Agricultural And Commercial Production

Agricultural and commercial food production are important economic factors in Germany. The net production value of agriculture and food industry was 34.3 and 48.8 billion DM respectively, compared with 2,759.6 billion of the German economy. General structural and economic data of Germany, the German food industry, and its comparison to other industry branches are presented in Tables 6 and 7.

Agricultural Production

In 1997,522,000 enterprises cultivated 117,000 km2 in the former Federal Republic, and only 33,145 enterprises produced on 56,000 km2 within the new Bundesländer; together they covered 54.1% of the total area of Germany.

The number of employees and the total area is decreasing year by year, but production and turnover have been fairly stable within the last years. The most important produce, in terms of quantity, are cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, and meat (Table 8). Self-sufficiency depends on the crop (Table 8), only 18% in case of fruits and 41% in case of vegetables. Of the main agricultural crops, the self-supply is above 100%.

Commercial Food Production

Commercial food producing enterprises in Germany largely comprise small- to medium-sized companies. Of the companies in the German food industry, 72% employ less than 100 people, and only 3% of all enterprises employ more than 500 people (Tables 9 and 10). In addition to the producing food industry with a total number of 20 or more employees per enterprise, in 1995 there were 44,464 small craftsmen's shops with 1 to 19 employees per enterprise; 19,610 bakery shops; and 20,210 butcher shops producing and selling their products. In 1994 they employed 314,472 people (baker; 145,632; butcher: 138,019) and had a turnover of31,204 million DM (baker: 11,241; butcher: 16,612).

In the food industry most of the employees work in the baking sector, slaughterhouse and meat processing industry, brewing industry, and dairy, and confectionery industries. These are the branches with the highest turnover and a low number of employees per enterprise, both indicating the traditional importance of the produced food items.

The total turnover, number of employees, and total payroll in the food industry is typical for the producing indus

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