General References

Aldrovandi, Aldrovandi on Chickens, L. R. Lind, trans, and ed., University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Okla., 1968. A. W. Brant, A Brief History of the Turkey World, World's Poultry Sei. J. 54, 365-373 (1998). The Broiler Industry, The Turkey Industry, and The Egg Industry The Poultry Tribune Centennial Edition (1895-1995), Watt Mount Morris, 111., 1995. California Poultry Workgroup, Turkey Care Practices, Univ. of California, Cooperative Extension, Davis, Calif., 1998. California Poultry...

Info

Process residues Eire an important source of recyled high-protein ingredients for on-site preparation of aquaculture-raised fish and shellfish feed. Process residues Eire an important source of recyled high-protein ingredients for on-site preparation of aquaculture-raised fish and shellfish feed. 3. Small fish currently being discarded or converted into fish meal that cannot be economically filleted or otherwise processed. 4. Freshwater fish presently being underutilized. 5. Low-fat fish that...

Conservation Of Culture

Most mushroom growers have to rely entirely on commercial spawn producers and the spawn plants of larger mushroom farms to provide reliable products. Successful mushroom production depends on the proper maintenance of pure culture and spawn that is capable of producing fruiting bodies of high productivity, excellent flavor, texture, color, and resistance to pests, disease, or both (5). There is no satisfactory way to check and evaluate the qualities of spawn by any rapid on-the-spot...

Causes And Manifestations Of Food Deterioration

Microorganisms are ubiquitous living organisms that need nutrients, moisture, appropriate oxygen conditions, and favorable pH ranges to grow. Microorganisms can contaminate our food supply from the point of production or harvest until the time of consumption. Many microbial food contaminants are native to the soil or animal environment from which the food is derived, and many are added unintentionally through handling practices. The components of most foodstuffs (carbohydrates, proteins, etc)...

Bibliography

Karg, The Secret of Truffles A Steroidal Pheromone Experientia 37,1178-1179 (1981). 2. R. Claus and H. O. Hoppen, The Boar-Pheromone Steroid Identified in Vegetables, Experientia 35,1674-1675 (1979). 3. G. M. Farkas and R. C. Rosen, Effect of Alcohol on Elicited Male Sexual Response, J. Stud. Alcohol 37, 265-272 (1976). 4. G. T. Wilson and D. M. Lawson, Effects of Alcohol on Sexual Arousal in Women, J. Abnorm. Psychol. 85, 489-497 (1976). 5. W. Shakespeare,...

Anorexia Nervosa And Bulimia Nervosa

Although not included within the category of nutritionally related chronic diseases, the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are important. These diseases are primarily disorders of perception of body image and are characterized by an excessive concern over being fat. They Table 8. Dietary Factors and Cancer Etiology Energy excess associated with increased cancer mortality in men and women Amount and type of fat in the diet also related to increased cancer risk high saturated...

Ingredients Flour

The principal structure-forming ingredient used in biscuit doughs is wheat flour. Very few cookies or crackers are made without any wheat flour, and those are usually quite atypical in organoleptic characteristics. To provide for flour strength in weaker flours, vital wheat gluten can replace wheat flour to a limited extent. There are many different kinds of wheat flour, and the specifications of this ingredient must be carefully chosen, if it is to impart satisfactory machining properties to...

Distilled Beverage Spirits History

The history of distilled spirits goes back into antiquity. Scientists have unearthed pottery in Mesopotamia depicting fermentation scenes dating back to 4200 b.c., a small wooden model of a brewery from about 2000 b.c. is on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, and Aristotle mentions a wine that produces a spirit. The first real distiller was probably a Greek-Egyptian alchemist who in the first or second century a.d., in an attempt to transmute base metal into gold,...

Fresh Poultry Meat Composition and Nutritional Value

Poultry meat is widely accepted as a good source of high-quality protein, the B vitamins, and minerals such as iron. The fact that poultry meat is considered to be a source of lean meat and has a higher level of unsaturated fat as compared with red meat has resulted in a significant increase in poultry meat consumption in North America (Table 1) and around the world. Overall, the composition of poultry meat is dependent on species, strain, sex, age, and diet. Table 4 illustrates that species...

Animal Byproduct Processing

Domesticated animals are grown and slaughtered for meat for human consumption. Normally, only 30 to 40 of the animal is utilized for human food (meat cuts, edible offals, processed meat products). In monetary terms this represents by far the most important product of meat processing plants. However, economics of operating the meat slaughter plant, together with the cost of pollution abatement and or disposal of inedible material from the slaughter operation, demands that the rest of the...

Functions Of Emulsifiers Stabilizers And Thickeners

As shown in Figure 1 surfactants have a lipophilic (fat-loving) portion and a hydrophilic (water-loving) portion for this reason they are sometimes called amphiphilic (both-loving) compounds. The lipophilic part of food surfactants is usually a long-chain fatty acid obtained from a food grade fat or oil. The hydrophilic portion is either nonionic (glycerol is shown in Fig. 1), anionic (negatively charged, such as lactate), or amphoteric, carrying both positive and negative charges...

Light Microscopy

The most routinely applied microscopy techniques are those collectively categorized under light microscopy. At the heart of these techniques is a microscope equipped with a light source and a series of lenses the condenser, objective, and ocular. Figure la shows the basic principles of image magnification in a light microscope. A light source provides illumination, that passes through first the condenser, then the specimen, followed by the objective lens producing a reversed upside-down image,...

Water Sources And Quality

Sources of water for aquaculture include municipal supplies, wells, springs, streams, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, and the ocean. The water may be used directly from the source or it may be treated in some fashion prior to use. Most municipal water sources are chlorinated and contain sufficiently high levels of chlorine so as to be toxic to aquatic life. Chlorine can be removed by passing the water through activated charcoal filters or through the use of sodium thiosulfate metered into the...

Forms And Applications

The common form of both essential oils and oleoresins is an oil-dispersible liquid. Because most foods contain a high amount of water, homogenous distribution is difficult. Concentrated products are required in small dosages to achieve the desired effect, making it doubly difficult to ensure consistency. To overcome these difficulties, various means have been developed to incorporate the extractives into commercial products 1. Dispersed products (dry-soluble seasonings) are prepared by...

Metabolism Of Caffeine

The caffeine molecule is sufficiently hydrophobic to pass freely through biological membranes (24). It is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and rapidly attains peak plasma levels. Caffeine is equally well absorbed from each of its beverage sources. There are no effective barriers to penetration of any tissue, including placenta and fetus. This characteristic prevents efficient excretion of caffeine by the human kidney since it is readily reabsorbed from the renal tubules. The...

Cocoa Powder

Cocoa powder (cocoa) is prepared by pulverizing the remaining material after part of the fat (cocoa butter) is removed from chocolate liquor. The U.S. chocolate standards define three types of cocoas based on their fat content. These are breakfast, or high fat cocoa, containing not less than 22 fat cocoa, or medium fat cocoa, containing less than 22 fat but more than 10 and low fat cocoa, containing less than 10 fat. Cocoa powder production today is an important part of the cocoa and chocolate...

Tannia Terphenoids

Takasago Corp., nonnutritive sweeteners 2260 Tartness, acidulants and 2 Taste Tea (Continued) black tea colorants from decaffeination flavonols flavor fresh leaf composition green tea herbal teas instant tea manufacture physiological effects ready-to-drink (RTD) tea world production Tear-down examinations, cans Tempeh Temperate fruits Temperature chemical reaction rate and flow and food deterioration and hydrogenation and storage Tertiary butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ), as antimicrobial Tetrasodium...

Standard Industrial Classification Manual

The SIC Manual is issued by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The manual divides industries in the United States into major groups. One major group 20 covers food and kindred products. This group includes establishments manufacturing or processing foods and beverages for human consumption, and certain related products, such as manufactured ice, chewing gum, vegetable and animal fats and oils, and prepared feeds for animals...

Phenolics In Wine

The quality and characteristics of wine depend on its phenol content. The natural phenols and their derivatives are crucial to wine's color, astringency, bitterness, resistance to oxidation, and other characteristics that make wine interesting and diverse (4). Although wines differ greatly in phenol content, a gross comparison between white and red young Vitis vinifera wines is presented in Table 1. Phenolic compounds are usually within several chemical classes but are usually separated into...

Culture Systems

At one extreme, aquaculture can be conducted with a small amount of intervention from humans and the employment of little technology. At the other extreme, aquaculture involves total environmental control and the use of computers, molecular genetics, and complex modern technology. Many aquaculturists operate between the extremes. The range of culture approaches can be described as running from extensive to intensive, or even hyperintensive, with extensive systems being relatively simple and...

Fermented Not Distilled Beverages

By definition, wine is a fermented product from fruits. By far the most important wine is produced from grapes, although it can be produced from apples, pears, berries, and other fruits. Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca are the most important species. Grape growing is a science itself (viticulture), and wine making is called enology. To obtain a good wine, the enologist must consider the species and varieties used, the climate and soil conditions that dictate the vintage of a good wine, and...

Fkcrrwqwrmkklgapsitcvrraf

Inhibited, and the serum cholesterol levels of animals fed with plant proteins are lower than those fed with animal proteins (22). Ligands for Receptors. Biologically active peptides derived from food proteins bind to receptors for various types of endogenous biologically active peptides. Usually, their receptor affinities are weaker than those of endogenous peptides. However, some of them show physiological effects after oral administration because of their resistance to peptidase and...

Description Of Major Food Additives

Practically every food manufacturing operation depends in some degree on the use of food additives, but the range of additives necessary for the formulation varies (Table 2). Of the variety of ways food additives have been classified, most involve functional grouping. Although chemical classifications may be useful, because they place molecules of similar structure and physical-chemical properties in comparable categories, compounds of a single chemical family may perform different functions in...

The Kosher Dietary Laws

The kosher dietary laws predominantly deal with three issues, all in the animal kingdom 3. Prohibition of Mixing of Milk and Meat However, for the week of Passover (in late March or early April), restrictions on chometz, the prohibited grains and the rabbinical extensions of this prohibition, lead to a whole new set of regulations, focused in this case on the plant kingdom. In addition, a separate set of laws deals with grape juice, wine, and alcohol derived from grape products, which must be...

Essential Oils

Essential oils can be defined as the volatile materials present in plants. These are complex mixtures of flavor and fragrance substances usually obtained by distillation. U.S. import statistics are published periodically (1). Essential oils, due to their relatively high boiling points, are usually obtained by steam distillation, by codistillation with water, or by the combined use of steam and water (2,3). In steam distillation the plant material (whole or ground) is packed into a still, and...

Bacterial And Microbial Intoxication

This form of intoxication is the result of consumption of preformed toxic compounds in the food by susceptible persons. The effects can be rapid (within hours) but usually are longer than chemical intoxication. The first recorded outbreak of botulism was in 1793 involving sausages (botulus) in Germany. Since that time many outbreaks all over the world have been reported. From 1899 to 1977 there were 766 outbreaks involving 1961 cases and 999 deaths. In the United States between 1971 and 1985,...

Colorants

Colorants Introduction 372 Colorants Anthocyanin 375 Colorants Anthraquinones 378 Colorants Betalains 380 Colorants Caramel 383 Colorants Carotenoids 385 Colorants Carthamin 390 Colorants Chlorophylls 391 Colorants Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Colorants 393 Colorants Miscellaneous Colorants 402 F. J. Francis Editor-in-Chief University of Massachusetts Amhert, Massachusetts The appreciation of color dates back to antiquity, and recorded history is replete with descriptions of the use of colorants in...

New Developments In Processed Cheese Products

In describing processed cheese analogues, constantly various new components and product modifications arise. However, new developments in classic processed cheese are targeted to obtain a product of better quality, to improve nutritive value of the product, or to widen the versatility of the production. The latest is achieved by introducing the nonconventional components in the blend or by developing a product of completely new characteristics by changing the technology. Some of these findings...

Composition Of Fat Replacers

Focus groups conducted by the International Food Information Council suggest that there is a lack of knowledge concerning fat replacers among consumers as well as among health professionals. For example, very few consumers realized that the fat removed from low- and reduced-fat foods is replaced with another ingredient. And although health professionals understood that product reformulation replaced the taste and texture of fat, they typically had very little specific information (11). Usually...

Poultry Meat Processing And Product Technology

Poultry meat is consumed all around the world. In the last few decades poultry meat has increased in popularity in many countries. Among the reasons for this increase are the relatively low growing costs, the rapid growth rate of poultry, the high nutritional value of the meat, and the introduction of many new further processed products. Overall, the poultry industry has drastically changed since the beginning of the century. In the early 1920s most poultry was produced in small flocks mainly...

Cleaning

Regular cleaning is essential to maintaining sanitary conditions in food-processing facilities. A good cleaning program should schedule regular cleaning of all interior building surfaces (floors, walls, and ceilings), all processing equipment, removal of garbage, trash, and other wastes, leaving clean rinsed surfaces that are free of any chemical residues that might contaminate the food (5). The basic steps of the cleaning process are the physical removal of the gross soil load, detergent...

Classification And Origin Of Flavor Compounds

Classification of Flavor Compounds Based on Their Mode of Formation Biogenetic and Thermogenetic One way of classifying flavor compounds is based on their mode of formation flavors can be generated either naturally (9,10) or by heat treatment during food processing (11,12). Natural flavors are mainly the secondary metabolites of the living tissue, formed during the natural growth cycle of the organism by the action of enzymes, whereas flavors produced by heat treatment are the result of thermal...

Dynamic Light Scattering

Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is an alternative method for determining food microstructure that is based on scattering of light by moving particles. Details of this noninvasive and relatively rapid method are given elsewhere (63). In the food industry, DLS is used for determining particle sizes in the range of 1 to 300 im in such diverse products as chocolate, wheat and soy flour, confectionery sugar, spices, and mayonnaise. More specific instruments have been developed to detect particles...

Affluence Food Excess And Nutritional Disorders

Nutrition research in the first half of the present century focused mainly on identifying and assessing nutrients in foods and recognizing deficiency diseases. Since essential nutrients were unevenly distributed in individual foods, consumption of a variety of foods was recommended to provide a more nutritionally balanced diet (1). With undernutrition still a problem even in the richer countries, greater consumption of meat and dairy products was recommended. Increasing wealth in society...

Chemical Compounds Responsible For Flavors Found In Seafoods

Chemical compounds responsible for seafood flavors can be of either an endogenous or exogenous origin. Endogenous compounds are those that are present in fish and shellfish as the result of their inherent metabolism, whereas exogenous compounds arise from the diet, from immediate contact with the aquatic environment, for example, skin absorption and adsorption, or from both. The common endogenous compounds usually found in fish give rise to the characteristics that distinguish one fish species...

Cultivation of the Shiitake Mushroom

The shiitake grows naturally on logs of deciduous trees, in particular, beech, chestnut, hornbeam, and oak. Cultivation is therefore carried out on specially cut large branches from suitable trees, more substantial logs being in demand for construction purposes. Today a more scientific system is used (16). The logs are soaked in water and pounded to break the bark, or holes are made with a broad drill or a specially designed hammer. The logs are then inoculated with a spore emulsion prepared...

Activators and Inhibitors

The activation mechanism of PPO from different sources is not well understood, but it has been suggested that conformational changes of protein and perhaps protein association or dissociation are involved in the process. Anionic detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, were found to reactivate PPO in crude and partially purified preparations from different avocado cultivars (55). Short exposures to acid pH or urea also resulted in a severalfold reversible activation of grape and bean PPO....

Maillard Reaction And Formation Of Heterocyclic Flavor Compounds In Food

Flavors can be produced either naturally by the action of enzymes or by thermal processing due to the interaction of different food components or their pyrolytic degradation. The interaction of reducing sugars with amino-containing components and their subsequent reactions is termed non-enzymatic browning or Maillard reaction (17-21). This reaction is considered to be the most important reaction in food chemistry because in addition to flavors, it is also responsible for the formation of color,...

Cc

Schematic diagram of fully intermeshing counter- and corotating extruder screws, (a) Counterrotating screws and (b) corotating screws. Figure 3. Four pairs of kneading disks are shown with corotating twin-lead screws. Figure 3. Four pairs of kneading disks are shown with corotating twin-lead screws. The screw can be one piece or consist of many individual screw elements assembled in a screw shaft. The screw is usually divided into feed, transition, and metering sections for...

Applications Of Genetic Engineering In Food Science

There are numerous applications of genetic engineering in food science and technology. The obvious use of this technology is in aiding the detection food contaminants or pathogens and safe foods (43). Additionally, however, we can change the starting materials in a food and add valuable attributes to the ingredients that are or get into the food system. In the following paragraphs, selected examples are given, more from a generic rather than commodity-specific points of view. Genetic...

Compounds Responsible For Modifying Seafood Flavors And Tastes

Topically when seafoods are described by either trained or untrained sensory panels, a set of common descriptors are usually found, such as sweetness, saltiness, briny, and salty-briny (109,110). The cause of these tastes has been variously ascribed to the presence of sodium chloride or carbohydrates in the fish flesh. However, recent work indicates that it may not be necessary to rely on sodium chloride and simple sugars to explain some of these taste phenomena. For example, the peptide...

Solidstate Fermentation

Solid-state fermentation, or solid-substrate fermentation (SSF), while difficult to define precisely, is generally re ferred to as the process in which microbial growth and product formation occur on the surface of solid materials in the absence or near-absence of free water, and the substrate contains certain moisture that exists in absorbed form within the solid matrix (1,2). Solid-state fermentation deals with the utilization of water-insoluble materials for microbial growth and metabolic...

Ochratoxin

Despite many contrary reports, ochratoxin is known to be produced by only one species of Penicillium, verrucosum. Aspergillus ochraceous and several related species also produce ochratoxin on grapes and coffee (17,107,108 M. Frank, unpublished data, 1999). A small percentage of surface-disinfected wheat and barley kernels collected at harvest in the UK and Denmark were contaminated by P. aurantiogriseum and P. verrucosum,', this was similar in studies done in western Canada over many years....

Seafood Irradiation

Irradiation is a process extending seafood shelf life by exposing seafood to a certain level of ionizing radiation. Studies on the utilization of ionization radiation in food processing began in the early 1940s, and an extensive program implementing this process was launched in the early 1950s, in the United States (93,94). Ionization radiations are a group of corpuscular and electromagnetic radiations of extremely short wavelengths that can cause ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules....

Physiological Actions Of Alcohol

Alcohol is one of only two substances to which human cells have never found a need to bar entrance. The only other freely moving substance is water. Because there is no barrier to entrance, there are no known cellular receptors to alcohol. This free movement indicates that the body does Figure 4. Blood alcohol curve after ingestion of 44 g alcohol in form of whiskey and of beer by 50 subjects, weighing between 65 and 79 kg. 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 BAC ( ) Figure 5. Blood alcohol maximum...

Components Of Food

When one thinks of giving chocolates on Valentine's Day to a loved one, we hope this acts as an aphrodisiac but does it To understand this better, the sensory components of food need to be delineated. These include texture, visual appearance, viscosity, tactile properties, and gustatory and olfactory components. A Twinkie, a cucumber, and a doughnut are particularly Freudian based on their shape and visual appearance. The texture and viscosity of oysters, likewise, may induce reminiscence of...

Cultivation of Other Mushrooms

In addition to the aforementioned species, certain other fungi have been or still are subject to some form of primitive cultivation. The method used to grow cultivated paddy straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) is similar to that Figure 7. A longitudinal section of Fistulina hepatica. Its common names are beefsteak fungus, ox-tongue, and poor man's beefsteak. Figure 7. A longitudinal section of Fistulina hepatica. Its common names are beefsteak fungus, ox-tongue, and poor man's beefsteak....

Muscle Structure And Function Definition of Meat and Muscle

Meat comes from the striated muscle of vertebrates. Some of the characteristics of the live muscle underlying meat quality, such as energy stores, connective tissue, and fat, are present at the time of death (see Animal Factors Affecting Meat Quality, later in this article) and will affect the final meat quality. Other aspects of meat quality, particularly toughness, are affected by processing conditions that interact with some preslaughter attributes. The muscles of a carcass, whatever the...

Infant Foods Infant Nutrition

Infants are defined, somewhat arbitrarily, as less than 1 year of age. Infant foods and feeding practices have been adapted to encompass infants and young children to allow for feeding during the first 2 to 3 years. The infant has unique nutritional needs, substantially different from those of an adult. Energy, protein, iron, and other needs are greater than at any other period in life. Food must be relatively concentrated, and with a controlled consistency, because the volume capability,...

Harvesting Processing And Marketing

Harvesting techniques vary depending on the type of culture system involved. Seines are often used to capture fish from ponds, or the majority of the animals can be collected by draining the pond through netting. Fish pumps are available that can physically remove aquatic animals directly onto hauling trucks from ponds, raceways, cages, and net-pens without causing damage to the animals. Aquaculturists may harvest and even process their own crops, although custom harvesting and hauling...

Identification Of Melatonin In Plants

Melatonin was first detected and quantified in the dino-flagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra (4,5). In this species, melatonin was found to be at concentrations similar to those measured in the pineal gland of vertebrates. In addition to its obvious presence in this autotrophic organism, melatonin also exhibited a rhythm in these unicells like that observed in the pineal gland. Thus, melatonin levels measured either by high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...

Food Research And Development

Research and development is the ultimate source of technological improvements. Food research in Canada is conducted in several types of organizations and institutions distributed across the country involves several hundred scientific technical personnel is highly variable in nature is planned and coordinated to varying degrees is funded federally, provincially, and privately and is influenced in several ways by the characteristics of the Canadian economy, society, and infrastructure. Three...

Endocrine System

The endocrine system coordinates physiological processes with each other as well as with the external environment by way of chemical messengers called hormones. The hormones are released in response to changes such as light, temperature and stress. They ellicit and coordinate the appropriate responses from parts of the body, whether it be by a generalized stress response, a fright reaction, maturation of the gonads, smoltification, migration or spawning. Hormones thus play important roles in...

Conclunsion On Food Processing

The demand for agricultural products is expected to more than double worldwide over the next 40 years, through both population growth and dietary improvement in developing country populations. Many of these countries lack adequate land and agricultural resources to meet their expected food needs domestically without significant destruction of wildlife habitat, elevating the importance of international agricultural trade. Consumers throughout the world are also raising their food safety...

Cultivation of the Common White Mushroom

The methods used for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus are essentially similar to those pioneered by French horticulturists (9), but the old practices have been gradually refined and modified to the point where mushroom production is a closely controlled and scientific process. Mushroom spawn for each cultivation was simply transferred to an existing mushroom bed. A problem with this straightforward approach was the tendency for the spawn to gradually lose its vigor with repeated transfers...

Nutrition Facts

Serv size 1 package, Amount Per Serving Calories 45, Fat Cal. 10, Total Fat 1g (2 DV), Sat. Fat 1g (5 DV), Cholest. Omg (0 DV), Sodium 50mg (2 DV), Total carb. 8g (3 DV), Fiber 1g (4 DV), Sugars 4g, Protein 1g, Vitamin A (8 DV), Vitamin C (8 DV), Calcium (0 DV), Iron (2 DV). Percent Daily Values (DV) are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. May be used when the area available for labeling is less than 12 square inches. Table 1. Summary of Nutrient Content Claims and Descriptors that May Be Used on...

Sterilization Versus Pasteurization

Thermal processing covers the broad area of food preservation technology in which heat treatments are used to inactivate microorganisms to accomplish either commercial sterilization or pasteurization. Sterilization processes are used with canning to preserve the safety and wholesomeness of ready-to-eat foods over long terms of extended storage at normal room temperature (nonrefrigerated) without additives or preservatives, and pasteurization processes are used to extend the refrigerated storage...

Muslim Dietary Laws Food Processing And Marketing

Muslim dietary laws are a set of rules and requirements governing the lives of Muslims, or followers of the Islam religion. The food industry, like any industry, responds to the needs and requirements of consumers. Today's consumers are not only concerned with health and nutrition, they are also conscious of what goes into their bodies as food. Some of these restrictions by consumers are self-imposed philosophical or nutritional choices, whereas others are mandated by their religious beliefs....

Emulsifiers Stabilizers And Thickeners

The food additives that will be discussed in this article fall into three functional categories. Although the definition of each function will be clarified in the discussion, the definitions given in 21 Code of Federal Regulations are as follows 170.3(o)(8). Emulsifiers and emulsifier salts Substances which modify surface tension in the component phase of an emulsion to establish a uniform dispersion or emulsion. 170.3(n)(28). Stabilizers and thickeners Substances used to produce viscous...

Role Of Colorants

Because the color of a food is used by consumers to aid in forming a judgment about that food, it is not surprising that food processors and manufacturers consider colorants important adjuncts. The use of colorants to enhance the appearance of a food is not a recent development. Spices and condiments have been used since early civilization. However, the use of colorants has not been without its more unscrupulous aspects such as the propensity to use them to mask inferior products in the...

Production of Vinegar

Vinegar is literally a result of souring (aigre) of wine (vin). The origin of vinegar no doubt followed the production of wine, because a bad batch of wine will result in some form of vinegar. Vinegar has been used as a flavoring agent, food preservation agent, and even as medicine. Both Eastern and Western cultures have records of vinegar in ancient history. Although vinegar production is always treated as a part of food fermentation, it is, in reality, an oxidative process. In the presence of...

Miniaturized Microbiological Techniques

Identification of microorganisms is an important part of quality assurance and control programs in the food industry. The author has developed many miniaturized methods to reduce the volume of reagents and media (from 5 to 10 mL to about 0.2 mL) for microbiological testing in micro-titer plates. The basic components of the miniaturized system are the microtiter plates for test cultures, a multiple inoculation device, and containers to house solid media (large petri dishes) and liquid media...

Toxicology Principles Definitions And Scope

Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. It is a multidisciplinary field of study dealing with the detection, occurrence, properties, effects, and regulations of toxic compounds. It therefore involves an understanding of chemical reactions as well as biological mechanisms of toxic actions. A toxicological study usually consists of four elements (2) a chemical agent capable of causing a deleterious response (2) a biological system with which the chemical...

Cognitive Factors

The impact of both internal (eg, hunger) and external (eg, food salience) factors on eating is frequently mediated by cognition people may decide to eat (or not eat) upon consideration of (or despite) the allure of such pressures. Because such internal and external factors have seemingly direct effects on eating (ie, because these factors can be interpreted as affecting eating directly, without the mediation of decisions that add little in the way of explanation) most analyses of eating do not...

Detergent Properties

Detergents assist the cleaning process by performing one or more of the following wetting or penetration, dispersing or deflocculating, suspension, emulsification, peptizing, dissolving, chelating or sequestering, rinsing, and sanitizing (2,3). Wetting refers to the detergent's ability to penetrate through and come in contact with all soils and equipment surfaces, thus loosening the soil and facilitating its removal. A dispersant promotes the breakdown of large soil particles into smaller...

Sugar Alcohols

Alditols (also known as sugar alcohols, polyhydric alcohols, and polyols) with a sweet taste include glucitol (sorbitol), mannitol, xylitol, erythritol, and hydrogenated corn syrups, especially high-DE and high-maltose syrups. Sorbitol, the most widely used alditol, is one-half to two-thirds as sweet as sucrose, depending on concentration and temperature. It is available in crystalline form and as a 70 solution. Sorbitol can be used as a humectant. It is used in special dietary foods, breath...

Production Systems

The design of the retort pouch that was initially subjected to acceptance, storage, handling, and distribution durability trials was a flat four-seal version where both sides of the pouch structure were subjected to equal stress during filling and processing. Accordingly, when manufacturing systems were investigated, these systems were geared to manipulating opposing pouch walls equally and filling through the fourth seal position that had been left open. Then, after air removal, a closure seal...

Production vs Marketing vs Sales

After World War II, consumers had considerable spending power, pent-up demand, and too few goods to purchase. Firms found instant success by producing for the mass market. During the production era, food marketers focused on low-cost products to satisfy excess demand. An example is TV dinners. The earliest versions were frequently bland and cheap. Companies that made these products focused on cost reduction and just getting the product to market. However, as demand decreased and competition...

Products

Soluble coffee is the material freeze-dried in greatest volume. Vegetables for dried soup mixes, mushrooms, herbs, spices, cheese starter cultures, shrimp, fruits for ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and vegetables, meats, fish, and fruits for military, camping, and space-travel rations are or have been freeze-dried commercially. Freeze drying is used in making highly compressed, dry, military rations that expand to near-normal size and shape when rehy-drated. Patents (1) or other technical...

Products In Which Milkfat Is The Dominant Component

The use of cream, butter, and anhydrous milkfat (AMF), represent around 30 of the milkfat that is produced on dairy farms worldwide. The 6.8 million tons used annually means that milkfat is the third most widely used fat in worldwide commerce. The nature of fat on presentation to the manufacturing process is pure and wholesome so that the use of extensive clean-up processes and chemical preservative procedures are unnecessary. Milkfat has a desirable and prestigious flavor, so the maintenance...

Professional Responsibilities Of A Food Engineer

Some principal responsibilities of food engineering professionals, whether in industry or academia, are to develop and improve the basic steps involved in the production of food materials, process these materials into finished products, and apply this knowledge to commercial operations. Considerations during all phases must include consumer acceptability (aesthetic and sensory) and safety of the product for human or animal consumption through good manufacturing practices, as prescribed by the...

Professional Societies

Most UK food scientists are members of the Institute of Food Science and Technology. The London-based society was established in 1959 and currently has more than 3000 members of which almost 600 are fellows of the institute. The IFST also acts as a professional qualifying body for food science in the UK, the grade of membership reflecting the professional competence of the individual. The Institute publishes a newsletter for members (Keynote) and two journals for members and subscribers (Food...

Programs Of The Institute

The IFT has had a strong, active awards program since 1942, when the first of the Nicholas Appert Awards was given, and a scholarship fellowship program since 1954 (1). In 1946 the Marcel Loncin Research Price carrying an award of 10,000 was initiated (2). Aside from the Nicholas Appert Award, considered the most prestigious of the awards, there are 11 other major awards for such things as excellence in teaching, significant contributions made to improved public health through nutrition,...

Prohibition Of Mixing Of Milk And Meat

Thou shalt not seeth the kid in its mother's milk. This passage appears three times in the Torah (the first five books of the Holy Scriptures) and is thus taken religiously as a very serious admonition. The meat side of the equation has been extended to include poultry. The dairy side includes all milk derivatives. To keep meat and milk separate requires that the processing and handling of all products that are kosher will fall into one of three categories 3. Pareve (Parve) or neutral products...

Project Approach

The approach outlined in this section has proved successful in the design and construction of new or renovated production facilities. It is adapted from one used by a large equipment and engineering firm focused on the food industry. It includes three steps or phases a preliminary study of feasibility an engineering and design phase (which itself may have some divisions) and a construction phase. Table 1 describes the phases in outline form. The primary objective of the feasibility study is to...

Proper Method of Slaughter

There are strict requirements for slaughtering animals the animal must be a Halal species the animal must be slaughtered by a Muslim of proper age the name of Allah must be pronounced at the time of slaughter and the slaughter must be done by cutting the throat of the animal in a manner that induces rapid, complete bleeding and results in the quickest death (5). Slaughtering should be done with a sharp knife in one swift cut. Certain other conditions should also be observed to ensure humane...

Properties And Compositions

A common feature of the structure of soybean seed is storage of the bulk of the protein and oil in distinct membrane-bound, subcellular organelles called protein bodies and lipid bodies, (spherosomes) as illustrated in Figure 1. Although not shown in Figure 1, the protein bodies contain inclusions referred to as globoids (> 0.1 m) that are storage sites for phytate and cations such as potassium, magnesium, and calcium. During germination, the contents of the storage organelles are mobilized...

Properties Of Metal Phosphides

There are several properties of metal phosphide fumigant products that must be considered in any application. 1. Its density is such that any leakages will result in loss of gas. 2. Hydrogen phosphide gas can self-ignite at a concentration of 17,900 ppm if there is an ignition source available. The reaction between a metal phosphide and atmospheric moisture, which yields hydrogen phosphide, is exothermic and, therefore, the piling of tablets during fumigation is to be avoided as the heat...

Properties Physical Properties

Caffeine is a white, odorless powder with a slightly bitter taste. The anhydrous form obtained by crystallization from nonaqueous solvents is a crystalline solid that melts at 235 to 237 C. At atmospheric pressure it begins to sublime without decomposition at 120 C and at 80 C under high vacuum. Its crystals are hexagonal and form parallel plates. When crystallized from water, the monohydrate forms long, silky, white needles. It becomes anhydrous at 80 C. Caffeine is soluble to the extent of...

Propionic Acid Propionates

Up to 1 propionic acid (pjKa 4.87) is produced naturally in Swiss cheese by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. Propionic acid and sodium, potassium, and calcium propionates are used primarily against molds however, some yeasts and bacteria are also inhibited. Propionates (0.1-5.0 ) retard the growth of E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Salmonella,Proteus vulgaris, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes, and the yeasts Candida and Saccharomyces cer-evisiae...

Proteases and Peptidases

Protein substrates for proteases are most often hemoglobin or casein and must be completely soluble in buffer. Casein for protease assays is designated nach Hammarsten, while hemoglobin for protease assay is usually of high quality. Casein precipitates below pH 6, so it is used at neutral to alkaline pH. Hemoglobin must be denatured before use, either by treatment with acid (if the assay is at acidic pH) (16) or urea (neutral to alkaline pH assay) (17). Gelatin, sometimes used in...

Protection of Yeast Leavened Baked Goods

Sensitivity of yeast cells to a variety of ingredients used in baked products has created a highly specialized need for encapsulates. Even at low flavor levels acidulants, eg, citric, lactic, and acetic acids, will reduce the viability of yeast and may further affect the cellular structure of dough by reducing the total effect of yeast leavening. Preservatives such as sorbic acid and calcium proprionate, and even salt may have a similar killing effect on yeast as on the molds they are intended...

Protein Paste

Krill paste has been developed and commercial produced mostly in the former USSR. Fresh krill is pressed and a juice containing protein is collected. The coagulated protein is obtained by heating and pressing. The obtained coagulated protein is kneeded to make paste and then frozen. A krill paste-manufacturing machine for use on board ship Figure 2. Roller-type peeling machine. A, B, roller C, seawater D, shell E, krill meat in the getter of the peeler F, krill meat G, whole krill H, knife....

Protein Protein Interaction

Gel filtration chromatography and gel electrophoresis are the most popular methods to determine changes in the molecular weight of proteins caused by interaction. However, to study chemical equilibrium, methods in which zonal separation occurs should be avoided. For this reason, frontal gel filtration (37), sedimentation equilibrium ultracentri-fugation (38), light-scattering spectroscopy (39), and fluorescent polarization (40) are appropriate to use. Association constants of food proteins are...

Proteins Amino Acids

Amino acids are fundamental to the pharmaceutical, food processing, and animal feed industries. Besides being integral to the health of humans, they are used in industry for their nutritive value, physiological metabolites, and taste. In the food and animal feed industries, several essential amino acids, such as lysine, methionine, tryptophan, and threonine, are used in addition to l-glutamate, which accounts for more than 50 of total amino acid production. In the pharmaceutical industry,...

Proteins Denaturation And Food Processing

Food proteins constitute a wide range of protein types (eg, structural, storage, catalytic) and essentially include all those that are palatable, digestible, nontoxic, and accessible to humans. Although contributing to the nutritional value of foods by supplying a dietary source of essential and nonessential amino acids, proteins also serve as integral food components or ingredients by virtue of their diverse technological or functional properties (Table 1). These properties affect the behavior...

Public Health And Functional Foods

Health aspect is considered one of the main selection criteria of foods. Cardiovascular diseases form a significant public health hazard in Finland. High sodium chloride level in the diet is considered one of the most important risk factors. Therefore, a marked reduction in salt intake has become a desirable trend. The level of dietary salt has been decreased by lowering the sodium chloride concentration in food products and by replacing sodium with magnesium and potassium. One such product is...

Public Health Aspects Of Drycured Sausages

Dry-cured sausages receive no heat-treatment prior to digestion, but they have a number of built-in microbiological hurdles such as low pH, low water activity, low redox potential, and nitrite. Despite these hurdles, there has been cases where severe illness could be associated to dry-cured sausages and outbreaks caused by bacteria have been reported. Mold-fermented sausages may encounter the risk of mycotoxin development, and chemical hazards comprise unacceptable levels of biogenic amines and...

Pulmonary Disease

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develop various degrees of respiratory muscle fatigue, hypoventilation, carbon dioxide retention (hypercap-nia), and oxygen depletion (hypoxemia). In the majority of patients who experience difficulty in breathing, the obstruction of airflow is due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema (28). Typically, these patients experience marked weight loss, which may result both from decreased caloric intake (29,30) and from increased energy...

Pyramid Servings Data

Along with improvements in data collection methods, another methodological advance during the 1990s involves the way information on food intakes by individuals is reported to the public. Since the 1965-1966 HFCS, when information on the intakes of food by individuals was collected for the first time, average quantities of foods consumed have been reported in grams or as the percentages of individuals consuming food from selected food groups or subgroups. Information expressed as percentages of...

Pyrazines and Furans

The pyrazine group has been regarded as one of the most important classes of flavor compounds (33). This group is usually produced by heating of appropriate precursors and exhibits a roasted or nutty aroma. The formation of pyrazines is probably due to the reaction of NH3 or amino-containing compounds with sugars or other carbonyl compounds (25). It has also been shown that amino acid-N will react with sugar to produce different pyrazines and that degradation products of sugars can react with...

Q

Preserves and jellies 1152 Quality control Quality control (Continued) computers in dehydrated vegetables machine vision systems (MVS) South Africa Quality management Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) Quantitative precipitin techniques Quantitative sensory profiling (QSP) Quarg cheese Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) as disinfectants as emulsifiers Queen bees Quiescently frozen dairy confections

Quality Control And Grading

The Department of Agriculture is responsible for compiling specifications for the sorting and classification of most of the processed and unprocessed agricultural products. In the metropolitan areas, vegetables and fruit must comply with certain packaging, grading, and marketing conditions. Local and export regulations apply for canned vegetables and fruit, dehydrated vegetables, dried fruit, and frozen vegetables and fruit. Red meat carcasses are graded according to fatness, lean yield, and...

Quality Control Assurance Applications

The Kernel Extension Rapid New Evolution Level (KERNEL) was developed to grade morphological features and color defects in turkey carcasses (15). The turkey carcasses suspended on a chain are appraised for pin feathers, visceras, and filets cuts yield. Different appearance (color) characteristics were extracted using color segmentation methods. A CMVS was developed to identify the reddish comb of each chicken and thus be able to count the chickens before placing them in the crate automatically....

Quality Management

In a recent survey, 7 out of 10 (69 ) consumers cited spoilage-related concerns, including bacterial contamination, as the most significant threat to food safety. Consumers are also taking action almost half of survey respondents (45 ) said they are doing something different as a result of the safe-handling labels on meat products. More respondents are washing their hands, cooking properly, not leaving meat out to thaw, and washing meat. More than 90 of the consumers surveyed indicated that the...

Quality Monitoring Of Stored Foods

Rations formulated and processed to retain their nutritive value, to prevent microbial growth, and to appeal to the military man or women must be able to maintain such quality attributes throughout storage and distribution. Unfortunately, food cannot be preserved indefinitely and will slowly show some degradation. Several degradative processes take place, even in canned products, that are due to chemical, biochemical, or physical reactions. Browning in cream sauces and in fruits reflects the...

Quantitative Measure Of Sterilization

The rates of reactions in foods, such as the destruction of microorganisms or nutrients, are generally first-order reactions described by where c is the concentration of any component at time t and kT is the rate constant at temperature T. The temperature dependency of the rate constant is given by the well-known Arrhenius law where k0 is a constant called frequency factor, Ea is the activation energy, and R is the gas constant. The temperature T normally varies in a heating process. To obtain...

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Computation

Since the introduction of computer-aided study of quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) to explain the functions of chemical compounds (63), many computer programs have been used for modeling. Instead of using processing conditions as independent variables, hydrophobic, steric, and electronic parameters were used in QSAR at the beginning. In the case of food proteins, hydrophobicity and solubility were first used for QSAR computation (55) because of unavailability of data on...

R r I A v

Eight examples of the hurdle effect that facilitate understanding of the application of hurdle technology in food preservation. See text for details. Symbols have the following meaning F, heating t, chilling aw, water activity pH, acidification Eh, redox potential pres., preservatives K-F, competitive flora V, vitamins N, nutrients. the microbial cells and leads to a synergistic effect of preservative factors (hurdles). Energy restrictions for microorganisms are caused, for example,...

Radiation Heat Transfer

Since all bodies continuously emit thermal radiation and absorb radiation from other bodies around them, both the received and emitted energy (combining emitted, received, and reflected energies) must be considered when determining the temperature state of a body. This total energy interchange between bodies is significantly affected by the nature of the bodies and the conditions in which these bodies exist. The ability of a body to absorb and emit energy is measured by its emissivity, the...