Massaging And Tumbling

After pickle injection, muscle products require a massaging or tumbling process to facilitate the salt-soluble protein extraction and pickle diffusion (6-8). The desired result is to produce a product with an original intact tissue appearance after heat processing. Before the massaging process, mechanical tenderization or maceration is often used to increase the surface available for protein extraction and to improve binding during cooking and pliability during stuffing. However, this step is...

FDA Regulations

The FDA's general regulatory requirements for foods (Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Human Food) are found in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 110. Requirements for Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers are found in 21 CFR 113, and requirements for Acidified Foods in 21 CFR 114. Foods that have a water activity of 0.85 or less and those that are refrigerated or frozen are exempt from the...

Governmental Activities

Very brief mention was made of a state governmental laboratory when the development of citrus concentrate was referred to, but that research was a very small part of the effect governmental agencies have on food science and technology. The research laboratories of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) employ many food scientists and technologists. Aside from the five major regional laboratories and the USDA laboratories in Beltsville, Maryland, there are numerous area laboratories such as...

Aflatoxin

Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus (Aflatoxins) Aflatoxin is a problem in many commodities however, as far as grains are concerned, it is primarily a problem in maize. This is because maize is colonized in the field depending on environmental conditions, whereas other grains are not. Of the other grains, rice is an important dietary source of aflatoxin in circumstances of poor storage in tropical and subtropical areas. The character of the problem varies by region. In the United States,...

Agriculture And Food Science And Technology Research

Research and development needs in a country with both First and Third World sectors are diversified and an enormous challenge. Research activities have to comply with the needs of both the resource poor rural communities, as well as the standards set by countries importing primary and secondary food products from South Africa. Several universities, government institutions, semistate organizations, and private sector companies are involved in research and technology development in the...

Fatty Acid Esters

Certain fatty acid esters have antimicrobial activity in foods. One of the most effective of the fatty acid esters is glyceryl monolaurate (monolaurin) (29,30). Monolaurin is effective as an antimicrobial against Gram-positive bac teria including Bacillus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus but generally ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria (31-33). Presence of eth-ylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) expands the activity spectrum of monolaurin to include...

Control Strategies

There has been a resurgence of research on the epidemiology, biology, and control of Trichinella spiralis during the recent decade. A major ingredient in this renewed attention has been the biotechnological revolution and the new tools it has provided. Especially important has been the application of hybridoma technology to the development of better immunodiagnostic tests. The techniques of recombinant DNA have also been instrumental for providing a potential means to produce antigens and to...

General References

American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatric Nutrition Handbook, 3rd ed., American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, 111., 1993. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition, Sodium Intake by Infants in the United States, Pediatrics, 68, 444-445 (1981). J. T. Bond et al., eds., Infant and Child Feeding, Academic Press, New York, 1981. National Research Council Food Protection Committee, Food and Nutrition Board, Report of the Subcommittee on Safety and Suitability of MSG and Other...

Color And Food Importance Of Food Color

The role that color plays in the reaction to food is so automatic that it may be taken for granted. This does not make that role any less important it merely decreases awareness. The color of a food has important considerations for both the consumer and the technologist. These considerations are quite different yet they are interrelated as shown in Figure 1. The psychological effects of color have long been recognized. A room decorated in red exudes warmth and may increase pulse and respiration...

Lysozyme

Lysozyme (l,4- WV-acetylmuramidase) is a 14,600 Da enzyme present in avian eggs, mammalian milk, tears and other secretions, insects, and fish. It is most stable under acidic conditions. The enzyme catalyzes hydrolysis of the 1-1,4 glycosidic bonds between iV-acetylmuramic acid and iV-acetylglucosamine of the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. This causes cell wall degradation and eventual lysis. Lysozyme is most active against Gram-positive bacteria, most likely because of the exposed...

Formation Of The Institute

The formation of the Institute in 1939 was the result of the efforts of several food technologists and engineers who felt that there should be a discipline for a subject as important as the production, nutrition, and safety of foods. In 1937 a food technology conference was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The conference was chaired by Dr. Samuel C. Prescott, Dean of Biology at MIT. At the conclusion of the conference, Dr. Bernard E. Proctor, also of the MIT faculty,...

Natural Plant Toxins In Foods

The following is a survey of some of the most well studied and characterized plant toxins. Allyl isothiocyanates are a group of major naturally occurring compounds that confer the pungent flavor to foods such as mustard and horseradish, where it is present at about 50 to 100 ppm. These compounds are in Brassica vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage, and in cassava and other tropical staple foods, but at much lower concentrations. Normal dietary exposure to isothiocyanate-containing foods...

Packaging Part Iilabeling

Regulation of food labeling in the United States falls mainly under the jurisdiction of two federal agencies the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) oversees food labeling of products containing meat or poultry. All other food products, including certain products containing only small amounts of meat or poultry and certain products (eg, traditional sandwiches) not associated by consumers with...

Education And Research

Food sciences education is shared among four universities. The Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Helsinki is concentrated on food technology, food chemistry, microbiology, and nutrition the Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Helsinki, focuses on food hygiene. Other branches are food chemistry in the University of Turku, nutrition in the University of Kuopio, and food technology and chemistry in the...

Factors Affecting Oxidation

The rate of autoxidation in vegetable oils is affected by many factors including degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, metals, and antioxidants. For example, linoleic acid, which contains two double bonds, is oxidized at a faster rate than oleic acid, which contains only one double bond. The relative rates of autoxidation of oleic to linoleic to lin-olenic (3 double bonds) acid has been reported as 1 4050 100 on the basis of oxygen uptake (14). Reasons for differences in autoxidative...

Food Research Before The Term Food Science Arose

Food science as a distinct discipline is not quite a century old, but aspects of it have existed for centuries. Appert's development in 1810 of the process of canning (1) was an epochal event. The process wasn't called canning then, and Appert himself did not really know the principle upon which his process depended, but canning has had a major impact on food preservation ever since its development. It was the first of the purposely invented processes. Other methods developed earlier, such as...

Historic Perspective

Given the large fertile land area relative to population, an abundance of temperate foodstuffs have been exported since the Viking age. Hides, wool, grain, butter, and fish were exported through the trading towns, such as Dublin, Cork, and Galway, to Britain and Europe (1). In 1700 Ireland was similar to other western European countries her population was about 4 million and most of them worked on the land. From the middle of the eighteenth century, the demand for agricultural products grew...

Production Practices

Traditional ostrich management in the Little Karoo in South Africa involved an extensive system, with the birds running on a natural field. The more intensive system in use today in South Africa involves taking the chicks from the incubator (42-day incubation period) and placing them in floor pens, either of concrete or on short lucerne pasture. From 6 weeks to 2 months the birds are placed in growing camps, where they do not have growing vegetation but rather are fed only a complete ration...

Uses Of The Data

As shown in Table 1, evaluations of diet quality and tracking changes in the diet over time have many useful federal, state, and local applications, including policy formation, program planning, and nutrition education. Users of the survey data include federal government agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Federal Trade Commission, and numerous USDA agencies state agencies and larger county health departments food and...

Citric Acid Citrates

Although citric acid is not used directly as an antimicrobial, it has activity against some molds and bacteria. Citric acid retards growth and toxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus and A. versicolor, but not Penicillium expan-sum (7). It is inhibitory to Salmonella in media and on poultry carcasses, to growth and toxin production by C. botulinum in shrimp and tomato products, to S. aureus in microbiological medium and to flat sour bacteria isolated from tomato juice (7). The mechanism of...

Ozone Applications For Food Storage

Ozone has found extensive use in extending the storage times for fruits, vegetables, eggs, cheese, meats, poultry, and fish (17). Many European countries have developed the technology and applications. Research began in this application in the early part of this century, but today's technology is based on research since World War II. Ozone's application continues to grow as the costs of generators, sensors, and control systems have come down. Today in the United States, fruit and vegetable...

Infant Foods Infant Nutrition

Infants are defined, somewhat arbitrarily, as less than 1 year of age. Infant foods and feeding practices have been adapted to encompass infants and young children to allow for feeding during the first 2 to 3 years. The infant has unique nutritional needs, substantially different from those of an adult. Energy, protein, iron, and other needs are greater than at any other period in life. Food must be relatively concentrated, and with a controlled consistency, because the volume capability,...

History Of Foods And Feeding Practice

Infant foods have evolved largely parallel to the development of food science and technology, and the implementation of food safety and food processing practices has dramatically influenced the availability of safe foods. Before 1800 about two-thirds of children died before 5 years of age, and that statistic has dramatically changed. Wet nurses (women hired to suckle others' children) were widely used when breast feeding was impossible. Otherwise, supplementary foods were of poor quality and...

The Food Quality System

The significance of any food quality system has to be discussed within the context of the food supply in its entirety. The quality of our food supply is of supreme importance to us all consumers, farmers, processors, distributors, food service operators, and the regulatory agencies. Increasing affluence has given birth to a new breed of consumer, one accustomed to eating away from home frequently. This new consumer shows greater reliance on convenience and expects safe, high-quality foods for...

Trends In Food Consumption

In the depression years of the 1930s, concern about the quality of American diets was high. To address this and other issues related to family economics, the USDA and the Bureau of Labor Statistics conducted several national studies (13). The comprehensive picture of household food consumption and dietary levels obtained in the Consumer Purchases Study of 1935-1936 indicated that one-third of the nation's families had diets that were poor by nutritional standards (26). These findings gave...

Microwave Science And Technology

Interest in microwave processing began shortly after World War II with the introduction of the first microwave oven by the Raytheon Co. (Waltham, Mass.) a manufacturer of magnetrons for radar. The first U.S. patent granted to Raytheon Co., which claimed the novelty of microwave cooking, was illustrated with a food product moving on a conveyor belt past a microwave source (1). Many other patents followed, research was carried out on the effects of microwave energy on food materials, microwave...

Historical Development And General

Phosphates exhibit functional properties in a wide variety of foods produced by all segments of the processed food industry. The availability of sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium phosphates offers food technologists and food scientists formulation flexibility to control taste, nutritional, and other technical properties. The commercial use of food phosphates may be traced to 1864 when the first U.S. patent was granted for a phosphate-containing baking powder (1). The use of...

Food Science And Technology As A Title

The founding of the IFT in 1939 (10) led to general use of the term food technologist. Reference was made in the last section to Prescott and Proctor's book for its use of the term food technology another who did so in the same year, 1937, was Bitting (11). He called himself a food technologist on the title page of his book. By 1945, the original four departments that had taught the subject under different titles had changed their departmental names to food science, food science and technology,...

Poultry Meat From Avian Species

The United States and China are the world leaders in meat animal production. The United States is the world's largest producer of beef, veal, broilers, and turkeys and is the second-largest producer of table eggs and pork. China is the world's largest producer of table eggs, swine, lamb and mutton, and horses, the second-largest in broilers, and third in beef and veal. None of that existed when Columbus first came to America (with the exception of possible domestication of turkeys in Mexico)....

Lactoferrin and Other Iron Binding Proteins

Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein that occurs in milk and colostrum and has potential for use as a food antimicrobial (78). Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 76,500 Da. Lactoferrin has two iron-binding sites per molecule and, for each Fe3+ bound, requires one bicarbonate (hco3 ). Lactoferrin is potentially active in milk due to the low iron concentration and presence of bicarbonate (79). The exact biological role of lactoferrin is unknown however, it may act...

Marketplace Demands And Driving Forces

Packaging is critical in providing products that meet the consumer needs in a society. Packaging is even more critical in providing food products because they are more perishable and fundamental to the health and progress of the society. Many driving forces result in increased marketplace demands for foods that offer quality, convenience, safety, and low cost. Some of these driving forces are lifestyle changes, demographic changes, and market globalization. The most noticeable lifestyle changes...

Principles Of Animal Reproduction And Breeding

Productivity of livestock depends on reproductive efficiency and is usually measured by the number of offspring produced by an animal or herd per unit of time. Therefore, management of reproductive cycles is critical for obtaining maximum efficiency of reproducing animals. Dairy and beef cattle are derived from common ancestors and thus have common reproductive characteristics. The period of time from one ovulation to the next ovulation is called the estrous cycle. The estrous cycle in cattle...

Other Mycotoxins That Can Occur In Food

T-2 toxin was isolated from strain T-2 of F. sporotrichio-ides misidentified as F. tricinctum isolated from corn associated with cow mortalities (33,114). This compound has been the subject of considerable toxicological study (17) because it is easy to isolate and purify. During World War II, there were large-scale poisoning of the rural population in the former Soviet Union caused by the consumption of grains left in the field over winter (estimates range to 1,000,000 victims). The disease was...

Future Trends

Microbiological and bioassays have historically served to screen foods for the presence of antibiotics. While these assays have proven to be quite sensitive and inexpensive they are far too nonspecific and cause too lengthy a delay in obtaining data. This delay may allow antibiotic contaminated animal-derived foods to be marketed and consumed with drug detection being accomplished after the fact. This policy is inherently inadequate but has arisen from the limitations of the available...

Modern Coffee Production

Commercial coffees are grown in tropical and subtropical climates at altitudes up to roughly 1800 m the best grades are grown at high elevations. Most individual coffees from different producing areas possess characteristic flavors. Commercial roasters obtain preferred flavors by blending varieties before or after roasting. Colombian and washed Central American coffees are generally characterized as mild, winey-acid, and aromatic Brazilian coffees as heavy body, moderately acid, and aromatic...

Genetic And Environmental Factors

Genetic and environmental factors are partners in the development of bone density and bone health over a lifetime (6). At present, the knowledge about genetic factors that are important in this process, and thus about the risk of osteoporosis, is meager at best. Genes, gene products, and nutrient-gene interactions are currently an evolving science (24,25). Ongoing research to understand the human genome, as well as many studies targeted at the environmental aspects of osteoporosis, will in time...

Instant

Instant-tea powder is generally prepared by the aqueous extraction of black tea followed by concentration and drying. It is also possible to prepare instant tea from green tea or from oxidized leaf prior to the drying step. As most tea consumed in the United States is drunk as a cold beverage, the cold-water insolubility of the important cream fraction introduces technological problems in manufacture. A product prepared simply by extraction with hot water, concentration, and drying will not...

Info

1996-1997 figures used because 1997-1998 data were not yet available. Source Ref. 2. 1996-1997 figures used because 1997-1998 data were not yet available. Source Ref. 2. Table 2. Imports 1997 and Consumption 1995-1996 of Green Coffee Table 2. Imports 1997 and Consumption 1995-1996 of Green Coffee

Fumaric Acid

Fumaric acid is also a naturally occurring, organic, general purpose food acid. Although not found ubiquitously or in the concentrations of citric acid, fumaric nevertheless is found in all mammals as well as rice, sugar cane, wine, plant leaves, bean spouts, and edible mushrooms. Fumaric acid is made synthetically by the isomerization of maleic acid. It is also produced by fermentation of glucose or molasses with Rhizopus spp. (4). It is a white crystalline powder that has the clean tartness...

Preparations

Fresh eels are cooked in several ways, such as braising and steaming. Steaming, however, is the more popular method. In both Taiwan and Mainland China, eel is either steamed with various vegetables and mushrooms or stewed with Chinese herbs, such as medlar, lovage, and dates. This herb-filled soup is considered as a revitalizing tonic soup for frail or disabled persons. Smoked Eels. After the eels' are cut, they are brined in a saltwater solution, then hot smoked. In this process,...

Occurrence

The betalains are confined to 10 closely related families of the order Caryophyllales. The only foods containing betacyanins are the red beet, B. vulgaris chard, B. vulgaris-, cactus fruit, Opuntia ficus-indica and pokeberries, P. americana. Pokeberries are not a normal food source, but the leaves are eaten as a green vegetable. Betalains are also found in a number of flowers and the poisonous mushroom, Amanita muscaria, but again these are not normal food sources. Their importance as a food...

Fruits And Vegetables

Substances found in fruits and vegetables may exert anti-carcinogenic action by inhibiting formation of carcinogens, by inducing detoxifying enzymes, or by blocking the carcinogen from reaching target tissue. Tumor promotion may be inhibited by retinol and beta-carotene (green yellow vegetables and fruits), tocopherol (nuts, wheat germ), vitamin C (vegetables, fruits), organosulfur compounds (garlic, onions), curcumin (tumeric, curry), and capsaicin (chili peppers). Covalent DNA binding is...

Emerging Foodborne Diseases

Emerging and reemerging infections have been defined as new, recurring, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades, or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future (22). This subject has been reviewed by Altekrusse (23). A committee of the Institute of Medicine recognized as early as 1992 the microbial threats to health in the United States of emerging infections and made recommendations (22). A number of factors contribute to the...

Caffeine as a Drug

The primary uses of caffeine as a drug are based on its effects on the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. Premature infants, for example, are subject to apnea, a transient but potentially dangerous cessation of breathing. Caffeine has been used to control this syndrome. It decreases apneic episodes and regularizes breathing patterns (28). It is also used for the treatment of bronchiospastic disease in asthmatic patients. Caffeine is used widely in drug mixtures designed...

Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins are chemicals that are produced by filamentous fungi that affect human or animal health. By convention, this excludes mushroom poisons. These fungi are called toxigenic fungi. All of these species are deuteromy-cetes (asexual) some of which have a known ascomycetous (sexual) stage. All of the mycotoxins discussed here are secondary metabolites of the fungi concerned, that is, compounds that are produced after one or more nutrients become limiting (1-3). The occurrence of mycotoxins...

Application Of Gas Packaging For Shelflife Extension Of Food

The application of MAP using various gas mixtures has been used successfully by many food-processing and food-packaging companies around the world to extend the shelf life and retain quality of a variety of food products. Examples of food products currently gas packaged as well as the composition of gas mixtures used to extend the shelf life of each product are shown in Table 5. The optimum blend of gases for a specific product can be determined not simply by trial and error but only through a...

High Ultimate pH DFD Condition

The process of anaerobic conversion of muscle glycogen to lactic acid after slaughter reaches an end point when the muscle pH falls to about pH 5.5, at which point complete inhibition of the enzymes responsible occurs even if glycogen is still present. The pH reached when glycolysis ceases is termed the ultimate pH. The ultimate pH will be higher if the initial (preslaughter) stores of muscle glycogen are low. In the worst instances of extreme stress, the muscle ultimate pH does not change from...

Hazard Identification

Hazard identification is the determination of the known or potential health effects of consumption of the compound. In some cases, the need for toxicological testing can be predicted from the chemical structure based on known structure-activity relationships. Several chemical structures, such as n-nitroso or aromatic amine groups, are potentially carcinogenic. In many cases, manufacturers use this information to decide whether to go forward with expensive animal testing of their products. In...

Cellmediated Food Allergies

Cell-mediated food allergies are sometimes called delayed hypersensitivity reactions, because the symptoms of these reactions typically appear 6 to 24 hours after consumption of the offending food. Cell-mediated allergies involve the interaction of food allergens with sensitized lymphocytes, usually in the intestinal tract. These reactions occur without the involvement of IgE or other antibodies. The interaction between the allergen and the sensitized lymphocyte results in lymphokine production...

Obesity

Obesity affects many millions of Americans and is a major public health problem. It is characterized by excess body fat caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure (2). The specific reasons behind such an imbalance, however, remain the subject of much debate. Genetic, environmental and behavioral variables all influence the risk of becoming overweight (2,4), but the relative importance of each remains unclear. The prevalence of obesity for different age groups in the...

Ph Of Various Foods

The pH of selected fresh, fermented, and commercially canned foods is shown in Table 1. In general, the pH of most fruits falls in the acid range (notable exceptions include bananas and cantaloupes), whereas the pH of meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables falls in the low-acid range. Fermentation may be used to reduce the pH of a low-acid food, as is done with sauerkraut, pickles, and yogurt. For other foods the pH is lowered by direct addition of acid (marinated vegetables such as mushrooms or...

Physiochemical Properties Molecular Weight

Most reports on the molecular weight of PPO are based on estimates on partially purified preparations using gel filtration or acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Therefore, a wide range of values are reported. Often crude or partially purified preparations show a multiplicity of forms, which may have resulted from association-dissociation reactions. Depending on the source of the enzyme, the molecular weights vary between 29,000 and 200,000 with subunit molecular weight from 29,000 to 67,000. Until...

Process Wastewater

Surimi making requires a large amount of fresh water during the washing process this ranges from 10 to 20 times the weight of the deboned meat, depending on the species, condition of fish, and extent of cleaning required. Currently, all the water used during the surimi process is discharged as wastewater. This is of concern because the wastewater contains an average of 3.4 g of protein per liter Cryoprotectants Surimi After recovery Figure 3. Material balance of surimi manufacturing process. M,...

Malic Acid

This is the second most popular general purpose food acid although less than one-tenth the quantity of citric acid used. Malic acid is a white, odorless, crystalline powder or granule with a clean tart taste with no characterizing flavor of its own. The properties of malic acid are listed in Table 1. Malic acid is made through chemical synthesis by the hydration of maleic acid. An inspection of its structure in Table 1 reveals that malic acid has an asymmetric carbon which provides for the...

Freezing and Freeze Drying

Only a small portion of common (Agaricus) mushrooms produced are frozen or freeze-dried, and a large part of the frozen mushrooms are sold to reprocessors, such as freeze-dryers, or used in specialized frozen food products. Washing and Blanching. Lower microbial loads are the basic requirements for these products, and vigorous washing and utilization of some disinfectants have been found effective for this purpose. High levels of chlorine, up to 50 ppm in the wash water, have been found...

Commercial Bioflavors

Novel bioprocesses are now an accepted alternative source of a wide range of high-prized volatile flavors. A couple of companies advertise 100 natural compounds. Whether these were obtained by conventional physical treatments of plant (or other natural) sources, or whether they in fact originated from a bioreactor, is sometimes difficult to assess. True products of concerted bioprocesses may be di-acetyl (butter note, from starter cultures), cheese flavors, yeast products (meaty and savory...

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and increased bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. Adequate calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients are critical to achieving optimal peak bone mass and modify the rate of bone loss with aging. After menopause, women experience rapid bone loss due to declining estrogen levels. Hormone replacement therapy, in conjunction with calcium, has been shown to be effective in reducing bone loss. Although less common in men, prolonged use...

Bibliography

Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1982. 2. W. D. Powrie and M. A. Tung, Food Dispersions, in O. R. Fen-nema, ed., Food Dispersions in Principles of Food Science Part I Food Chemistry, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1976, pp. 185194. 3. A. Halpern, The Surface Tension of Oils, J. Physical Colloid Chem. 53, 895-897 (1949). 4. R. R. Benerito, W. S. Singleton, and R. O. Feuge, Surface and Interfacial Tensions of Synthetic Glycerides of Known...

Unsaturated Fatty Acids

MUFAs are a unique class of fatty acids that provides great flexibility in diet planning. They can be used to replace SFAs or carbohydrate calories or both. Depending on the substitution made, there can be a variable change in the total fat content of the diet, varying from essentially no or little change to an approximate twofold increase. The impact of these scenarios has already been discussed. In brief, however, diets high in MUFA (that are low in SFA and...

Fining of Wines

Fining or clarification of wines eliminates colloidal materials, usually involving phenolics and proteins, that cause turbidity and precipitates during aging. Clarification should be undertaken about 6 months after vintage, when both fermentation and malolactic fermentation have completed. The wine is then racked and filtered. Both red and white wines require fining, although some wines are now only filtered after centrifuging for faster marketing. Be Figure 5. Examples of three major wine...

Effects on Cardiovascular System

Caffeine produces minor, transitory increases in blood pressure. Habitual users are less prone to exhibit this effect. Its significance is not known (26). Caffeine has also been reported to cause cardiac arrhythmias, but there is conflicting evidence (26). There appears to be a caffeine-intolerant population that is susceptible to this effect. Caffeine may exacerbate an existing tendency toward arrhythmias. Low dosages may decrease heart rate slightly high dosages may cause tachycardia in...

Butter And Butter Products

The art of butter making dates back to times immemorial. Reference to the use of butter for sacrificial worship, for medicinal and cosmetic purposes, and as a human food may be found long before the Christian era. Documents indicate that, at least in the Old World, the taming and domestication of animals constituted the earliest beginnings of human civilization and culture. There is good reason to believe, therefore, that the milking of animals and the origin of butter making aforedate the...

Champagne Processing

Champagne processing is a fascinating subject and deserves some discussions. About 250 years ago a monk named Don Perignon in the Champagne region of France discovered the process of making champagne. He exclaimed, Come and see I am drinking stars. Champagne making is now a highly regulated manufacturing process under the control of the French government. At the perfect time of maturity of the grapes (chardonnay, pinot meunier, and or pinot noir), they are picked by hand. Great care is taken...

Fats And Oils Substitutes

A growing public awareness about the relationship between food and wellness has kept dietary fat at the top of the list of consumer nutritional concerns for at least a decade (see Table 1 Ref. 1). According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (1994-1996), almost half of Americans think their diets are too high in fat (2). Research by Susan M. Krebs-Smith and colleagues, reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,...

Decholesterolized Butter

Fractionation by crystallization, supercritical fluid extraction, and other technology are methods being applied commercially to milk fat to create desirable new products, such as decholesterolized butter. The essential purpose of milk fat application development is to adapt products to fit user demands. In the 1980s, there was significant research and market activity in developing decholesterolized milk fat. All this activity was for naught, for the hypothesis of creating a healthier fat (for...

Raisin

Raisins are a very old product and have been known since biblical times. Raisin production spread from the Middle East to many other parts of the world. The United States and Turkey produce two-thirds of the world production of about 1 million metric tons. Raisins are produced from varieties of grapes (Vitis vinifera) that have a high sugar content. The sultanas produced from the Thompson seedless variety of grapes are the most well-known. Grapes to be dried into raisins are picked by hand and...

Effect of pH on Myofibrillar Proteins and Water Holding Capacity

Myosin, a highly charged molecule, undergoes some changes related to the pH of the muscle. At the pH of living tissue (approximately pH 7.1), the negative charges dominate, but at a pH of 5.5, which is closer to the muscle protein's isoelectric point, there is a similar number of negative and positive charges, and the capacity to bind water is least. When the muscle is in rigor, the bond between actin and myosin also causes the myofilament lattice to shrink, expelling water (13-15). Thus, for...

Chemistry

In 1980 the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that further information on the chemical properties of caramel be obtained to establish a suitable classification and specification system. This reaction is common to a number of natural extracts and also to some manufactured colorants. For example, with the colorants from grapes, no manufacturer has attempted to provide a chemical profile of...

Commercial Applications

In view of the large body of research on the appearance, stability, analysis, and plant breeding of anthocyanins, that occur naturally in fruit and vegetable products, it is not surprising that anthocyanin colorants would be used to enhance the aesthetic appeal of existing plant products or formulated substitutes. Actually, one of the first applications of enocyanin, a generic term for colorants from grapes, was to improve the color of wine. In the United States, fruit drinks are the biggest...

Composition Of The

The egg is composed of approximately 10 shell, 30 yolk, and 60 white or albumen. The egg is a very good source of high-quality protein and many minerals and vitamins. The exact levels of the minerals and vitamins is determined by the level of each in the diet of the hen. An average chemical composition of eggs, including shells, is summarized in Table 3. The protein of egg white is complete it contains all of the essential amino acids in well-balanced proportions. The white is made up mainly of...

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Omega6 Fatty Acids

Evidence that certain SFAs raise blood cholesterol levels whereas PUFAs lower them was a justification for several major diet trials designed to lower CHD risk by feeding a high-fat diet (about 40 of calories) that was low in SFA and very high in PUFA (16 to 20 of calories Oslo Diet Heart Study, 19 VA Diet Heart Study, 20 Finnish Mental Hospital Study, 21). These studies all showed that this diet lowered CHD risk by 24 to 53 concomitant with a reduction in serum cholesterol of 13 to 15 ....

Physiologic And Metabolic Effects

Burkitt and Trowell (2) were the first to report the physiological importance of dietary fiber consumption. Based on epidemiological studies, they showed associations between low-fiber diets and chronic disorders such as constipation, diverticulosis, colon cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since the 1970s research has been carried out that, for the most part, confirms the role of dietary fiber in disease prevention. Normal laxation is an important health benefit of dietary fiber...

Igemediated Food Allergies

In IgE-mediated food allergies, allergen-specific IgE antibodies are produced in the body in response to exposure to a food allergen, usually a protein. These IgE antibodies are highly specific and will recognize only a specific portion of the protein that they are directed against. Occasionally, IgE antibodies produced against one particular protein in a specific food will confer sensitivity to another food either because the food is closely related or because it shares a common segment with...

Future Issues And Concerns

The public's interest in what is in their foods continues to be high, and the pressure to provide more information will surely continue. A few matters are left over from NLEA issues. For the present, FDA considers the voluntary nutrition-labeling programs for fresh produce and fish to be adequate and has not proposed rules making nutrition labeling mandatory for these products. Pressure continues from some quarters for the agency to require higher-profile nutrition labeling for all foods served...

Breakfast Cereals and Dietary Recommendations

Dietary recommendations from the government and major health organizations suggest that the intake of dietary fat and cholesterol should decrease and the caloric intake from complex carbohydrates should increase (10). One way this can be accomplished is to increase the amount of cereals and grains in the diet. A RTE breakfast cereal is right in line with these dietary recommendations. A recent General Foods study showed that adults who consumed breakfast, especially one that incorporated RTE...

Dietary Intake by Individuals

Information on food intakes by individuals is more precise than household food use data for the assessment of diet quality (13). For several reasons, household data were less than ideal for analyses of diet quality relative to the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), which were the only standards available (25). Household food consumption data included food discard, resulting in overestimates of nutritional quality. To compare household intake levels with the RDAs, it was necessary to adjust...

The Alimentary System

The alimentary or digestive system is a long tube that consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, and anus. Some important accessory organs connected to the digestive tract are the salivary glands, gallbladder, pancreas, and liver. Along this tract, foods are broken down into smaller units, both physically and chemically, and then absorbed for use by the body. Figure 1 shows the general outline of the entire human digestive system. The food placed in the mouth is...

Microbial Contaminants

Consumer in recent years have expressed considerable concern over the safety of the food supply. Concern has been aimed at the presence of hormones and drugs in meats, preservatives found in food, pesticides, microbial contaminants, and food additives. Reports last year of cyanide in grapes and Alar in apples have fueled the level of concern. This issue of the public's concern over the quality of food was addressed at a conference (the International Conference on Issues in Food Safety and...

Occurrence In Nature

As indicated in Table 1 the carotenoids are widely distributed in foods and are the most widespread group of pigments in nature. They are present without exception in photosynthetic tissue occur with no definite pattern in nonphotosynthetic tissues such as roots, flower petals, seeds, fruits, vegetables and are found sporadically in the Kingdom Protista, including the (fungi-yeast mushrooms and bacteria). The red, yellow, and orange pigments in the skin, flesh, shell, or exoskeleton of some...

Vinification And Phenolics

As seen in Figures 3,4, and 6, the phenolic content of wines changes from vintage years and by grape varieties. Further phenolic changes in grapes have been noted from site of production, probably depending on a number of factors such as weather and soil conditions and grape degree of maturity. Catechins and procyanidins are observed at the highest level during the early stages of grape maturity and then decrease somewhat rapidly. Anthocyanins, developing in grape skins, steadily increase...

Phenolic Compounds

The term phenolic compounds embraces a wide range of compounds that possess an aromatic ring bearing a hy-droxyl substituent, including their functional derivatives. Phenolic compounds are present in many plants. They are directly related to food characteristics such as taste, pal-atability, nutritional value, pharmacological and toxic effects, and microbial decomposition. Among the natural phenolic compounds, of which approximately 8000 are known to occur in plants, the flavonoids and their...

Alcoholic Beverages And Human Responses

Alcoholic beverages are, in essence, flavored solutions of ethanol. The flavors may come from grains, as in beer or from grapes and other fruit, as in wine or from any source of carbohydrates, grains, sugar, or grapes, as in whiskey, mm, and brandy. In addition, consumers may add their own flavors, as lime with some beers or fruits with some wine or carbonated sodas with distilled spirits. The spectrum of flavors is wide indeed. But the purpose of drinking any of these is to supply ethanol in...

Microbiology Of Foods

Food microbiology is the study of all aspects of microbial actions on food and food products, both directly and indirectly related to the welfare of mankind. Topics included in food microbiology are history of food microbiology, number and kinds of microbes in foods, intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of foods, methodologies, food spoilage, food preservation, and food-borne pathogens. All living things smaller than 0.1 mm in diameter are classified as microorganisms because they are too small...

Chemical Composition

The composition of any colorant containing anthocyanins will reflect the composition of the raw material. At present it is grapes and red cabbage, but other sources may become available in the future. About 275 anthocyanins are known currently and are part of about 5000 flavonoid compounds of similar chemical structure (4). The anthocyanins are composed of an aglycone (anthocyanidin), sugar, and perhaps organic acids. Twenty-two aglycones are known, of which 18 occur naturally. Only 6 are...

Or A

Spin flash dryer in closed-cycle arrangement. Figure 41. Spin flash dryer being prepared for shipment. Figure 41. Spin flash dryer being prepared for shipment. the same powder moisture. This provides an increase in thermal efficiency. Air velocity through the cross section of the drying chamber is an important design factor and is determined in part by the final particle size that is required. A lower velocity will tend to reduce the final dried particle size carried out of the...

Currant

Cultivated currants, of the family Saxifragaceae, are currant-bearing shrubs grown in the temperate and cold regions of both North and South America. Currants are extremely cold hardy, and their culture extends nearly to the Arctic Circle. Red and white currants are Ribes sativum, and black currants are R. nigrum. The flowering currant is R. odoratum. The black currant produces a more vigorous plant with a higher yield and stronger flavor than the other types and is probably more important...

Biologically Stable Intermediates

The ability to preserve food from one harvest to another has been vital to the development of civilization and has played a very important role in discovery and survival. Methods of food preservation, in one form or another, have been employed for thousands of years and are usually defined as a procedure that delays spoilage and makes food items available for consumption at a later date. Often the food item can be eaten without further preparation as, for example, when the inhabitants of the...

Saturated Fatty Acids

The Seven Countries Study (7) was a landmark epidemiologic investigation that played a seminal role in establishing a relationship between diet and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). Moreover, this study also provided evidence that diet affected serum cholesterol levels and that an elevation in cholesterol increased risk of coronary disease. This marked the beginning of the dietheart hypothesis era, a time during which numerous studies were conducted to examine the effects of...

Phytochemicals And Cardiovascular Disease

Oxidative reactions have been linked to atherosclerosis through several different mechanisms. The most widely studied hypothesis of lipid oxidation and atherosclerosis involves the formation of oxidized, cytotoxic lipoproteins, particularly low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (37). During the oxidation of LDL, the lipoproteins become modified through either direct free-radical attack or formation of adducts between proteins and lipid oxidation products. The oxidized LDL can then be recognized and...

Dynamic Force and Deformation

The impact response of a product is directly related to its mechanical properties, mass, and shape. Impact is the rapid collision of two objects, whether one or both objects are in motion. Impact testing techniques include drop, falling mass (or impact probe), and impact ram. A number of impact parameters have been proposed to measure horticultural product firmness, including peak force and time in contact with the impacting object. Impact responses have been studied for apples,...

Agricultural Production And Export

The relative importance of agriculture is illustrated by the sectoral analysis of the gross domestic product (Table 1). Agriculture has declined since 1970 but has become more stable since 1990. Real growth rates in agricultural produce have increased by 1.7 per annum since 1960, with the respective sectors being livestock, 1.9 field crops, 1.0 and horticulture, 2.9 . In terms of gross value, animal products constitute 42 , field crops 33 , and horticultural products 25 of agricultural produce....

Muscle Energy Supply and Changes During Rigor

In a living muscle, or a muscle just at animal death, the immediate source of energy for contraction comes from ATP. Muscle ATP is quickly used up in two to five contractions, whereupon creatine phosphate immediately becomes dominant. Upon depletion of this source, glycogen takes over. Depending on the intensity and duration of muscle activity, and on the presence of blood circulation, either anaerobic or aerobic glycolysis occurs to sustain activity. Although protein or fat can be useful...

Renal System

The kidneys are important in filtering undesirable materials out of the blood as well as serving a role in water and ion balance. Active transport, together with epithelial permeability are adjusted in order that ions and other materials vital to the body can be conserved and control over body water content can be exercized. The kidney in salmonidae is made up of two parts running along the anterior-posterior axis between the body cavity and vertebral column. Anterior and posterior portions,...

Absorption Of Alcohol

Alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream mainly from the upper small intestine. Although it enters the stomach, there is only a limited exit into the blood from that organ. Emptying of the stomach's contents is controlled by the pyloric sphincter muscle at the base of the stomach. It opens when the pH of the contents falls below 3. The presence of proteins, which act as buffers, or fats, which delay access of the stomach's enzymes and acid to their substrates, delay the fall in pH and thus also...

Diabetes Mellitus

What can now be recognized as diabetes was described in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and India. The sweet taste of urine in those with the condition was noted in the 1600s and the term mellitus meaning honeylike was introduced (13). Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem worldwide. It ranks sixth as a primary cause of death in the United States, but when its complications are included, it ranks third. These complications can be very serious and involve, in the United...

General Metabolism Of Alcohol

The first step in the metabolism of alcohol is a dehydro-genation to acetaldehyde. This is mediated by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, with nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as hydrogen acceptor. The reaction is reversible, and the reverse reaction is the last step in the process by which alcohol is produced by yeast. This reaction is followed by the oxidation of the aldehyde to acetate, brought about by another enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase, again with NAD + . This reaction has never...

Diabetes

Although controversy continues to exist regarding the optimal diet for individuals with diabetes, most health care diabetes specialists use the nutrition recommendations issued by the American Diabetes Association. These latest guidelines (57) specify that protein supply 10 to 20 of total caloric intake, saturated fatty acids less than 10 of total calories, and polyunsaturated fatty acids less than 10 of total calories. Thus, 60 to 70 of total calories remain to be divided between carbohydrate...

Muscle Fiber Types and Their Physiological Role

Although all striated muscles contract, the time course of contraction in the living animal varies with the muscle fiber type (fast twitch, slow twitch), substrate (ATP, creatine phosphate, protein, fatty acid, or glycogen), and the amount of oxygen available. Slow-twitch fibers (Type I fibers or red fibers) are mainly postural and are dominant in aerobic or endurance activity, whereas fast-twitch fibers (TVpe IIA and IIB fibers) are mainly fast acting and are involved in anaerobic activity....

I

Flow diagram of material from a slaughtered processing, and, often, the availability of highly trained technical operators. By-product yields (as a percentage of the animal's slaughter weight) depend on the species and category of animals slaughtered, the degree of animal processing, and on the end form of the by-product. Edible offals, material for pet food, and blood for edible use can represent up to 20 of carcass weight. When by-products are further processed (eg, rendered...

Hypertension

In the adult, hypertension (high blood pressure) is defined as a pressure greater than, or equal to, 140 mmHg systolic, or greater than or equal to, 90 mmHg diastolic pressure (9). In 90 to 95 of the cases of high blood pressure, the specific cause may be unknown (10). Hypertension is a risk factor for both coronary heart disease and stroke. Although it can occur in children and adolescents, it is more prevalent in the middle-aged and elderly, especially African Table 4. Selected...