Corrosion By Insulating Materials

Energy conservation now is widely practiced by all branches of industry, and the food industry is no exception. For example, in the brewing industry, wort from the wort boilers is cooled to fermentation temperature, and the hot water generated in the process is stored in insulated vessels (hot-liquor tanks) for making up the next batch of wort. An area of corrosion science that is receiving increased attention is the subject of corrosion initiated in stainless steels by insulating materials. At...

Info

Two moles ion are combined with 5'-IMP, similar to Na salt. 5'-Guanylic Acid. Guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) chemical formula C10H14O8N6P molecular weight 362.5 C 33.06 ( ), H 3.88 ( ), O 35.24 ( ), N 19.28 ( ), P 8.53 ( ). Contrary to 5'-IMP, almost no distribution of 5'-GMP is reported in meats. Shiitake mushrooms contain 0.1 to 0.2 of 5'-GMP (as in dry base). In 1961 Kuninaka found that 5'-GMP was the third umami ingredient extracted from shiitake mushrooms. Fine transparent needle...

Corn Syrups And Maltodextrins

Corn syrups (glucose syrup, starch syrup) are concentrated solutions of partially hydrolysed starch (having a DE value greater than 20) that contain dextrose, maltose, and higher molecular weight saccharides. Corn syrups are generally sold in the form of viscous liquid products, although solid forms are also available, especially in the lower DE ranges. They vary in physical properties (eg, viscosity, hu-mectancy, hygroscopicity, sweetness, and fermentability), primarily as a result of their...

Dietary Exposure To Nnitroso Compounds

The dietary exposure to NDMA (the most commonly occurring VNA in the diet) has been calculated in a number of food surveys and is summarized in Table 1. It should be taken into consideration that exposure estimates of this kind suffer from uncertainties in food consumption trends averaged over a population. Over the last decade, reductions in the use of nitrates and nitrites used for curing meats to the minimum amount required to inhibit bacterial growth, and modification of malting techniques...

Ch2oh

Erythritol has the lowest caloric density of the polyols 0.2 cal per gram in the United States. Polyols as a group provide the bulk of sugar, without as many calories as sugar. Since the compounds as a class are poorly absorbed, substantial percentages my enter the large intestine and undergo metabolism by the colonic bacteria. This can cause adverse gastrointestinal events. Gastrointestinal events are usually mild and temporary. These events are controlled by either reducing the polyol intake,...

Corrosion And Food Processing

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION The Stainless Steels Many people refer to this range of alloys as austenitic stainless steels, 18 8s, 18 10s, etc, without a full appreciation of what is meant by the terminology. It is worth devoting a few paragraphs to explain the basic metallurgy of stainless steels. It was in 1913 that Harry Brearley discovered that the addition of 11 chromium to carbon steel would impart a good level of corrosion and oxidation resistance, and by 1914 these corrosion resisting...

Corn a Versatile Grain

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Ch3

Figure 14. 2-Acetyl-3-methylthiophene. been identified in cooked beef, cooked asparagus, leeks, and bread. They are mainly formed via the Maillard reaction during cooking. N- and 2-substituted pyrroles are more common, and they impart a burnt character note to the food product. 1-Pyrroline significantly enhances butter flavor of manufactured margarine (Fig. 15). Thiazoles possess extraordinary potent sensory properties that can be described as green, roasted, or nutty. They play an important...

Anhydrous Milk Fat Manufacture

The quality assurance program for manufacture of butter oil, or anhydrous milk fat (AMF), also focuses on the quality of the raw materials. Naturally, many of the same considerations apply to handling raw cream for AMF manufacture that apply to butter, except that vacreation is not used. Because it is stored under ambient conditions, care against oxidation is essential. Oxidation is perhaps the most important mechanism by which milk fat deteriorates in quality. Because the oxidation reaction is...

Bibliography

Omenn, Risk Assessment, in C. D. Klaassen, ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, pp. 75-88. 2. D. L. Eaton and C. D. Klaassen, Principles of Toxicology, in C. D. Klaassen, ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996, pp. 13-33. 3. C. D. Klaassen, Casarett and Doull's Toxicology The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996. 4....

Naturally Occurring Toxicants

Naturally occurring toxicants are products of the metabolic processes of animals, plants, and microorganisms from which the food products and nutrients are derived. Humans may be exposed to these naturally occurring toxicants through direct consumption of the foods or through secondary exposure from the edible by-products of food-producing animals. Most toxicants of animal origin come from fish and shellfish, including saxitoxin (paralytic shellfish poisoning), tetrodotoxin (puffer fish...

Environmental Contaminants

Toxicants included in this category are the trace elements and organometallic compounds (eg, mercury, lead, and cadmium) as well as a variety of organic compounds (eg, poly-chlorinated biphenyls PCBs ). These toxicants tend to have common behavioral characteristics, although they are quite different in chemical structure. Environmental toxicants tend to be stable and thus persistent in the environment. They tend to bioaccumulate in the food chain and can be biotransformed with increasing...

Food Toxicology

Food contains hundreds of thousands of substances, and most of these have not been characterized or tested. The recognition of the safety of these substances, at the level consumed in the diet, is based on a history of consumption of those foods. Substances added to foods that do not have this history, such as new food additives, must undergo specific toxicological testing to determine that the federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD& C Act) standard of reasonable certainty of no harm is met....

Gel Formation

Myofibrillar proteins, primarily actomyosin, in surimi need to be solubilized by salt during chopping to form an extrudable paste (sol) essential for fabrication. The surimi paste must be extruded right after chopping so that it can be shaped or formed before it sets to a gel. The extruded paste is subjected to partial heat setting for fiberization, followed by cooking. With or without heat, the surimi sol undergoes gelation where randomly arranged peptide chains irreversibly transform to an...

New Developments In Nonnutritive Sweeteners

Significant progress has been made in the identification of novel high-potency nonnutritive sweeteners. Most of the effort aimed at this objective has been focused on the di-peptide structural class of sweeteners in follow-up of the 1965 discovery of aspartame, the first dipeptide sweetener. The search for analogues of aspartame was intensified by the 1975 report by Fujino and coworkers of Takeda Chemical Industries that dipeptide ester 16 exhibits a clean sweet taste, with Pw(8.3) 33,200 times...

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Mechano Fusion

Ual particles and dry preagglomerates bound mainly by van der Waals forces. The effectiveness of this method depends on a variety of process parameters influencing in-terparticle collision frequency, relative velocities of the particles, interparticle contact forces between wetted particles, and strain on the agglomerates (8). The second main group of processes for agglomerating food powders comprises special drying processes. Two examples are shown schematically in Figure 3, a spray drier with...

Mass Transfer And Diffusion In Foods

Mass transfer occurs in a number of food-processing operations such as dehydration, evaporation, concentration, distillation, solvent extraction, packaging, peeling, and leaching. Mass transfer is a common and important phenomenon in food processing and preservation. During osmotic drying of fruits, for example, sugar from a concentrated solution moves into the fruit while water leaves the fruit and migrates into the surrounding solution. By defi nition, mass transfer is the migration of matter...

Seasonings

Seasoning blends can be defined as dry mix products containing spices other flavoring agents and functional ingredients such as salt, sugars, and starches that enhance or provide flavor to a food item. A seasoning blend can be spices only, spices with starches, salt, hydrolyzed vegetable proteins, monosodium glutamate, and flavors such as a gravy mix, or even a blend that has no spices present at all, such as a cheese snack seasoning. The spice industry has defined analytical testing procedures...

Background And Definitions

Ice cream and frozen desserts, which include sherbets, ices (sorbets), frozen yogurt, dynamically and quiescently frozen novelties, and mellorine, play very important nutritional and social roles in our daily diet. Although debate exists as to whether ice cream originated in ancient China or Rome, there is little doubt that ice cream is America's favorite dessert. In 1996 the total retail sales of ice cream and other frozen related products reached a high of 10.8 billion (1). Ice cream eating...

Chopping And Emulsifying

A chopper is the other piece of equipment commonly used to reduce meat particle size. The major function of a grinder is solely to reduce particle size with clear particle definition. However, a chopper is employed to reduce particle size, to extract salt-soluble protein, to disperse fat, and to mix meats and spices uniformly. Products that go through a chopping process do not possess a particle definition as clear or as uniform as that for ground products. The chopper is usually used as the...

Intrinsic And Extrinsic Parameters Of Foods

All foods possess a set of conditions called intrinsic parameters. These parameters can be influenced by another set of conditions called extrinsic parameters. Together, these two groups of parameters have great influence on the number and kinds of microorganisms occurring in and on a food and their physiologic activities. Intrinsic parameters of food include pH, moisture, oxidation-reduction potential (presence or absence of oxygen), nutrient content, occurrence of antimicrobial constituents,...

Food Control

The organization of food control in Finland is presented in Figure 4. The division of labor at each administrative level is distinct, although the structure of central administration may seem complex. At the municipal level the food control authorities act under the direction of the pertinent ministry, which makes the municipal administration in Finland effective. In each of 452 municipalities in Finland an effective food control system is usually run by municipal veterinary officers. In the...

Methods For Immobilization

General methods for immobilization of enzymyes and cells can be classified as follows (1) adsorption onto a solid carrier, (2) covalent attachment to a solid carrier, (3) cross-linking to form insoluble aggregates (4) adsorption followed by cross-linking, and (5) entrapment in gels or encapsulation by membranes. Adsorption onto a support surface is the simplest method of immobilization. Binding of the enzyme to the substrate is typically through electrostatic binding, hydrogen bonding,...

Applications In Food Processing

A-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) catalyzes random hydrolysis of a 1-4 linkages in amylose and amylopectin to form straight-and branched-chain dextrins, oligosaccharides, and monosaccharides. Bacteria a-amylase is used to partially hydro-lyze or thin gelatinized starch, often prior to further degradation to glucose syrups. The enzyme from Bacillus spp. is very thermostable and is used at 85 to 105 C. The enzyme can also be used to hydrolyze starch in sugar cane juice and in the brewing mash. Fungal...

Manufacturing Process

Individual manufactures differ in the process details used for production, but all have in common the following stages grinding > extraction > desolventization The grinding operation is employed to make the extractives available for dissolution into the solvent. Grinding also increases the surface area available for extraction. Many types of grinding equipment are used, depending on the raw material and the extraction process. This information is not readily available from manufacturers...

History Of Carbonated Beverages

Ancient Greeks and Romans knew the virtues of bathing in naturally occurring carbonated mineral waters. By the sixteenth century, extensive efforts were made by physicians and scientists to characterize and reproduce these physical benefits. The Swiss alchemist Phillipus Aureolus Paracelsus, recorded the earliest written observations. A century later, the Belgian physician Jean Baptiste Van Helmont (1577-1644) applied the name gas to mineral spring vapors. In 1757, Joseph Black, a Scottish...

Current Us Foodproduct Labeling Requirements

Today's food-product labels in the United States incorporate the requirements of the NLEA along with those established by the earlier laws and regulations. The provisions are many and very detailed, so only key elements are covered here. The discussion focuses mainly on FDA requirements, but those of the USDA are essentially similar. There is one major difference between the two agencies. USDA must review and approve labels before they go on the package. FDA does not have the authority for...

Cultivation Of Gracilaria

Gracilaria is a red algal genus, widely distributed in many temperate to tropical regions and many species of this genus are cultivated for manufacturing an industrial colloid, agar, in many parts of the world (1-3). Species of Gracilaria are popularly known in Taiwan as Long-Shi-Tsai (meaning vegetable of dragon's beard). Originally it was commercially cultivated in ponds for extracting agar but now it has been cultivated chiefly for feeding small aba-lone, Haliotis diversiolar Lischke. There...

Applications Of Diffusion And Mass Transfer In Food Processing

Absorption, distillation, evaporation, concentration, extraction, leaching, dehydration, and food packaging are some food-processing operations that involve diffusion or mass transfer. Among these, concentration deals with the removal of water from liquid foods and is normally dominated by heat transfer. Food packaging involves the dif- Diffusion in Solids and Nonideal Systems The principle of diffusion in solids is used widely in food processing. Moisture diffusing through the porous skeleton...

Chemistry Of Nitrosation

The classic method for producing a nitrosating agent is the reaction between nitrite ions (N02 ) with protons (H+ or H30+) to give nitrous acid (HONO). Neither nitrite or nitrous acid per se are nitrosating agents, but are intermediates in the formation of the nitrosating agents dinitrogen trioxide (N203), dinitrogen tetraoxide (N204) and the nitrous acidium ion (H20+N0) as shown in Figure 1. The acidity of the aqueous medium determines the relative pro- Figure 1. Equilibrium reactions of...

Digestive System

The anatomy and function of the digestive system in fish is basically the same as in other vertebrates. It is made up of a combination of mechanical and chemical processes. Food is ingested, broken down, and either absorbed into the blood or remains in the gut and is eventually expelled as feces. Differences arise between fish species in feeding habits, and the environment may influence the presence, position, shape, and size of a particular organ. Fish may be divided into three categories...

Measures To Prevent Spoilage

To ensure that food items reach the consumer before spoilage takes place, many cost-effective treatments may be applied to delay spoilage. These treatments concentrate on modifying those factors known to affect the rate at which the changes contributing to spoilage would take place and may involve processing or storage operations. They may be grouped into treatments where temperature is modified, pressure is applied, additives are added, or atmospheres are modified. High temperatures have...

Ice Cream Defects

High-quality ingredients are a requirement in the production of a high-quality ice cream product. Adherence to formulation, industry processing standards, and proper storage requirements also is critical. Incorporation of inferior dairy ingredients, sweeteners, or bulky ingredients always will result in a sub-standard product. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics and causes of predominant flavor and texture defects found in poor-quality ice cream (3,4). Cryostabilization is a new approach to...

Fermented Sausage Manufacture

Fermented sausages are manufactured by chopping together a mixture of raw meat (usually a beef-pork combination), pork back fat, salt, fermentable carbohydrate, fillers (eg, caseinate, starch, or other carbohydrates), spices, nitrate or nitrite, and an acidifying agent such as starter culture, glucono-c)-lactone (GdL), or fermented meat. Briefly, the procedure is as follows The meat, includingthe pork back fat, is usually chopped frozen to avoid smearing during the cutting process. Pork back...

Safety And Wholesomeness

Confidence in the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated food is critical for consumer acceptance of such products. It is instructive to examine the scientific approaches that have led to the current understanding in this vital area. Approaches Used to Evaluate Safety and Wholesomeness Two principal approaches are used to determine the safety and wholesomeness of food treated in any manner, includ ing by irradiation. The first is based on chemical analysis and involves the identification and...

Elite Basil For Postharvest Preservation Of Potatoes

Preliminary studies conducted in several laboratories in the world indicate that naturally occurring plant extracts and natural compounds have demonstrated sprout inhibitory and antimicrobial properties (63-67). Several volatile monoterpenes that are primary components of essential oils inhibited sprouting when introduced as volatile into head space surrounding the potato tuber (66). Dimethyl-napthalene (DMN) and diispropylnapthalene (DIPN) applied as thermal fog successfully suppressed...

Hydrostatic Retort Cutaway

Jbt Sterilizer Inner Shell Reel

This allowed a concurrent development of devices permitting the exposure of the filled and sealed containers to steam pressures above atmospheric, namely, processing temperatures of 120 C instead of only 100 C (boiling water). Because the thermal inactivation of food spoilage organisms is a function of both time and temperature, the higher temperature under pressure allowed a very considerable reduction in the time necessary to ensure product sterility. Equally important was...

Kqu

Chemical structures of nonvolatile nitrosamines (NVNA) occurring in foods (1) NSAR, iV-nitrososarcosine (2) NPRO, AT-nitro-sopoline (3) NHPRO, N-nitrosohydroxyproline (4) NTCA. AT-nitrosothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (5) NMTCA, acid (6) NHMTCA, acid (7) NOCA, AT-nitrosooxazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (8) NMOCA, acid (9) NHPYR, iV-nitroso-hydroxypyrrolidine and (10) NHMTHZ. react with nitrite under acidic aqueous conditions include indole-3-acetonitrile, 4-methoxyindole-3-acetonitrile...

General References

Anguita et al., Detection of Bovine Casein in Ovine Cheese Using Digoxigenated Monoclonal Antibodies and a SandwichELISA, Milchwissenschaft 52, 511-513 (1997). D. Atkins and J. Norman, Mycotoxins and Food Safety, Nutrition and Food Science No. 4 5, 260-265 (1998). H. L. Beasley et al., Development of a Panel of Immunoassays for Monitoring DDT, Its Metabolites and Analogues in Food and Environmental Matrixes, J. Agric. Food Chem. 46,3339-3352 (1998). G. A. Bennet, T. C. Nelsen, and B. M....

Some Key Milestones In Food Labeling

Before 1906, there were no requirements to include any information at all on food labels. In that year, the Federal Food and Drugs Act and the Federal Meat Inspection Act were first enacted. These groundbreaking laws formed the base for regular additions and refinements, right up to today's detailed labeling requirements. The two 1906 acts authorized the federal government to regulate the safety and quality of food and assigned the responsibility for doing so to the U.S. Department of Ag...

Conservation Of Culture

Most mushroom growers have to rely entirely on commercial spawn producers and the spawn plants of larger mushroom farms to provide reliable products. Successful mushroom production depends on the proper maintenance of pure culture and spawn that is capable of producing fruiting bodies of high productivity, excellent flavor, texture, color, and resistance to pests, disease, or both (5). There is no satisfactory way to check and evaluate the qualities of spawn by any rapid on-the-spot...

Causes And Manifestations Of Food Deterioration

Microorganisms are ubiquitous living organisms that need nutrients, moisture, appropriate oxygen conditions, and favorable pH ranges to grow. Microorganisms can contaminate our food supply from the point of production or harvest until the time of consumption. Many microbial food contaminants are native to the soil or animal environment from which the food is derived, and many are added unintentionally through handling practices. The components of most foodstuffs (carbohydrates, proteins, etc)...

Anorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa

Although not included within the category of nutritionally related chronic diseases, the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are important. These diseases are primarily disorders of perception of body image and are characterized by an excessive concern over being fat. They Table 8. Dietary Factors and Cancer Etiology Energy excess associated with increased cancer mortality in men and women Amount and type of fat in the diet also related to increased cancer risk high saturated...

Ingredients Flour

The principal structure-forming ingredient used in biscuit doughs is wheat flour. Very few cookies or crackers are made without any wheat flour, and those are usually quite atypical in organoleptic characteristics. To provide for flour strength in weaker flours, vital wheat gluten can replace wheat flour to a limited extent. There are many different kinds of wheat flour, and the specifications of this ingredient must be carefully chosen, if it is to impart satisfactory machining properties to...

Distilled Beverage Spirits History

The history of distilled spirits goes back into antiquity. Scientists have unearthed pottery in Mesopotamia depicting fermentation scenes dating back to 4200 b.c., a small wooden model of a brewery from about 2000 b.c. is on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, and Aristotle mentions a wine that produces a spirit. The first real distiller was probably a Greek-Egyptian alchemist who in the first or second century a.d., in an attempt to transmute base metal into gold,...

Fresh Poultry Meat Composition and Nutritional Value

Poultry meat is widely accepted as a good source of high-quality protein, the B vitamins, and minerals such as iron. The fact that poultry meat is considered to be a source of lean meat and has a higher level of unsaturated fat as compared with red meat has resulted in a significant increase in poultry meat consumption in North America (Table 1) and around the world. Overall, the composition of poultry meat is dependent on species, strain, sex, age, and diet. Table 4 illustrates that species...

Animal Byproduct Processing

Domesticated animals are grown and slaughtered for meat for human consumption. Normally, only 30 to 40 of the animal is utilized for human food (meat cuts, edible offals, processed meat products). In monetary terms this represents by far the most important product of meat processing plants. However, economics of operating the meat slaughter plant, together with the cost of pollution abatement and or disposal of inedible material from the slaughter operation, demands that the rest of the...

Functions Of Emulsifiers Stabilizers And Thickeners

As shown in Figure 1 surfactants have a lipophilic (fat-loving) portion and a hydrophilic (water-loving) portion for this reason they are sometimes called amphiphilic (both-loving) compounds. The lipophilic part of food surfactants is usually a long-chain fatty acid obtained from a food grade fat or oil. The hydrophilic portion is either nonionic (glycerol is shown in Fig. 1), anionic (negatively charged, such as lactate), or amphoteric, carrying both positive and negative charges...

Light Microscopy

The most routinely applied microscopy techniques are those collectively categorized under light microscopy. At the heart of these techniques is a microscope equipped with a light source and a series of lenses the condenser, objective, and ocular. Figure la shows the basic principles of image magnification in a light microscope. A light source provides illumination, that passes through first the condenser, then the specimen, followed by the objective lens producing a reversed upside-down image,...

Water Sources And Quality

Sources of water for aquaculture include municipal supplies, wells, springs, streams, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and the ocean. The water may be used directly from the source or it may be treated in some fashion prior to use. Most municipal water sources are chlorinated and contain sufficiently high levels of chlorine so as to be toxic to aquatic life. Chlorine can be removed by passing the water through activated charcoal filters or through the use of sodium thiosulfate metered into the...

Forms And Applications

The common form of both essential oils and oleoresins is an oil-dispersible liquid. Because most foods contain a high amount of water, homogenous distribution is difficult. Concentrated products are required in small dosages to achieve the desired effect, making it doubly difficult to ensure consistency. To overcome these difficulties, various means have been developed to incorporate the extractives into commercial products 1. Dispersed products (dry-soluble seasonings) are prepared by...

Metabolism Of Caffeine

The caffeine molecule is sufficiently hydrophobic to pass freely through biological membranes (24). It is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and rapidly attains peak plasma levels. Caffeine is equally well absorbed from each of its beverage sources. There are no effective barriers to penetration of any tissue, including placenta and fetus. This characteristic prevents efficient excretion of caffeine by the human kidney since it is readily reabsorbed from the renal tubules. The...

Tannia Terphenoids

Takasago Corp., nonnutritive sweeteners 2260 Tartness, acidulants and 2 Taste Tea (Continued) black tea colorants from decaffeination flavonols flavor fresh leaf composition green tea herbal teas instant tea manufacture physiological effects ready-to-drink (RTD) tea world production Tear-down examinations, cans Tempeh Temperate fruits Temperature chemical reaction rate and flow and food deterioration and hydrogenation and storage Tertiary butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ), as antimicrobial Tetrasodium...

Standard Industrial Classification Manual

The SIC Manual is issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The manual divides industries in the United States into major groups. One major group 20 covers food and kindred products. This group includes establishments manufacturing or processing foods and beverages for human consumption, and certain related products, such as manufactured ice, chewing gum, vegetable and animal fats and oils, and prepared feeds for animals...

Phenolics In Wine

The quality and characteristics of wine depend on its phenol content. The natural phenols and their derivatives are crucial to wine's color, astringency, bitterness, resistance to oxidation, and other characteristics that make wine interesting and diverse (4). Although wines differ greatly in phenol content, a gross comparison between white and red young Vitis vinifera wines is presented in Table 1. Phenolic compounds are usually within several chemical classes but are usually separated into...

Culture Systems

At one extreme, aquaculture can be conducted with a small amount of intervention from humans and the employment of little technology. At the other extreme, aquaculture involves total environmental control and the use of computers, molecular genetics, and complex modern technology. Many aquaculturists operate between the extremes. The range of culture approaches can be described as running from extensive to intensive, or even hyperintensive, with extensive systems being relatively simple and...

Fermented Not Distilled Beverages

By definition, wine is a fermented product from fruits. By far the most important wine is produced from grapes, although it can be produced from apples, pears, berries, and other fruits. Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca are the most important species. Grape growing is a science itself (viticulture), and wine making is called enology. To obtain a good wine, the enologist must consider the species and varieties used, the climate and soil conditions that dictate the vintage of a good wine, and...

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Inhibited, and the serum cholesterol levels of animals fed with plant proteins are lower than those fed with animal proteins (22). Ligands for Receptors. Biologically active peptides derived from food proteins bind to receptors for various types of endogenous biologically active peptides. Usually, their receptor affinities are weaker than those of endogenous peptides. However, some of them show physiological effects after oral administration because of their resistance to peptidase and...

Description Of Major Food Additives

Practically every food manufacturing operation depends in some degree on the use of food additives, but the range of additives necessary for the formulation varies (Table 2). Of the variety of ways food additives have been classified, most involve functional grouping. Although chemical classifications may be useful, because they place molecules of similar structure and physical-chemical properties in comparable categories, compounds of a single chemical family may perform different functions in...

The Kosher Dietary Laws

The kosher dietary laws predominantly deal with three issues, all in the animal kingdom 3. Prohibition of Mixing of Milk and Meat However, for the week of Passover (in late March or early April), restrictions on chometz, the prohibited grains and the rabbinical extensions of this prohibition, lead to a whole new set of regulations, focused in this case on the plant kingdom. In addition, a separate set of laws deals with grape juice, wine, and alcohol derived from grape products, which must be...

Essential Oils

Essential oils can be defined as the volatile materials present in plants. These are complex mixtures of flavor and fragrance substances usually obtained by distillation. U.S. import statistics are published periodically (1). Essential oils, due to their relatively high boiling points, are usually obtained by steam distillation, by codistillation with water, or by the combined use of steam and water (2,3). In steam distillation the plant material (whole or ground) is packed into a still, and...

Bacterial And Microbial Intoxication

This form of intoxication is the result of consumption of preformed toxic compounds in the food by susceptible persons. The effects can be rapid (within hours) but usually are longer than chemical intoxication. The first recorded outbreak of botulism was in 1793 involving sausages (botulus) in Germany. Since that time many outbreaks all over the world have been reported. From 1899 to 1977 there were 766 outbreaks involving 1961 cases and 999 deaths. In the United States between 1971 and 1985,...

Colorants

Colorants Introduction 372 Colorants Anthocyanin 375 Colorants Anthraquinones 378 Colorants Betalains 380 Colorants Caramel 383 Colorants Carotenoids 385 Colorants Carthamin 390 Colorants Chlorophylls 391 Colorants Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Colorants 393 Colorants Miscellaneous Colorants 402 F. J. Francis Editor-in-Chief University of Massachusetts Amhert, Massachusetts The appreciation of color dates back to antiquity, and recorded history is replete with descriptions of the use of colorants in...

New Developments In Processed Cheese Products

In describing processed cheese analogues, constantly various new components and product modifications arise. However, new developments in classic processed cheese are targeted to obtain a product of better quality, to improve nutritive value of the product, or to widen the versatility of the production. The latest is achieved by introducing the nonconventional components in the blend or by developing a product of completely new characteristics by changing the technology. Some of these findings...

Composition Of Fat Replacers

Focus groups conducted by the International Food Information Council suggest that there is a lack of knowledge concerning fat replacers among consumers as well as among health professionals. For example, very few consumers realized that the fat removed from low- and reduced-fat foods is replaced with another ingredient. And although health professionals understood that product reformulation replaced the taste and texture of fat, they typically had very little specific information (11). Usually...

Poultry Meat Processing And Product Technology

Poultry meat is consumed all around the world. In the last few decades poultry meat has increased in popularity in many countries. Among the reasons for this increase are the relatively low growing costs, the rapid growth rate of poultry, the high nutritional value of the meat, and the introduction of many new further processed products. Overall, the poultry industry has drastically changed since the beginning of the century. In the early 1920s most poultry was produced in small flocks mainly...

Cleaning

Regular cleaning is essential to maintaining sanitary conditions in food-processing facilities. A good cleaning program should schedule regular cleaning of all interior building surfaces (floors, walls, and ceilings), all processing equipment, removal of garbage, trash, and other wastes, leaving clean rinsed surfaces that are free of any chemical residues that might contaminate the food (5). The basic steps of the cleaning process are the physical removal of the gross soil load, detergent...

Classification And Origin Of Flavor Compounds

Classification of Flavor Compounds Based on Their Mode of Formation Biogenetic and Thermogenetic One way of classifying flavor compounds is based on their mode of formation flavors can be generated either naturally (9,10) or by heat treatment during food processing (11,12). Natural flavors are mainly the secondary metabolites of the living tissue, formed during the natural growth cycle of the organism by the action of enzymes, whereas flavors produced by heat treatment are the result of thermal...

Dynamic Light Scattering

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is an alternative method for determining food microstructure that is based on scattering of light by moving particles. Details of this noninvasive and relatively rapid method are given elsewhere (63). In the food industry, DLS is used for determining particle sizes in the range of 1 to 300 im in such diverse products as chocolate, wheat and soy flour, confectionery sugar, spices, and mayonnaise. More specific instruments have been developed to detect particles...

Affluence Food Excess And Nutritional Disorders

Nutrition research in the first half of the present century focused mainly on identifying and assessing nutrients in foods and recognizing deficiency diseases. Since essential nutrients were unevenly distributed in individual foods, consumption of a variety of foods was recommended to provide a more nutritionally balanced diet (1). With undernutrition still a problem even in the richer countries, greater consumption of meat and dairy products was recommended. Increasing wealth in society...

Chemical Compounds Responsible For Flavors Found In Seafoods

Chemical compounds responsible for seafood flavors can be of either an endogenous or exogenous origin. Endogenous compounds are those that are present in fish and shellfish as the result of their inherent metabolism, whereas exogenous compounds arise from the diet, from immediate contact with the aquatic environment, for example, skin absorption and adsorption, or from both. The common endogenous compounds usually found in fish give rise to the characteristics that distinguish one fish species...

Cultivation of the Shiitake Mushroom

The shiitake grows naturally on logs of deciduous trees, in particular, beech, chestnut, hornbeam, and oak. Cultivation is therefore carried out on specially cut large branches from suitable trees, more substantial logs being in demand for construction purposes. Today a more scientific system is used (16). The logs are soaked in water and pounded to break the bark, or holes are made with a broad drill or a specially designed hammer. The logs are then inoculated with a spore emulsion prepared...

Activators and Inhibitors

The activation mechanism of PPO from different sources is not well understood, but it has been suggested that conformational changes of protein and perhaps protein association or dissociation are involved in the process. Anionic detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, were found to reactivate PPO in crude and partially purified preparations from different avocado cultivars (55). Short exposures to acid pH or urea also resulted in a severalfold reversible activation of grape and bean PPO....

Maillard Reaction And Formation Of Heterocyclic Flavor Compounds In Food

Flavors can be produced either naturally by the action of enzymes or by thermal processing due to the interaction of different food components or their pyrolytic degradation. The interaction of reducing sugars with amino-containing components and their subsequent reactions is termed non-enzymatic browning or Maillard reaction (17-21). This reaction is considered to be the most important reaction in food chemistry because in addition to flavors, it is also responsible for the formation of color,...

Cc

Schematic diagram of fully intermeshing counter- and corotating extruder screws, (a) Counterrotating screws and (b) corotating screws. Figure 3. Four pairs of kneading disks are shown with corotating twin-lead screws. Figure 3. Four pairs of kneading disks are shown with corotating twin-lead screws. The screw can be one piece or consist of many individual screw elements assembled in a screw shaft. The screw is usually divided into feed, transition, and metering sections for...

Applications Of Genetic Engineering In Food Science

There are numerous applications of genetic engineering in food science and technology. The obvious use of this technology is in aiding the detection food contaminants or pathogens and safe foods (43). Additionally, however, we can change the starting materials in a food and add valuable attributes to the ingredients that are or get into the food system. In the following paragraphs, selected examples are given, more from a generic rather than commodity-specific points of view. Genetic...

Compounds Responsible For Modifying Seafood Flavors And Tastes

Topically when seafoods are described by either trained or untrained sensory panels, a set of common descriptors are usually found, such as sweetness, saltiness, briny, and salty-briny (109,110). The cause of these tastes has been variously ascribed to the presence of sodium chloride or carbohydrates in the fish flesh. However, recent work indicates that it may not be necessary to rely on sodium chloride and simple sugars to explain some of these taste phenomena. For example, the peptide...

Solidstate Fermentation

Solid-state fermentation, or solid-substrate fermentation (SSF), while difficult to define precisely, is generally re ferred to as the process in which microbial growth and product formation occur on the surface of solid materials in the absence or near-absence of free water, and the substrate contains certain moisture that exists in absorbed form within the solid matrix (1,2). Solid-state fermentation deals with the utilization of water-insoluble materials for microbial growth and metabolic...

Ochratoxin

Despite many contrary reports, ochratoxin is known to be produced by only one species of Penicillium, verrucosum. Aspergillus ochraceous and several related species also produce ochratoxin on grapes and coffee (17,107,108 M. Frank, unpublished data, 1999). A small percentage of surface-disinfected wheat and barley kernels collected at harvest in the UK and Denmark were contaminated by P. aurantiogriseum and P. verrucosum,', this was similar in studies done in western Canada over many years....

Seafood Irradiation

Irradiation is a process extending seafood shelf life by exposing seafood to a certain level of ionizing radiation. Studies on the utilization of ionization radiation in food processing began in the early 1940s, and an extensive program implementing this process was launched in the early 1950s, in the United States (93,94). Ionization radiations are a group of corpuscular and electromagnetic radiations of extremely short wavelengths that can cause ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules....

Physiological Actions Of Alcohol

Alcohol is one of only two substances to which human cells have never found a need to bar entrance. The only other freely moving substance is water. Because there is no barrier to entrance, there are no known cellular receptors to alcohol. This free movement indicates that the body does Figure 4. Blood alcohol curve after ingestion of 44 g alcohol in form of whiskey and of beer by 50 subjects, weighing between 65 and 79 kg. 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 BAC ( ) Figure 5. Blood alcohol maximum...

Components Of Food

When one thinks of giving chocolates on Valentine's Day to a loved one, we hope this acts as an aphrodisiac but does it To understand this better, the sensory components of food need to be delineated. These include texture, visual appearance, viscosity, tactile properties, and gustatory and olfactory components. A Twinkie, a cucumber, and a doughnut are particularly Freudian based on their shape and visual appearance. The texture and viscosity of oysters, likewise, may induce reminiscence of...

Cultivation of Other Mushrooms

In addition to the aforementioned species, certain other fungi have been or still are subject to some form of primitive cultivation. The method used to grow cultivated paddy straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) is similar to that Figure 7. A longitudinal section of Fistulina hepatica. Its common names are beefsteak fungus, ox-tongue, and poor man's beefsteak. Figure 7. A longitudinal section of Fistulina hepatica. Its common names are beefsteak fungus, ox-tongue, and poor man's beefsteak....

Muscle Structure And Function Definition of Meat and Muscle

Meat comes from the striated muscle of vertebrates. Some of the characteristics of the live muscle underlying meat quality, such as energy stores, connective tissue, and fat, are present at the time of death (see Animal Factors Affecting Meat Quality, later in this article) and will affect the final meat quality. Other aspects of meat quality, particularly toughness, are affected by processing conditions that interact with some preslaughter attributes. The muscles of a carcass, whatever the...

Infant Foods Infant Nutrition

Infants are defined, somewhat arbitrarily, as less than 1 year of age. Infant foods and feeding practices have been adapted to encompass infants and young children to allow for feeding during the first 2 to 3 years. The infant has unique nutritional needs, substantially different from those of an adult. Energy, protein, iron, and other needs are greater than at any other period in life. Food must be relatively concentrated, and with a controlled consistency, because the volume capability,...

Harvesting Processing And Marketing

Harvesting techniques vary depending on the type of culture system involved. Seines are often used to capture fish from ponds, or the majority of the animals can be collected by draining the pond through netting. Fish pumps are available that can physically remove aquatic animals directly onto hauling trucks from ponds, raceways, cages, and net-pens without causing damage to the animals. Aquaculturists may harvest and even process their own crops, although custom harvesting and hauling...

Identification Of Melatonin In Plants

Melatonin was first detected and quantified in the dino-flagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra (4,5). In this species, melatonin was found to be at concentrations similar to those measured in the pineal gland of vertebrates. In addition to its obvious presence in this autotrophic organism, melatonin also exhibited a rhythm in these unicells like that observed in the pineal gland. Thus, melatonin levels measured either by high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...

Food Research And Development

Research and development is the ultimate source of technological improvements. Food research in Canada is conducted in several types of organizations and institutions distributed across the country involves several hundred scientific technical personnel is highly variable in nature is planned and coordinated to varying degrees is funded federally, provincially, and privately and is influenced in several ways by the characteristics of the Canadian economy, society, and infrastructure. Three...

Endocrine System

The endocrine system coordinates physiological processes with each other as well as with the external environment by way of chemical messengers called hormones. The hormones are released in response to changes such as light, temperature and stress. They ellicit and coordinate the appropriate responses from parts of the body, whether it be by a generalized stress response, a fright reaction, maturation of the gonads, smoltification, migration or spawning. Hormones thus play important roles in...

Conclunsion On Food Processing

The demand for agricultural products is expected to more than double worldwide over the next 40 years, through both population growth and dietary improvement in developing country populations. Many of these countries lack adequate land and agricultural resources to meet their expected food needs domestically without significant destruction of wildlife habitat, elevating the importance of international agricultural trade. Consumers throughout the world are also raising their food safety...

Cultivation of the Common White Mushroom

Primitive Grew Grain

The methods used for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus are essentially similar to those pioneered by French horticulturists (9), but the old practices have been gradually refined and modified to the point where mushroom production is a closely controlled and scientific process. Mushroom spawn for each cultivation was simply transferred to an existing mushroom bed. A problem with this straightforward approach was the tendency for the spawn to gradually lose its vigor with repeated transfers...

Nutrition Facts

Serv size 1 package, Amount Per Serving Calories 45, Fat Cal. 10, Total Fat 1g (2 DV), Sat. Fat 1g (5 DV), Cholest. Omg (0 DV), Sodium 50mg (2 DV), Total carb. 8g (3 DV), Fiber 1g (4 DV), Sugars 4g, Protein 1g, Vitamin A (8 DV), Vitamin C (8 DV), Calcium (0 DV), Iron (2 DV). Percent Daily Values (DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. May be used when the area available for labeling is less than 12 square inches. Table 1. Summary of Nutrient Content Claims and Descriptors that May Be Used on...

Sterilization Versus Pasteurization

Thermal processing covers the broad area of food preservation technology in which heat treatments are used to inactivate microorganisms to accomplish either commercial sterilization or pasteurization. Sterilization processes are used with canning to preserve the safety and wholesomeness of ready-to-eat foods over long terms of extended storage at normal room temperature (nonrefrigerated) without additives or preservatives, and pasteurization processes are used to extend the refrigerated storage...

Muslim Dietary Laws Food Processing And Marketing

Muslim dietary laws are a set of rules and requirements governing the lives of Muslims, or followers of the Islam religion. The food industry, like any industry, responds to the needs and requirements of consumers. Today's consumers are not only concerned with health and nutrition, they are also conscious of what goes into their bodies as food. Some of these restrictions by consumers are self-imposed philosophical or nutritional choices, whereas others are mandated by their religious beliefs....

Emulsifiers Stabilizers And Thickeners

The food additives that will be discussed in this article fall into three functional categories. Although the definition of each function will be clarified in the discussion, the definitions given in 21 Code of Federal Regulations are as follows 170.3(o)(8). Emulsifiers and emulsifier salts Substances which modify surface tension in the component phase of an emulsion to establish a uniform dispersion or emulsion. 170.3(n)(28). Stabilizers and thickeners Substances used to produce viscous...

Role Of Colorants

Because the color of a food is used by consumers to aid in forming a judgment about that food, it is not surprising that food processors and manufacturers consider colorants important adjuncts. The use of colorants to enhance the appearance of a food is not a recent development. Spices and condiments have been used since early civilization. However, the use of colorants has not been without its more unscrupulous aspects such as the propensity to use them to mask inferior products in the...

Production of Vinegar

Vinegar is literally a result of souring (aigre) of wine (vin). The origin of vinegar no doubt followed the production of wine, because a bad batch of wine will result in some form of vinegar. Vinegar has been used as a flavoring agent, food preservation agent, and even as medicine. Both Eastern and Western cultures have records of vinegar in ancient history. Although vinegar production is always treated as a part of food fermentation, it is, in reality, an oxidative process. In the presence of...

Miniaturized Microbiological Techniques

Identification of microorganisms is an important part of quality assurance and control programs in the food industry. The author has developed many miniaturized methods to reduce the volume of reagents and media (from 5 to 10 mL to about 0.2 mL) for microbiological testing in micro-titer plates. The basic components of the miniaturized system are the microtiter plates for test cultures, a multiple inoculation device, and containers to house solid media (large petri dishes) and liquid media...

Toxicology Principles Definitions And Scope

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. It is a multidisciplinary field of study dealing with the detection, occurrence, properties, effects, and regulations of toxic compounds. It therefore involves an understanding of chemical reactions as well as biological mechanisms of toxic actions. A toxicological study usually consists of four elements (2) a chemical agent capable of causing a deleterious response (2) a biological system with which the chemical...

Cognitive Factors

The impact of both internal (eg, hunger) and external (eg, food salience) factors on eating is frequently mediated by cognition people may decide to eat (or not eat) upon consideration of (or despite) the allure of such pressures. Because such internal and external factors have seemingly direct effects on eating (ie, because these factors can be interpreted as affecting eating directly, without the mediation of decisions that add little in the way of explanation) most analyses of eating do not...