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Aquaculture's origins are ancient, but the explicit application of engineering to aquaculture is very recent. Only during the last 20 to 30 years has there been visible research activity in this field. This activity has accelerated recently fueled in part by the newly formed Aquacultural Engineering Society (AES, c/o The Freshwater Institute, P.O. Box 1746, Shepherdstown, WV 25443). The AES is an international organization bringing together individuals interested in the engineering applications to aquaculture. Although the number of aquacultural engineering practi-

of the first responses of aquatic animals to disease is reduction or cessation of feeding, treatments with medicated feeds must be initiated as soon as development of an outbreak is suspected and before the animals quit feeding. Antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline, can be dissolved in the water but may be less effective than when given orally.

Vaccines can be administered through injections, orally, or by immersion. Injection is the most effective means of vaccinating aquatic animals, but it is stressful, time-consuming, and expensive. The time and expense may be acceptable for use in conjunction with broodfish and other valuable animals. Oral administration of vaccines may be ineffective, because many vaccines are deactivated in the digestive tract of the animals the vaccines are intended to protect. Dip treatment by which the vaccines enter the animals through diffusion from the water are not generally as effective as injection but can be used to vaccinate large numbers of animals in short periods of time. Vaccines have been developed for a number offish diseases, but scientists have not achieved much success with invertebrates, which have a primitive immune system.

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