Analysis

Analytical results are expressed in terms of one component for each chemical class; ie, acetic acid for acids, acetalde-hyde for aldehydes, etc (Tables 4 and 5). Individual constituents can, of course, be determined by more refined techniques. Until the advent of gas chromatography, tedious chemical procedures were generally required for separation of the congeners. Distillation, countercurrent distribution, and other physical methods affected concen-

Table 4. Chemical Analysis" of Bourbon Whiskies Matured at Six Proofs from 109 to 155° (54.5 to 77.5%), g/100 L at 100° Proof (50%)

Age (yr)

Proof

Color"

pH*

Solids

Fixed acids

Volatile acids

Esters

Fusel oil

Aldehydes

Furfural

Tannins

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