical. Human exposure rodent potency (HERP) values or risk ranking for these chemicals were derived by Dr. Ames, and he concluded that carcinogenic hazards from current levels of pesticide residues, water pollution, or food additives are likely to be of minimal concern relative to the background of natural substances. For example, the HERP value for ethyl alcohol in wine is 10,000 times the possible hazard of ethylene dibromide (EDB). However, for wine, philosophically the risk is more acceptable because it is a naturally occurring toxic substance. Although no uniform method or criterion for risk assessment exists among all the government agencies overseeing food safety, in general the FDA has interpreted the Delaney Clause according to the de minimis doctrine to permit the use of carcinogenic food additives with a cancer risk below 1 in 1 million. The National Academy of Sciences concluded that public health would be best served by...

Epidemiology in Food and Nutritional Toxicology

Epidemiological data play an important role in food and nutritional toxicology, such as in the assessing safety of food ingredients, the efficacy of phytochemicals, and incidence of foodborne illnesses. In foodborne illnesses, epidemiology is the tool used to estimate who will get sick from what food substance, how often, and under what conditions. With epidemiological data, one can assess the risks of foodborne hazards and establish priorities for which one may allocate resources. Such increased knowledge can become crucial to consumers, to policymakers for developing strategies to tackle food safety issues, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of food safety programs.

Dietary toxins and contaminants

Benzoic acid, propylene glycol and a range of other food additives are capable of causing toxicity if ingested in sufficient quantities by the cat. However, it is hoped that exposure to such lethal doses would be a rare event in practice. One of the most potent forms of poisoning related to contamination of the cat's diet involves the presence of microbial toxins and, in this regard, toxaemia resulting from infections with staphylococci, salmonella and toxigenic fungi has been reported (Rumbeiha et al, 1994).

General References

Brannen, Food Additives, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1980. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Food and Drugs. Subchapter B Food For Human Consumption, Parts 100-199, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998. J. M. Concon, Food Toxicology, Contaminants, and Additives,Vols. 1 and 2, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1987. St. Paul, Minn., 1998. T. E. Furia, Handbook of Food Additives, 2nd d., CRC Press, Boca R. J. Lewis, Food Additives Handbook, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1989. T. Nagodawithana and G. Reed, Enzymes in Food Processing, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1993. P. Newberne, GRAS Flavoring Substances, 18th List, Food Tech- L. P. Somogyi, Direct Food Additives in Fruit Processing, in L. P. Somogyi, H. S. Ramaswamy, and Y. H. Hui, eds., Processing Fruits, Biology, Principles, and Applications, Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, Penn., 1996.

Igemediated Food Allergies

The specific avoidance diet is the primary means of treatment for IgE-mediated food allergies. For example, if allergic to peanuts, don't eat peanuts. With IgE-mediated food allergies, very low amounts of the offending food can be tolerated by most allergic individuals. Thus, the construction of a safe and effective avoidance diet can be quite difficult. Food-allergic patients must have considerable knowledge of food composition. For example, casein, whey, and lactose are common food ingredients that are derived from cows' milk. These milk ingredients would likely be hazardous for milk-allergic individuals. The ingredient must contain the specific allergenic protein to be hazardous to the allergic consumer. For example, peanut oil and soybean oil, despite being derived from allergenic sources, do not contain protein and would not be hazardous for peanut-allergic or soy-allergic individuals unless the oils had become contaminated during use. The careful reading and complete...

Disorders associated with food allergens

On the other hand, although almost unknown in infancy, among adults reactions to food additives and other chemicals, i.e. false food reactions, are more likely than to the foods themselves. The colon represents one of the major target organs for these various offending agents.

Future Trends And Potentials

In the foreseeable future, ME will continue to play a central role in the use of bacteria to produce food ingredients. One potential area for the application of ME is the removal of undesirable sugars present in many foods. A typical example is lactose, which is present in liquid dairy products. Many people are lactose-intolerant and cannot consume products in which lactose is present. Engineering LAB to obtain starter cultures with elevated -galactosidase activities has been proposed as a way to eliminate lactose (50). Raffinose is another example. Due to the absence of a-galactosidase, it cannot be degraded intestinally by humans. Consuming it causes intestinal disturbances. Engineering LAB to produce high levels of a-galactosidase and using it as starter cultures for removing raffi-nose has been proposed as a good solution to this problem (50). As a first step, the gene melA encoding a-galactosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum has been cloned (69) and is being expressed in Lac....

Ingredient Selection

A large number of different types of lipid-based emulsifier can be used as food ingredients, and a manufacturer must select the one that is most suitable for each particular product. Suitability, in turn, depends on factors such as an emulsifier's legal status as a food ingredient its cost and availability, the consistency in its properties from batch to batch, its ease of handling and dispersion, its shelf life, its compatibility with other ingredients, and the processing, storage, and handling conditions it will experience, as well as the expected shelf life and physicochemical properties of the final product.

Food Laws And Regulations

In the United States, a number of food laws have been passed with the primary objective to prevent food adulteration, either economic or hazardous. Some of the more prominent laws are the 1938 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA), the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the FDCA (including the Delaney clause, which prohibited the use of any known human or animal carcinogen in foods), the 1966 Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, and the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act. Food regulations promulgated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the purpose of enforcing these laws are found in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations, while regulations promulgated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (for meat, poultry, eggs, and their products) are in Title 9. In addition to these national regulations, food processors dealing in international commerce may have to follow international regulations, such as those defined by the Codex Alimentarius.

Nano and microencapsulation from micro to nanoparticles and nanocapsules

In this respect, the great advantage of liposomes and emulsions over other microencapsulation technologies is the stability that liposomes impart in food applications with high water activity or high water content. Others techniques of encapsulation, producing dried and solid powders, e.g. by spray drying or fluidised beds, also impart great stability to food ingredients but shows the inconvenience of the dry products' advantage not to resist in high water activity with immediate release in water.

Food Safety And Risk Communication

Foods commonly contain a number of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc) as well as potential chemical contaminants (food additives, pesticide residues, veterinary drug residues, metals, etc) that may pose some level of risk to consumers. Although the magnitudes of the risks may vary dramatically among the various risk agents, it is clear that significant public attention focuses on virtually all types of food safety risks, both large and small. Effective communication of such food safety risks to the general population as well as to lawmakers is an important goal of health scientists, government agencies, and food industry representatives.

Food Safety And Risk Management

The emerging field of food safety risk analysis is composed of three dependent yet separate fields risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. This trinity of risk-related factors forms the basis for the decisions about chemicals requiring regulation and the type of regulation needed. The ultimate goal of the process is food safety, the prevention of adverse health effects due to exposure to hazardous substances in food. Many different chemicals enter the food supply, including pesticides, natural toxins (such as aflatoxins), metals, and intentionally used food additives.

Prevention Intervention And Control Actions

Zero risk, which applies to food additives shown to induce cancer in humans or animals. For chemicals regulated in such a manner there is a zero tolerance. Reasonable certainty of no harm or negligible risk, which typically deems acceptable a cancer risk of no more than one excess cancer above background per million people exposed, as calculated using conservative (risk-magnifying) risk assessment methods. Risk balancing, which specifically requires that risk and benefits should be considered together before making a decision.

United States Regulations

Food additives are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Before an additive is approved for food use it must be demonstrated that it is safe under its intended conditions of use. Some food ingredients have been reviewed by qualified personnel and are granted the status of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS). Food additives that have been demonstrated to be noncarcinogenic are allowed for use if the exposure estimates are below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), which is derived by applying conservative uncertainty factors to exposure levels that typically do not cause observed effects in laboratory animals. Within the Federal Food, and Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Delaney Clause, adopted in 1958, states that no substance which has been shown to induce cancer in humans or animals can be used as a food additive (zero risk basis). As such, potentially carcinogenic chemicals are not allowed as food additives regardless of the expected level of exposure.

International Regulations

Scientific risk assessment provides the basis for Codex risk management decisions. Two FAO WHO scientific advisory bodies, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) focus their activities primarily on risk assessment. These committees are independent of the Codex system and advise FAO and WHO and their members. Within Codex, risk management is defined as the process of considering risk assessment results, weighing policy alternatives, and, if required, selecting and implementing appropriate control options including regulatory measures. The outcome of the risk management process is the development of standards, guidelines, and other recommendations, which are developed by the Codex subsidiary bodies, such as the Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC), the Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR), and the Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Food (CCRVDF). In the case of food contaminants, the normal...

Governmental Regulation

Miller (48) pointed out that an integration of food science, toxicology, microbiology, nutrition, and genetics is needed to solve problems of food safety. Hutt (49) described several of the modifications made in the FDA Modernization Act of 1997. In Food Technology (50) the proceedings of a symposium to honor Peter Baron Hutt are described. Hutt himself explained and criticized the approval system for food additives. Articles on food additives have not been cited here. They really need to be considered in the light of risk assessment (51).

Management Dietary Elimination

The management of food allergy consists largely of elimination from the diet of the trigger food or foods. Elimination diets are used either for the diagnosis or the treatment of food intolerance, or for both. A diet may be associated with an improvement in symptoms because of intolerance to the food, a placebo effect, or the improvement may have been a coincidence. The degree of avoidance that is necessary to prevent symptoms is highly variable. Some patients are intolerant to minute traces of food, but others may be able to tolerate varying amounts. Strict avoidance and prevention of symptoms are the aims in certain instances, but in many cases it is unknown whether allowing small amounts of a food trigger could lead to either enhanced sensitivity or to the reverse, increasing tolerance. The duration required for dietary avoidance varies. For example, intolerance to food additives may last only a few years, whereas intolerance to peanuts is usually lifelong. Although food allergy is...

Naturally Occurring Toxicants

Further investigations into the mechanisms of action of these biologically active plant compounds are needed. In many cases, there is little information on the toxicity of these compounds, especially when compared to the amount of toxicology information needed for food additives and pesticides (16). Increased consumption of these compounds is likely because of the current development of functional foods that often contain various phytochemicals with the goal to improve health. However, the optimum levels of consumption for healthful effects and the levels that would result in toxicity are currently unknown for most phytochemicals.

Hazard Identification

Ductive toxicity, neurotoxicity, and immunotoxicity (3). However, for final approval of pesticides and food additives, the long-term animal bioassay is a key component in the hazard identification process. Table 2 lists the types of toxicological tests that are conducted using the animal model system. For food additives, the safety evaluation involves assigning a concern level to the additive, based on structural information and an estimate of exposure. The minimum toxicological testing required for each concern level is listed in Table 3. end points and a nonthreshold approach for cancer end points. The threshold is the level of exposure below which no adverse effects result. This approach is based on establishing a NOAEL, which is the highest dose in milligrams kilogram body weight that results in no detectable damage to the animal during chronic or subchronic testing. Safety factors are applied to the NOAEL to determine the RfD and the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI values...

Conditions Limiting the Implementation of Effective Food Fortification Programs in Developing Countries

The difficulty of finding suitable vehicles to be fortified in the developing world has led to investigation of the fortification of oil, sugar, salt, fish and soy sauces, curry powder, and, in the past, other condiments such as monosodium glutamate. The main limitation of these food vehicles is that they allow the addition of only one or very few micronutrients.

Practical Applications

The current scale of the use of additives in food comes as a surprise to most people, and it is understandable that many should find these substances vaguely menacing. Nonetheless, the current phobia of food additives and food processing, and the obsession for so-called natural or health food arises largely out of misinformation and ignorance. Obsession with so-called natural or health food ignores the wide range of naturally occurring toxins in foods. The concept of health food is wholly misleading. For example, a survey of 'crunchy' peanut butter showed that 11 out of 59 samples from health food producers contained over 100 mg kg-1 of aflatox-ins, over 10 times the proposed maximum permitted level for total aflatoxins. Only one of the 26 samples from other producers contained aflatoxins in excess of 10 mg kg-1, and none contained more than 50 mgkg-1.

Industrial food products and services

There are two different groups in industrial business-to-business relationships -the industrial buyer (food processor or manufacturer) who employs raw materials and food ingredients in manufacturing a food product, and the industrial supplier of raw materials or ingredients (farmers, primary processors, ingredients processors). There is a great variety of buyers and suppliers, and also a wide variety of products. The product development varies from a branded coffee for one-person coffee bars, which is similar to consumer product development, to the highly specific ingredient for one large multinational food manufacturer. But there are some general factors to consider in developing new industrial products (Schaffner et al., 1998).

Organic Ingredients Production

Organic acids, vitamins, nonvolatile and volatile flavor organic molecules (e.g., vanillin and 2-heptanone) are important compounds in food production and technology. They serve as food ingredients or as precursors for food ingredients. The major organic acids produced and used in the largest volumes function primarily as food acidulants. The means for organic acid and production methods rely on bacteria and fungi. If these ingredients are used as a food ingredient, they must have a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. Although the use of Penicillium was the primary source for many organic acids, in recent years Aspergillus niger has become the preferred organism and riboflavin oversynthesizing strains of Pichia guilliermondii the preferred source.

Fermented Foods and Beverages

In certain food production schemes, food additives and ingredients obtained through fungal fermentation technology contribute much to aroma and flavors. Fungi grown in either liquid cultures or in solid-state fermentation have the advantages of in situ contribution to the value of foods (see Arora 2004, chapters by Saxsena and Malhotra Nigam, Robinson, and Singh and Vinigera-Gonzalez). Several specific aspects of fungal biotechnology's contribution to functional attributes including taste and smell of foods are discussed in depth in the following chapters (see this volume, chapters Castrillo and Ugalde Agrawal and Hansen and Jakobsens see also chapter by Avalos, Arora 2004).

Protein structure in relation to flavour binding

Most investigation which aimed to study the mechanism of flavour binding showed the role of proteins structure as well as the type of flavour compound (aldehyde, alcohol, ketone, ester) in binding process (Heng et al. 2004, Semenova et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c). Globular proteins are used as food ingredients for different applications such as gelation, thickening, emulsifica-tion and foaming. The structures adopted by a globular protein under a particular environment result from an equilibrium between physicochemical parameters including hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, and configurational entropy (McClements 2002, and cited references). The system tends to reduce the contact area between non-polar groups and water, and for this reason the main driving force stabilising the compact structure of globular proteins is related to hydrophobic effect.

Citrons Lemons and Limes

These citrus fruits originated in northeast India and gradually spread westward to the Middle East and eventually Europe. The citron was imported to ancient Greece from Persia, and initially used as a perfume and for medicinal purposes. From the first century a.d. on it was cultivated in southern Europe. The Romans added the rind of the citron soaked in condiments in their cooking, and the Arabs candied it. There was much confusion over the centuries between citrons, lemons, and limes, the latter two being much later arrivals in the Mediterranean. Citrus fruits were an integral part of Arab cookery, and through Arab mediation also played a role in medieval European cookery, although for northern Europeans they remained an expensive import, one that only the rich could afford, well into the early modern period. Physicians described these fruits as cold and dry and recommended the rind as a digestive and as an antidote to melancholy, the juice boiled down and turned to syrup as a remedy...

TABLE 641 Physiologic Consequences of Airflow Obstruction

Asthma is associated with no family history or personal history of allergy and normal serum levels of IgE. Many stimuli have been noted to provoke an increase in airway responsiveness. Viral respiratory infections are the most common of the stimuli that invoke acute asthma exacerbation.11 Increased airway responsiveness secondary to infection may last anywhere from 2 to 8 weeks.11 Exercise is another common precipitant of acute asthma. Unlike other precipitants of acute exacerbation, long-term sequelae and airway reactivity are not noted as a result of exercise. Environmental conditions, such as atmospheric pollutants and antigens noted in heavy industrial or densely populated urban areas, are associated with higher incidence and severity of asthma. In addition, indoor antigens such as mold, house dust mites, cockroaches, and animal dander, are also associated with acute asthma. Occupational exposures, such as metal salt, wood and vegetable dust, pharmaceutical, industrial chemical...

Applications And Description For Extrusion Cooking Of Different Categories Of Products

The manufacture of breadings by either single-screw or co-rotating twin-screw extruders has been described (16,17). The starting materials are corn flour, wheat flour, or the second clears of wheat flour. Leavening agents, dry skim milk, salt, emulsifier, and other food additives may be added. Processing conditions during extrusion can be varied to obtain breadings that are functionally similar to traditional breadings. The extrudate is wet milled and sized prior to drying. Croutons are made in a similar manner. The small cubes are sized at the die of the extruder using a variable speed knife. Thus, the wet milling stage for the extrudate is not needed.

Nonconventional Alternative Feedstuffs

To identify those materials offering potential as a feedstuff, one should attempt to answer the following '10' 1) Does it have potential nutritional value for livestock and poultry 2) Is it likely to be palatable and acceptable to the animals 3) Does it contain contaminants 4) Does it contain toxic substances or chemical residues 5) What is the amount and sea-sonality of production 6) What are the handling and storage considerations

Foodborne Fungal Pathogens And Mycotoxins

Recent advances in diagnostic biotechnology have revolutionized the procedures used in the identification of food fungi. Biochemical identification assays have been miniaturized and through automation and uses of robotics have become faster, reliable, and cost affordable. Rapid identification of fungi and yeasts from foods has become less cumbersome because of ease in sequestering of target fungi from the food ingredients and interfering compounds. In addition, biochemical tests which traditionally have been used in the identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi have been greatly aided by the introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology.

Urticaria and angioedema

In some patients, chronic recurrent urticaria and angioedema can be due to intolerance to food additives.17 Other causes include drugs, physical factors (cold, pressure, heat, etc.) and foods. However, it should be remembered that no cause can be found in the majority of patients (idiopathic chronic recurrent urticaria). An attempt should be made to identify a cause. If a drug or a food is found to be causative, this should be excluded. In cases where no cause is obvious, the best approach is to treat the condition with the regular use of antihistamine for a period of 6-12 weeks. If the response to antihistamine is not adequate or if symptoms return once antihistamines are discontinued, a trial diet excluding benzoate preservatives, azodyes and salicylate may be helpful. If the condition improves, an open or double-blind challenge may be warranted to confirm the causative relationship. If positive, the diet should be continued for a longer period until spontaneous remission occurs. If...

Diet and behaviour problems

In children, food intolerance has been implicated in hyperactivity or behaviour disorders. It has been claimed by some that children's behaviour improved on a food diet containing few or no additives. Parents often strongly believe that food additives, especially azodyes (e.g. tartrazine), are responsible for the child's behaviour. However, scientific proof is lacking and studies have not been able to prove conclusively the effectiveness of the dietary approach. There are considerable problems in subjecting children to a restrictive diet where behaviour problems already exist. At the current state of knowledge, a dietary approach is not recommended for this common problem.

Clinical Symptoms

Some specific examples include the fava bean, which contains dihydroxyphe-nylalanine (DOPA) that can be decarboxylated to dopamine. Tyramine content can be high in oriental preserved foods such as soy sauce, soybean paste, and various condiments. Swiss cheese has been implicated in outbreaks of histamine poisoning, attributed to Lactoacillus buchneri. Spanish wines have been shown to increase histamine and tyramine content within 5 d of manufacturing.

Consumption of soybean and reduced incidence of disease

The technological challenge of stably introducing a foreign gene into a food crop and having that gene product function as desired, the problems of controlling substrate flux partitioning to drive a desired biosynthetic pathway, and the potential risks posed by transgenic food crops are troublesome issues that have underscored the need for continued research on and development of nongenetic approaches for the enrichment of isoflavonoids in soybean foods and food ingredients (1). Major nongenetic approaches for increasing phenolic content in dietary plants include bioprocessing of soybean substrates and stimulation of the plant defense responses, which is known to result in the stimulation of phenolic synthesis. Both of these approaches could potentially be used to increase isofla-vonoid content in soybeans.

The regulatory status of health claims

The claims associated with foods have received considerable attention from legislators. One of the central principles has been that a clear distinction between food and medicines should be maintained. This principle is rather forcefully formulated in Directive 2000 13 EC which categorically forbids claims to 'attribute to any foodstuff the property of preventing, treating or curing human diseases or refer to such properties'. This principle makes the marketing of functional foods rather difficult, because it prevents conveying to the general public even scientifically valid information on the health-promoting effects of functional foods or food ingredients.

Microbial Contaminants

Consumer in recent years have expressed considerable concern over the safety of the food supply. Concern has been aimed at the presence of hormones and drugs in meats, preservatives found in food, pesticides, microbial contaminants, and food additives. Reports last year of cyanide in grapes and Alar in apples have fueled the level of concern. This issue of the public's concern over the quality of food was addressed at a conference (the International Conference on Issues in Food Safety and Toxicology) held in the spring of 1990 at Michigan State University (MSU) East Lansing, Mich. The conference was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and MSU's Center for Environmental Toxicology. From various presentations it became apparent that the consumers' perceptions of risks from chemical agents in food differs drastically from the experts' opinions. The experts rank the risk from chemicals below microbial risk or nutritional considerations. The general public perceives the...

The special case of probiotics

The existing starter cultures are generally classified either as food ingredients, processing aids or ingredients (Feord, 2002). in Europe currently only in Denmark and France is there a formal notification or approval systems for new strains intended for food use (von Wright, 2005). The French guidelines are based on a decision tree approach also recommending toxicological studies (including animal studies) if there is a need to guarantee an absence of risk.

Microencapsulation of Enzymes and Cells for Nonaqueous Biotransformations

The use of biocatalysts in nonaqueous organic solvents is now a well-established method for the preparation of pharmaceutical products (1-2), food ingredients (3-5), and intermediates used in the fine chemicals industry (6-10). One of the advantages of this approach is that it enables the bioprocess operation at much higher concentrations of poorly water-soluble substrates, thus making both the synthesis and product recovery more attractive from a practical standpoint (11,12). However, many enzymes, and certainly microorganisms, still require a substantial amount of water present to maintain their catalytic activity at synthetically useful levels. In these cases, conventional aqueous-organic two-phase systems are still widely used, although the rates of mass transfer and inactivation of biocatalysts at the interface can be a serious drawback (13-16).

Main Fields Of Research And Development

Use of rapid and online measurements (ultrasound, NIR, NMR, electronic noses) to facilitate and document good manufacturing practice. Certification and accreditation have become increasingly necessary tools in quality concepts (quality assurance). Assessment of allergic potential of food additives, novel food, or genetically engineered products. Development of improved packaging, reduction of material. Recycling and elimination costs are extremely high in Germany and Austria compared with other countries.

The Regulatory Environment

A number of independent advisory committees are established to advise government departments on aspects of food policy and safety. The main task of the Food Advisory Committee (FAC) is to advise on the safety of chemicals in foods, food additives, and food surveillance. However, policy on food labeling, including nutritional and health claims, is also determined to a large extent by the work of FAC. The assessment of novel foods, including genetically modified foods, is conducted by the Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes (ACNFP). More specific toxi-cological expertise is available on the Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Foods, Consumer Products and the Environment (COT), to which specific questions may be referred by the FAC or the ACNFP. Similarly, the government has access to expert nutrition advice on the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA). In the case of genetically modified organisms, two additional committees are involved in the...

Databases And Coverage

Art formats, and the appearance of the database on the Internet further demonstrates the commitment of IFIS in this direction. The database can be accessed via seven hosts (DataStar, Dialog, DIMDI, EINS, Orbit, Questel, and STN). The database contains approximately 530,000 records covering the period 1969-1999 inclusive and is updated monthly (except for the CD-ROM, which has quarterly updates). FSTA is growing at a rate of approximately 20,000 records per year. Approximately 1800 different primary journals are scanned regularly for articles of relevance to FSTA. Several hundred other journals and relevant literature are also scanned on an intermittent basis. FSTA contains records on basic sciences relevant to food (eg, chemistry, biochemistry, physics, microbiology, biotechnology, hygiene, and toxicology) as well as food processing, food products, packaging, economics, and legislation. Of the 18 different sections into which the database is subdivided, 12 contain records on specific...

Safety And Wholesomeness

The first clearance for irradiation of a food item was that for grain, granted in the former USSR in 1959 for insect disinfestation purposes. Currently there are some 227 specific clearances, in 39 countries (15), and the list continues to grow. South Africa leads the way, with 82 specific clearances. The effective list of clearances is much larger than the 227 items just noted, because many of the clearances are for categories, such as cereal grains, fish, seafood, fruits and vegetables, dehydrated mixtures and condiments, which are composed of a large number of individual food items within the category. At present there is a clear need to harmonize clearances internationally, especially between countries that are trading partners, to avoid development of nontariff trading barriers. This latter requirement is a special concern of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which is a United Nations-based organization mandated to coordinate food...

Food allergyintolerance

There is controversy over the optimum period for which the diet is fed. This may range from 3 to 9 weeks. The author recommends a period of 8 weeks with a commercial diet. The commercial diets currendy available include lamb and barley, capelin and tapioca, lamb and rice, turkey and rice, and chicken and rice. The choice of diet will depend on the previous food items fed, although it may not be possible to know about all of the minor food ingredients in feline diets. The compliance with the diet trial will depend on the willingness of the cat to eat the food and not being able to access other sources of food for example, by hunting or being outdoors for long periods and eating food at another home, or even just eating cat food for other cats in the house. Consequently, it may prove difficult to evaluate a suspected food allergy problem for a cat allowed outdoors. The ideal candidate would be a single cat living exclusively indoors and willing to eat any diet provided.

European countries that successfully set up new databanks

Greece was the first partner of the project to set up its food intolerance databank, in August 1996. The databank is run by the Technological Educational Institution (TEI) of Thessaloniki and covers eight food additives and ingredients milk, egg, gluten, wheat, soya, sulphur dioxide, benzoates and azo colours. The databank is updated annually and currently they have approximately 400 products listed from 25 companies.

Production Of Pigments

Monascus pigments may be used as substitutes for traditional food additives, such as nitrites for the preservation of meats (139), and as a potential replacement for synthetic food dyes (181). They have also been used industrially for several years e.g., as yellow hydrosol-uble pigments for candies (140), or red pigments in red rice wine. Monoscus anka and M. pupureus are cultivated in SSF for red pigment production (Table 4.3). Steamed rice is used as the substrate, although oats, wheat, and barley have also been used. The culturing period is approximately three weeks. Certain sugars, amino acids, and metals have been found important for the production, and yields are typically 10-fold higher in both SSF and SmF. Pigment formation could be inhibited by the presence of glucose in the fermentation medium, but could be increased by limited aeration in SmF. It was also observed that an increase in the partial pressure of CO2 increases the pigment production (141). For isolating the...

Selection of Safety Factors SFs

Dourson and Stara (18) reviewed the regulatory history of SFs and conducted an analysis of SFs used to estimate acceptable daily intakes (i.e., lifetime exposure to, e.g., food additives) in humans. They noted that an SF of 100, applied to an animal NOAEL (expressed as mg kg of diet or mg kg body weight), was recommended by various agencies (including the U.S. FDA). Although the reasons given for the 100-fold SF differed somewhat among agencies, they generally addressed two basic concerns intraspecies (10-fold) and interspecies (10-fold) variability. Recommendations to increase the safety margin are generally based on increased uncertainty (e.g., lack of animal data) or the use of a low-effect level instead of a NOAEL in animals, whereas recommendations to decrease the safety margin are based on decreased uncertainty (e.g., availability of human data). Based on their evaluation of published data, Dourson and Stara (18) concluded that there was support for using 10-fold safety margins...

The present regulatory framework 1221 The US

The Novel Food Regulation (258 97 EC) defines foods or food ingredients that were not consumed to a significant extent in the EU before 1997 as novel, and subject to a safety assessment, before they can be introduced into market (Chadwick et al., 2003). Genetically modified or GM foods have subsequently been removed from the sphere of the Novel Food Regulation and subjected to specific regulations on GM foods and feeds (see page 268).

Interaction Of Factors

Sorbic acid at 1000ppm and pH 7.0 will not inhibit mold growth. However, if the pH is lowered to 5.0, growth of most molds will be inhibited (Liewen and Marth 1985). Antioxidants such as BHA and BHT have been shown to potentiate the action of sorbic acid (Scott 1989). In general, antifungal food additives become more effective as environmental conditions move away from the optimum for a particular organism.

Background And Historical Significance

Although some form of risk assessment has assisted regulatory agencies in making decisions about chemicals in food since the early 1900s, the field of chemical risk assessment is still in its infancy and is evolving rapidly. The first comprehensive guidelines for performing chemical risk assessments in the U.S. were published in 1983 (NRC, 1983). These guidelines separated the process of risk assessment into four components 1) hazard identification, 2) dose response evaluation, 3) exposure assessment, and 4) risk characterization. Several improvements in the risk assessment process have been made since this report was published, but it still forms the basis for contemporary risk assessment approaches for food chemicals such as pesticide residues, food additives, naturally occurring toxins, hormones, antibiotics, environmental contaminants, and even novel products derived from food biotechnology applications.

Assessment of Risk to Human Consumers

The acceptability of meat from animals treated with veterinary drugs is determined by the Codex Alimentari-us, 9 frequently utilizing information from the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) World Health Organization (WHO) expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Current methodology estimates 1) the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of residues based on intake of standard portions of food ingredients and 2) the maximum residue limit in tissues (MRL), which restricts intake to less than the ADI. Values for ADI are derived from toxicological studies that determine the

Food and Drug Administration Perspective on Regulation of Pharmaceutical Excipients

An inactive ingredient is defined by the FDA as any component of a drug product other than an active ingredient Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 21CFR Part 218.3C(b)(8) . While the agency regulations are consistent in using this perhaps obsolescent term, an FDA guidance document (6) defines new excipients'' as any ingredients that are intentionally added to therapeutic and diagnostic products, but which, we believe, (i) are not intended to exert any therapeutic effects at the intended dosage (although they may act to improve product delivery, e.g., enhancing absorption or controlling release of the drug substance) and (ii) are not fully qualified by existing safety data with respect to the currently proposed level of exposure, duration of exposure, or route of administration. Examples of current ingredients include fillers, extenders, diluents, wetting agents, solvents, emulsifiers, preservatives, flavoring agents, absorption enhancers, sustained-release matrices, and coloring...

Functions Of Food Acids

Food acidulants and their salts perform a variety of functions. These functions are as antioxidants, curing and pickling agents, flavor enhancers, flavoring agents and adjuvants, leavening agents, pH control agents, sequestrants, and synergists. The definitions for these functions are contained in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (5). Some of the functions overlap and in any given application an acidulant will often perform two or more functions. Flavor Enhancer and Flavor Adjuvant Acids have also been used for their effects on masking undesired flavors in foods and food ingredients. Both citric and malic acids and citrate salts are known for their ability to mitigate the unpleasant aftertaste of saccharin. Gluconate salts and glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) have been patented for this function (6,7). Claims of enhanced benefits for malic acid over citric acid when used with the new intense sweeteners have been made but definitive advantages have not yet been demonstrated.

Regulatory and safety issues

In the European community, the legal basis for organic acids as food additives is the directive 87 107 EEC. Lactic acid (European designation E270), acetic acid (E260), and acetates, such as potassium acetate (E261), calcium acetate (E263) and sodium acetates (E262) are generally permitted food additives under EC directive 95 2 EC. Sodium lactate (E325), potassium lactate (E326) and calcium lactate (E327) are food additives, which may be added on a quantum satis basis to foods (Directive 92 5 EC annex 1). Sodium lactate and potassium lactate are used in meat products (Barlow, 2000, Saltmarsh, 2000). The definition of organic acids and their salts as 'food additives' in the EU makes it presently impossible to use them as a 'processing aid' for 'fresh meat' (see above). In contrast, US FDA distinguishes food additives from 'generally regarded as safe' (GRAS) substances. The FDA (2002) specifies the following limits for meat products sodium acetate 0.12 sodium diacetate 0.1 acetic acid...

Managing and improving product development

Chapter 7 illustrates product development at different points in the food system in four case studies. Management of product development is different among primary production, processing of food ingredients, manufacturing and food service, because of the different scientific and technological bases, the different needs of the target markets and the time for development. It is important to understand that there is a common product development framework but the activities can be different.

Foods for special uses

Dairy products have long been known to be a functional food, as a good source of calcium. Additionally, fermented dairy products such as yogurt and kefir are a source of probiotics, live microbial food ingredients that are beneficial to human health (Roberfroid, 2000). Some probiotics are not part of a fermented milk product but are added to the milk as freeze-dried cultures. Intestinal microflora play an important role in the maintenance of health. Consumption of these live bacterial cultures are thought to affect the microbial ecology of the intestinal tract by colonization and replacement of non-beneficial bacteria (see also Chapter 8). Proposed benefits of the consumption of high levels of certain exogenous bacteria such as strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium include resistance to enteric pathogens, anti-colon cancer effect, strengthening of the immune response and alleviation of lactose intolerance (Sanders, 1999). Prebiotics are inulin-type fructans, i.e. carbohydrates...

Food Biotechnology Products

Nowadays, traditional and modern biotechnology processes are used to produce a wide variety of foods and food additives. Ethanol, fermented milk products, amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, polysaccharides such as xanthan, single-cell protein, colorants, flavors and fragrances, and various acids such

Dietary Counselling and Fortification

Dietary counselling, usually provided by a dietitian, is an integral part of oral nutritional support. It includes advice on dietary fortification, which is often the first-line treatment of malnutrition in the home and other care settings. Counselling may involve advice on eating patterns (e.g., eating certain types of snacks at particular times of day) or addition of energy- and protein-rich food ingredients (e.g., cream, milk, oil, butter, sugar, and skimmed milk powder) to meals. Commercial energy- and protein-containing supplements can also be used to improve intake without substantially altering the taste of food and drink. The use of nutritionally

Ingredients from Biotechnology

Biotechnology covers a wide range of activities and therefore leads to a large number of different applications in the food industry. For Muslims these new technologies open up opportunities for expanding their food supply. At the same time, these new technologies may create some difficulties in making Halal determinations for food ingredients, food products, food materials, and even modified species of animal and plants. Information should be made available to Muslim leaders on concepts and practices in food biotechnology and genetic engineering so they can properly evaluate their Halal implication for foods. In general, biotechnology ingredients and enzyme cultures are accepted by Muslims, with some reservations about certain products (eg, a porcine-derived biotech-produced enzyme) that need to be reviewed on a case-by-case basis (8).

Consumer preferences and public health

Y-ers' (persons born between 1977 and 1994) in particular are looking for healthier, fresher, more natural foods (Sloan, 2005). Although they are unwilling to give up convenience, consumers prefer food that has been subjected to minimal chemical treatment, both preharvest and postharvest (Senauer et al., 1991), and they understand less than people once did about potential naturally occurring hazards and proper preparation methods. Reformulation of foods to meet consumer demands may result in foods that are more likely to support growth of pathogens. Food additives are used to enhance the safety and shelf-life of foods, which should be viewed as desirable from the perspective of the consumer. Yet these additives are frequently perceived as unnatural and unsafe, in part because of controversies that have arisen over the years about potential harmful effects of additives such as cyclamates, saccharin, food dyes (e.g. red no. 2), and nitrite, and an apparent distaste for and distrust in...

Reproductive Toxicology and InVitro Tests

Despite a broad range of alternative methods, substantial numbers of animals are still required for the in-vivo testing of toxicity of drugs, chemicals, and cosmetics 37, 38 . In particular, efforts for the development of alternative tests for reproductive toxicity hazard 5 are unfolding, including the use of mESC and hESC 39-41 . For toxicity testing in general - but reproductive toxicity in particular - current regulatory data requirements vary considerably, being most stringent for pharmaceuticals, food additives and pesticides biocides. For a number of reproductive key phases, which for these regulatory purposes to date are covered in standardized animal tests, no validated alternatives exist. These in-vivo tests have a disadvantage in that molecular information on functional deficits in terms of biomarkers appears difficult 39, 42 . As outlined above, alternative in-vitro tests have the potential to provide this urgently needed, more specific molecular and functional information...

Some Key Milestones In Food Labeling

Before 1906, there were no requirements to include any information at all on food labels. In that year, the Federal Food and Drugs Act and the Federal Meat Inspection Act were first enacted. These groundbreaking laws formed the base for regular additions and refinements, right up to today's detailed labeling requirements.

Nutrition Information Based On Nlea

NLEA focused on two key areas of food-product labels in the area of nutrition how the nutrition information should be presented, and how claims should be regulated. Although nutrition information is required for most food labels, claims are optional, but making them may trigger additional requirements. Claims must be only those defined by NLEA regulations.

Diversity in Production of Excipients

Companies that manufacture food additives will often also produce an excipient grade. Many excipients first found application in processed foods where their demonstrated safety has made them attractive for use as pharmaceutical excipients. Examples of food additives also used in drug products include artificial sweeteners, antioxidants, and inorganic salts.

The Science Of Poisons

Furthermore, we are mainly concerned here with environmental pollutants. The field of toxicology also deals with other toxins, such as pharmaceuticals, food additives, and those that occur naturally. Of particular interest are xenobiotics. Various forms of radiation, if capable of depositing enough energy to break chemical bonds, can also produce toxic effects. Radiation with sufficient energy is called ionizing radiation or just high-energy radiation. Examples include ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma radiation from the electromagnetic spectrum, and high-energy particles such as alpha or beta radiation (helium nuclei and electrons, respectively) from radioactive decay.

Future Technologies And Challenges

The manipulation of the freezing point of food ingredients and raw materials, by using biotechnology principles, ingredients and or changes in its physical characteristics and chemical structure without affecting its nutritional, quality and flavor values, open new R& D opportunities. Major improvements could be accounted, (in the finished product quality, food product shelf-fife, the savings in energy conservation, and the frozen products price), if the food industry could produce, store, and distribute refrigerated and frozen raw materials, vegetables and processed food products at higher temperatures.

Issues related to study design

However, they often evaluate interventions that are relatively short term and introduced late in the natural history of disease and may not replicate the effects of long-term dietary exposures. Genetics now offer a possible alternative to clinical trials through mendelian randomization. This approach takes into account that genotypic differences in the metabolism of food ingredients may cause lifelong differences in exposure to food components and their metabolites or to purported risk factors. It may be a powerful way to establish causality without the need for prolonged follow up.2,3

You Are What You Eat

You Are What You Eat

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