Today batch processing is not used to any extent for the production of large quantities of butter. Batch systems are still encountered in small butter plants, primarily in less industrially developed countries. Continuous systems are more efficient and cost effective for large outputs; batch systems have low capital intensity.
The processing of cream by a batch churn requires filling to approximately 30 to 50% capacity at a cream temperature of 4.4 to 12.8°C. Cream temperature will vary depending on seasonably of the cream, the butter characteristics desired, and the desired rate of fat inversion. Churning is accomplished by rotation of the churn at approximately 35 rpm until small butter granules appear. The process usually requires about 45 min for coalescence of the fat globules and clean separation of the buttermilk so that it can be drained (37). The granules may be washed with cold water to remove surface buttermilk. Salt is then added with water if the fat content standardization is required. The butter is worked to ensure uniformity and desirable body and texture characteristics.
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