Bibliography

1. M. Hamilton and R. K. Bennett, "Consumer Preferences for Fresh White Fish Species," J. Consumer Studies and Home Economics 8, 243-249 (1984).

2. R. J. Hall, "Food Flavors: Benefits and Problems," Food Tech-nol. 22, 1388-1392 (1968).

3. S. S. Chang, "Food Flavors: A Scientific Status Summary by the Institute of Food Technologists' Expert Panel on Food Safety & Nutrition," Food Technol. 43, 99-106 (1989).

4. J. E. Kinsella, "Flavor Perception and Binding," Inform 1, 215-226 (1990).

5. M. O'Mahony, Sensory Evaluation of Food—Statistical Methods and Procedures, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986.

6. G. Jellinek, Sensory Evaluation of Food—Theory and Practice, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, United Kingdom, 1985.

7. C. B. Warren and J. P. Walradt, eds., Computers in Flavor and Fragrance Research, ACS Symposium Series 261, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984.

8. J. C. Boudreau, ed., Food Taste Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series 115, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1979.

9. Guidelines for the Selection and Training of Sensory Panel Members, ASTM Special Technical Publication 758, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1981.

10. ASTM Manual on Consumer Sensory Evaluation, ASTM Special Technical Publication 682, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1979.

11. Compilation of Odor and Taste Threshold Values Data, ASTM Publication DS 48A, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1978.

12. Correlating Sensory Objective Measurements, ASTM Special Technical Publication 594, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1976.

13. Sensory Evaluation of Appearance of Materials, ASTM Special Technical Publication 545, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1973.

14. Manual on Sensory Testing Methods, ASTM Special Technical Publication 434, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1968.

15. Basic Principles of Sensory Evaluation, ASTM Special Technical Publication 433, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1968.

16. F. Shahidi and K. R. Cadwallader, eds., Flavor and Lipid Chemistry of Seafoods, ACS Symposium Series 674, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1997.

17. D. A. Forss, "Odor and Flavor Compounds from Lipids," in R. T. Holman, ed., Progress in the Chemistry of Fats and Oils and Other Lipids, Vol. 13, Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1972, pp. 177-258.

18. M. E. Stansby and G. Jellinek, "Flavor and Odor Characteristics of Fishery Products with Particular Reference to Early Oxidative Changes in Menhaden Oil," in R. Kreuzer, ed., The Technology of Fish Utilization, The Fishing News (Books) Ltd., London, 1965, pp. 171-176.

19. G. Hoffmann, "3-cis-Hexenal, The 'Green' Reversion Flavor of Soybean Oil," J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 38, 1-3 (1961).

20. D. A. Forss et al., 'The Flavor of Cucumbers," J. Food Sci. 27, 90-93 (1962).

21. R. M. Love, The Food Fishes—Their Intrinsic Variation and Practical Implications, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1988.

22. L. F. Jacober and A. G. Rand, "Biochemical Evaluation of Seafood," in R. E. Martin et al., eds., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1982, pp. 347-365.

23. C. H. Castell and R. E. Triggs, "Spoilage of Haddock in the Trawlers at Sea: The Measurement of Spoilage and Standards of Quality," J. Fish. Res. Board Canada 12, 329-341 (1955).

24. J. M. Shewan et al., "The Development of a Numerical Scoring System for the Sensory Assessment of the Spoilage of Wet White Fish Stored in Ice," J. Sci. FoodAgric. 4,283-298 (1953).

25. B. G. Shaw and J. M. Shewan, "Psychrophilic Spoilage Bacteria of Fish," J. Appl. Bacteriol. 31, 89-96 (1968).

26. A. Kamiya and Y. Ose, "Study of Odorous Compounds Produced by Putrefaction of Foods. V. Fatty acids, Sulphur Compounds and Amines," J. Chromatogr. 292, 383-391 (1984).

27. D. B. Josephson, R. C. Lindsay, and G. Olafsdottir, "Measurement of Volatile Aroma Constituents as a Means for Following Sensory Deterioration of Fresh Fish and Fishery Products," in D. E. Kramer and J. Liston, eds., Seafood Quality Determination, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1986, pp. 27-47.

28. D. B. Josephson, R. C. Lindsay, and D. A. Stuiber, "Identification of Compounds Characterizing the Aroma of Fresh Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)," J. Agric. Food Chem. 31, 326-330 (1983).

29. D. B. Johsephson, R. C. Lindsay, and D. A. Stuiber, "Variations in Occurrences of Enzymatically Derived Volatile Aroma Compounds in Salt- and Freshwater Fish," J. Agric. Food Chem. 32, 1344-1347 (1984).

30. D. B. Josephson and R. C. Lindsay, "Enzymic Generation of Volatile Aroma Compounds from Fresh Fish," in T. H. Par-liment and R. Croteau, eds., Biogeneration of Aromas, ACS Symposium Series 317, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1986, pp. 201-219.

31. F. A. Frazzalari, ed., Compilation of Odor and Taste Threshold Value Data, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., 1978, pp. 79-80, 84, 116-117,120.

32. H. Pyysalo and M. Suihko, Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol. 9, 371

33. P. A. T. Swoboda and K. E. Peers, J. Sci. FoodAgr. 28,1019

34. F. B. Whitfield et al., Aust. J. Chem. 35, 373 (1982).

35. R. G. Buttery, in R. Teranishi, R. A. Flath, and H. Sugisawa, eds., Flavor Research—Recent Advances, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981, pp. 180-184.

36. F. B. Whitfield et al., "Oct-l-en-3-ol and (5Z)-Octa-l,5-dien-3-ol, Compounds Important in the Flavour of Prawns and Sand-Lobsters," Austr. J. Chem. 35, 373-383 (1982).

37. T. M. Berra, J. F. Smith, and J. D. Morrison, "Probable Identification of the Cucumber Odor of the Australian Grayling Prototroctes maraena," Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc. Ill, 7882 (1982).

38. C. Karahadian and R. C. Lindsay, "Role of Oxidative Processes in the Formation and Stability of Fish Flavors," in R. Teranishi, R. G. Buttery, and F. Shahidi, eds., Flavor Chemistry Trends and Developments ACS Symposium Series 388, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1989, pp. 6075.

39. D. B. Josephson, R. C. Lindsay, and D. A. Stuiber, "Biogenesis of Lipid Derived Volatile Compounds in the Emerald Shiner (Notropis atherinodes)" J. Agric. Food Chem. 32, 1347-1352 (1984).

40. J. Kanner and J. E. Kinsella, "Lipid Deterioration Initiated by Phagocytic Cells in Muscle Foods: ^-Carotene Destruction by a Myeloperoxidase-Hydrogen Peroxide-Halide System," J. Agric. Food Chem. 31, 370-376 (1983).

41. J. B. German and J. E. Kinsella, "Lipid Oxidation in Fish Tissue. Enzymatic Initiation via Lipoxygenase," J. Agric. Food Chem. 24, 680-683 (1985).

42. J. Kanner, J. B. German, and J. E. Kinsella, "Initiation of Lipid Peroxidation in Biological Systems," CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutrition 25, 317-364 (1987).

43. R. J. Hsieh, J. B. German, and J. E. Kinsella, "Lipoxygenase in Fish Tissue: Some Properties and the 12-Lipoxygenase from Trout Gill," J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 680-685 (1988).

44. J. B. German and J. E. Kinsella, "Hydroperoxide Metabolism in Trout Gill Tissue: Effect of Glutathione on Lipoxygenase Products Generated from Arachidonic Acid and Docosahex-aenoic Acid," Biochim. Biophys. Acta 879, 378-387 (1986).

45. R. J. Hsieh and J. E. Kinsella, "Lipoxygenase Generation of Specific Volatile Flavor Carbonyl Compounds in Fish Tissues," J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 279-286 (1989).

46. D. B. Josephson and R. C. Lindsay, "Retro-Aldol Related Degradations of 2,4-Decadienal in the Development of Staling Flavors in Fried Foods," J. Food Sci. 52,1186-1190,1218 (1987).

47. K. Kubota and A. Kobayashi, "Identification of Unknown Methyl Ketones in Volatile Flavor Components from Cooked Small Shrimp," J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 121-123 (1988).

48. A. Kobayachi et al., "Syntheses and Sensory Characterization of 5,8,ll-Tetradecatrien-2-One Isomers," J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 151-154 (1989).

49. U. Tanchotikul and T. C. Y. Hsieh, "Volatile Flavor Components in Crayfish Waste," J. Food Sci. 54,1515-1520 (1989).

50. W. Vejaphan, T. C. Y. Hsieh, and S. S. Williams, "Volatile Flavor Components from Boiled Crayfish (Procambarus clar-kii) Tail Meat," J. Food Sci. 53, 1666-1670 (1988).

51. R. G. Buttery et al., "Additional Volatile Components of Cabbage, Broccoli, and Cauliflower," J. Agric. Food Chem. 24, 829-832 (1976).

52. M. E. Stansby, "Odors and Flavors," in M. E. Stansby, ed., Fish Oils, Their Chemistry, Technology, Stability, Nutritional Properties, and Uses, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1967, pp. 171-180.

53. M. E. Stansby, "Speculations on Fishy Odors and Flavors," Food Technol. 16, 28-32 (1962).

54. W. L. Davies and E. Gill, "Investigations on Fishy Flavors," Chem. and Ind. (London) 55, 141T (1936).

55. W. L. Davies, "Fishiness as a Flavor and Taint," Flavours 2, 18 (1939).

56. J. M. Regenstein and M. A. Schlosser, in R. E. Martin et al., eds., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1982, pp. 137-148.

57. C. E. Hebard, G. J. Flick, and R. E. Martin, in R. E. Martin et al., eds., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1982, pp. 149-304.

58. J. C. Wekell and H. J. Barnett, "A New Method for the Analysis of Trimethylamine Oxide using Ferrous Sulfate and EDTA," J. Food Sei. 56, 132-135,138 (1991).

59. J. Spinelli and B. Koury, "Nonenzymic Formation of Di-methylamine in Dried Fishery Products," J. Agric. Food Chem. 27, 1104-1108 (1979).

60. N. R. Jones, "Fish Flavors," in H. W. Schultz, E. A. Day, and L. M. Libbey, eds., Symposium on Food: The Chemistry and Physiology of Flavors, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1967, pp. 267-295.

61. T. Kikuchi, S. Wada, and H. Suzuki, "Significance of Volatile Bases and Volatile Acids in the Development of Off-flavor of Fish Meat," J. Jpn. Soc. Food. Nutrition 29,147-152 (1976).

62. J. B. Rossell, "Measurement of Rancidity," in J. C. Allen and R. J. Hamilton, eds., Rancidity in Foods, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1983, pp. 21-45.

63. C. Karahadian and R. C. Lindsay, "Evaluation of Compounds Contributing Characterizing Fishy Flavors in Fish Oils," J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 66, 953-960 (1989).

64. R. J. Hamilton, "The Chemistry of Rancidity in Foods," in J. C. Allen and R. J. Hamilton, eds., Rancidity in Foods, Applied Science Publishers, London, 1983, pp. 1-20.

65. R. Hardy, "Fish Lipids Part 2," in J. J. Connell, ed., Advances in Fish Science and Technology, Fishing News Books, Surrey, United Kingdom, 1980, pp. 103-111.

66. J. Sargent, R. J. Henderson, and D. R. Tocher, "The Lipids," in J. E. Halver, ed., Fish Nutrition, 2nd ed., Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1989, pp. 154-218.

67. T. Roubal, Lipid Peroxidation Damage to Biological Materials, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis, Calif., 1965.

68. A. Khayat and D. Schwall, "Lipid Oxidation in Seafood," Food Technol. 37, 130-140 (1983).

69. H. O. Hultin, R. E. McDonald, and S. D. Kelleher, "Lipid Oxidation in Fish Muscle Microsomes," in R. E. Martin et al., eds., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1982, pp. 1-11.

70. C. H. Castell, "Metal Catalyzed Lipid Oxidation and Changes of Proteins in Fish," J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 48, 645-649 (1971).

71. F. Ullrich and W. Grosch, "Identification of the Most Intense Odor Compounds Formed During Autoxidation of Methyl

Linolenate at Room Temperature," J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 65, 1313-1317 (1988).

72. P. A. T. Swoboda and K. E. Peers, "Metallic Odour caused by Vinyl Ketones Formed in the Oxidation of Butterfat. The Identification of Octa-l,cis-5-dien-3-One," J. Sei. Food. Agric. 28, 1019-1024(1977).

73. T. C. Y. Hsieh et al., "Characterization of Volatile Components of Menhaden Fish (Brevoortia tyrannus) Oil," J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 66, 114-117 (1989).

74. N. N. Gerber, "Geosmin, An Earthy-smelling Substance Isolated from Actinomycetes" Biotechnol. Bioeng. 9, 321-327 (1967).

75. N. N. Gerber, "Volatile Substances from Actinomycetes: Their Role in the Odor of Pollution of Water," Water Sei. Tech. 15, 115-125 (1983).

76. P. B. Johnsen, G. V. Civille, and J. R. Vercellotti, "A Lexicon of Pond-raised Catfish Flavor Descriptors," J. Sensory Studies 2, 85-91 (1987).

77. M. Yurkowski and J.-A. L. Tabachek, "Identification, Analysis, and Removal Ofgeosmin from Muddy Flavoured Trout," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31, 1851-1858 (1974).

78. M. Yurkowski and J.-A. L. Tabachek, "Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol Implicated as a Cause of Muddy Odor and Flavor in Commercial Fish from Cedar Lake, Manitoba," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sei. 37, 1449-1450 (1980).

79. P. E. Persson, "The Source of Muddy Odor in Bream (Abramis brama) from the Porvoo Sea Area (Gulf of Finland)," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36, 883-890 (1979).

80. N. Sugiura, O. Yagi, and R. Suda, "Musty Odor from Blue-green Alga, Phormidium tenue in Lake Kasumigaura," Environ. Tech. Lett. 7, 77-86 (1986).

81. J. F. Martin et al., "Analysis of 2-Methylisoborneol in Water, Mud, and Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from Commercial Culture Ponds in Mississippi," Can. J. Aquat. Sei. 44, 909-912 (1987).

82. J. F. Martin, T. H. Fisher, and L. W. Bennett, "Musty Odor in Chronically Off-Flavored Channel Catfish: Isolation of 2-Methyleneboronane and 2-Methyl-2-Bornene," J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 1257-1260 (1988).

83. R. T. Lovell et al., "Geosmin and Musty-Muddy Flavors in Pond-Raised Channel Catfish," Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc. 115, 485-489 (1986).

84. N. N. Gerber and H. A. Lechevalier, "Production of Geosmin in Fermentors and Extraction with Ion-Exchange Resin," Appl. Microbiol. 34, 857-858 (1977).

85. K. Sivonen, "Factors Influencing Odour Production by Actinomycetes," Hydrobiologia 86, 165-170(1982).

86. R. G. Buttery and J. A. Garibaldi, "Geosmin and Methylsio-borneol in Garden Soil," J. Agric. Food Chem. 24,1246-1247 (1976).

87. T. E. Acree et al., "Geosmin, the Earthy Component of Table Beet Odor," J. Agric. Food Chem. 24, 419-430 (1976).

88. K. E. Murray, P. A. Bannister, and R. G. Buttery, "Geosmin: An Important Volatile Constituent of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris)," Chem. Ind. (London), 973 (1975).

89. G. P. Slater and V. C. Blok, "Volatile Compounds of the Cyanophyceae—A Review," Water Sei. Techn. 15, 181-190 (1983).

90. G. Izaguirre et al., "Production of 2-Methylisoborneol by Two Benthic Cyanophyta," Water Sei. Tech. 15, 211-220 (1983).

91. R. T. Lovell and L. A. Sackey, "Absorption of Musty Flavor by Channel Catfish Held in Monospecies Cultures of Blue-

Green Algae," Trans. Amer. Fisheries Soc. 102, 774-777 (1973).

92. R. G. Ackman, J. Hingley, and K. T. McKay, "Dimethyul Sulfide as an Odor Component in Nova Scotia Fall Mackerel," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29,1085-1088 (1972).

93. T. Motohiro, "Studies on the Petroleum Odour in Canned Chum Salmon," referenced in S. Ikeda in J. J. Connell, ed., Advances in Fish Science and Technology, Fishery News Books Ltd., Surrey, United Kingdom, 1980.

94. J. C. Spios and R. G. Ackman, "Association of Dimethyl Sulphide with the 'Blackberry Odour' in Cod from the Labrador Area," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 21, 423-425 (1964).

95. F. B. Whitfield, D. J. Freeman, and P. A. Bannister, "Dimethyl Trisulphide: An Important Off-flavour Component in the Royal Red Prawn (Hymenopenaeus sibogae)," Chem. Ind. (London), 692-693 (1981).

96. A. Miller, III, et al., "Volatile Compounds Produced in Sterile Fish Muscle (Sebastes melanops) by Pseudomonasperolens," Appl. Microbiol. 25, 257-261 (1973).

97. A. Miller, III, et al., "Volatile Compounds Produced in Sterile Fish Muscle (Sebastes melanops) by Pseudomonas purtrefa-ciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and an Achromobacter Species," Appl. Microbiol. 26, 18-21 (1973).

98. C. H. Castell and M. F. Greenough, "The Action of Pseudomonas on Fish Muscle. I. Organisms Responsible for Odours Produced During Incipient Spoilage of Chilled Fish Muscle," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 14, 617-625 (1957).

99. C. H. Castell and M. F. Greenough, "The Action of Pseudomonas on Fish Muscle. IV. Relation Between Substrate Composition and the Development of Odours by Pseudomonas fragi," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 16, 21-31 (1959).

100. C. H. Castell, M. F. Greenough, and N. L. Jenkin, "TheAction of Pseudomonas on Fish Muscle. II. Musty and Potatoe-like Odours," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 14, 775-782 (1957).

101. K. Kubota, A. Kobayashi, and T. Ymanishi, "Some Sulfur Containing Compounds in Cooked Odor Concentrate from Boiled Antarctic Krills (Euphausia superba Dana)," Agrie. Biol. Chem. 44, 2677-2682 (1980).

102. K. Kubota, H. Shijimaya, and A. Kobayashi, "Volatile Components of Roasted Shrimp," Agrie. Biol. Chem. 50, 28672873 (1986).

103. S. H. Choi, A. Kobayashi, and T. Yamanishi, "Odor of Cooked Small Shrimp, Acetes japónica Kishinouye: Difference Between Raw Material and Fermented Product," Agrie. Biol. Chem. 47, 337-342 (1983).

104. H. H. Huss, "Fresh Fish—Quality and Quality Changes," FAO Fisheries Series No. 29, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Danish International Development Agency, Rome, Italy, 1988.

105. "Peroxide Value of Oils and Fats Titration Method Final Action," American Oil Chemists Society Method 965.33, in K. Helrich, ed., Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed., Vol. 2, Association of Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington, Va., 1990.

106. British Standard 684, British Standards Institution, London, 1976.

107. D. W. Lemon, "An Improved TBA Test for Rancidity," New Series Circular No. 51, Canadian Fisheries and Marine Service Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1975.

108. W. Vyncke, "Evaluation of the Direct Thobarbituric Acid Extraction Method for Determining Oxidative Rancidity in Mackerel (Scomber scrombus L.)," Fette, Seifen, Anstrichm. 77, 239-240 (1975).

109. F. M. Sawyer, "Sensory Methodology for Estimating Quality Attributes of Seafoods," in D. E. Kramer and J. Liston, eds., Seafood Quality Determination, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1987, pp. 89-97.

110. P. A. Prell and F. M. Sawyer, "Flavor Profiles of 17 species of North Atlantic Fish," J. Food Sei. 53, 1036-1042 (1988).

111. M. Tada, I. Shinoda, and H. Okai, "L-Ornithyltaurine, ANew Salty Peptide," J. Agric. Food Chem. 32, 992-996 (1984).

112. Y. Kawasaki et al., "Glycine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride as the Simplest Examples of Salty Peptides and Their Derivatives," Agric. Biol. Chem. 52, 2679-2681 (1988).

113. T. Seki et al., "Further Study on the Salty Peptide Ornithyl-ß- Alanine. Some Effects of pH and Additive Ions on the Saltiness," J. Agric. Food Chem. 38, 25-29 (1990).

114. S. Yamaguchi, "The Umami Taste." in J. C. Boudreau, ed., Food Taste Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series 115, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1979, pp. 33-51.

115. S. Yamaguchi and K. Ninomiya, "Umami and Palatability," abstract for 216th American Chemical Society Meeting, Boston, Mass., August 23-27,1998.

116. Ribotide, A Flavor Enhancer, Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd.

117. M. Fujimaki et al., "Taste Peptide Fractionation from a Fish Protein Hydrolysate," Agric. Biol. Chem. 37, 2891-2898 (1973).

118. M. Noguchi et al., "Isolation and Identification of Acidic Oligopeptides Occurring in a Flavor Potentiating Fraction from a Fish Protein Hydrolysate," J. Agric. Food Chem. 23,49-53 (1975).

119. S. Arai et al., "Tastes of L-Glutamyl Oligopeptides in Relation to Their Chromatographic Properties," Agric. Biol. Chem. 37, 151-156 (1973).

120. Y. Yamsaki sind K Maekawa, "A Peptide with Delicious Taste," Agric. Biol. Chem. 42, 1761-1765(1978).

121. Y. Yamasaki and K. Maekawa, "Synthesis of a Peptide with Delicious Taste," Agric. Biol. Chem. 44, 93-97 (1980).

122. M. Tamura et al., "The Relationship Between Taste and Primary Structure of'Delicious Peptide' (Lys-Gly-Asp-Glu-Glu-Ser-Leu-Ala) from Beef Soup," Agric. Biol. Chem. 53, 319325 (1989).

123. S. Yamaguchi et al., "Measurement of the Relative Taste Intensity of some L-a-Amino Acids and 5'-Nucleotides," J. Food Sei. 36, 846-849 (1971).

124. J. M. Kennish and D.E. Kramer, "A Review of High-Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Methods for Measuring Nucleotide Degradation in Fish Muscle," in D. E. Kramer and J. Liston, eds., Seafood Quality Determination, Elsevier Science Publishing, New York, 1987.

125. T. Saito and K. Arai, "Studies on the Organic Phosphates in Muscle of Aquatic Animals. V: Changes in Muscular Nucleotides of Carp During Freezing and Storage," Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sei. Fish. 23, 265-268 (1957).

126. B.-O. Kassemsarn et al., "Nucleotide Degradation in the Muscle of Iced Haddock (Gadus aegleflnus), Lemon Sole (Pleuronectes microcephalus), and Plaice (Pleuronectes pla-tessa)," J. Food Sei. 28, 28-37 (1963).

127. J. Spinelli, M. Eklund, and D. Miyauchi, "Measurement of Hypoxanthine in Fish as a Method of Assessing Freshness," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29, 710-714 (1964).

128. D. I. Fräser, S. G. Simpson, and W. J. Dyer, "Very Rapid Accumulation of Hypoxanthine in the Muscle of Redfish Stored in Ice," J. Food Sei. 25, 817-821 (1968).

129. D. E. Kramer et al., data presented at the 4th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, July, 1985.

130. V. M. Creelman and N. Tomlinson, "Inosine in the Muscle of Pacific Salmon Stored in Ice," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 17, 449-451 (1960).

131. S. Ehira and H. Uchiyama, "Determination of Fish Freshness Using the K Value and Comments on Some Other Biochemical Changes in Relation to Freshness," in D. E. Kramer and J. Liston, eds., Seafood Quality Determination, Elsevier Science Publishing, New York, 1987, pp. 185-207.

132. H. A. Bremner et al., "Nucleotide Catabolism: Influence on the Storage Life of Tropical Species of Fish from the North West Shelf of Australia," J. Food Sei. 53, 6-11 (1988).

133. D. H. Greene and E. I. Bernatt-Byrne, "Adenosine Triphosphate Catabolites as Flavor Compounds and Freshness Indicators in Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and Pollock CTheragra chalcogramma)," J. Food Sei. 55, 257-258 (1990).

134. S. Konosu, "The Taste of Fish and Shellfish," in J. C. Boud-reau, ed., Food Taste Chemistry ACS Symposium Series 115, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1979, pp. 185-203.

135. S. Konosu and Y. Maeda, "Muscle Extracts of Aquatic Animals. IV. Distribution of Nitrogenous Constituents in the Muscle Extracts of an Abalone, Haliotis gigantea discus Reeve," Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sei. Fish. 27, 251-254 (1961).

136. K. Endo, M. Hujita, and W. Simidu, "Studies on Muscle of Aquatic Animals. Free Amino Acids, Trimethylamine oxide, and Betaine in Squids," Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sei. Fish. 28, 833836 (1962).

137. N. R. Reddy et al., "Characterization and Utilization of Dehydrated Wash Waters from Clam Processing Plants as Flavoring Agents," J. Food. Sei. 54, 55-59, 182 (1989).

138. W. Hashida, T. Mouri, and I. Shiga, "Application of 5'-Ribonucleotides to Canned Seafoods," Food Technol. 22, 1436-1441 (1968).

139. R. E. Martin, W. H. Doyle, and J. R. Brooker, "Toward and Improved Seafood Nomenclature System," Mar. Fish. Rev. 45, 1-20 (1983).

140. J. G. Kapsalis, "Consumer and Instrumental Edibility Measures for Grouping of Fish Species," Final Report, National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 1980.

141. A. V. Cardello et al., "Sensory Methodology for the Classification of Fish According to Edibility Characteristics," Le-bensm. Wiss. und Technol. 16, 190-194(1983).

142. F. J. King et al., "Consumer and Instrumental Edibility Measures for Grouping Fish Species," in J. J. Connell, ed., Advances in Fish Science and Technology, Fishing News (Books), Ltd., London, 1980.

143. S. E. Cairncross and L. Sjostrom, "Flavor Profiles—New Approach to Flavor Problems," Food Technol. 4,308-311 (1950).

144. J. F. Caul, "The Profile Method of Flavor Analysis," E. M. Mrak and G. F. Stewart, eds., in Advances in Food Research, Academic Press, New York, 1957.

145. A. V. Cardello et al., "Sensory Evaluation of the Texture and Appearance of 17 Species of North Atlantic Fish," J. Food Sei. 47, 1818-1823 (1982).

146. F. M. Sawyer, A. V. Cardello, and P. A. Prell, "Consumer Evaluation of the Sensory Properties of Fish," J. Food Sei. 53, 12-18, 24 (1988).

147. H. C. Romesburg, Cluster Analysis for Researchers, VanNos-trand Reinhold, New York, 1984.

148. C. J. Coombs, A Theory of Data, Wiley, New York, 1964.

149. L. Engelman, "Cluster Analysis of Cases," in W. J. Dixon and M. B. Brown, eds., Biomedical Computer Programs, P-Services, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1977.

150. National Marine Fisheries Service, Our Living Oceans. The Economic Status of U.S. Fisheries, Technical Memorandum. NMFS F/SPO-22, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1996.

151. National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries of the United States, 1996, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1997.

152. H. M. Johnson et al., 1998 Annual Report on the United States Seafood Industry, 6th ed., H. M. Johnson and Associates, Bellevue, Wash., 1998.

John C. Wekell Harold J. Barnett

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, Washington

See also Sensory science: principles and applications.

SEAFOOD: SENSORY EVALUATION AND FRESHNESS

The term fresh seafood refers to a concept, not a distinct object or a specified actuality. Therefore it has many different definitions, such as (1) seafood that has never been frozen, cooked, cured, or otherwise preserved (1,2); (2) seafood that has the characteristics of being newly harvested and is not the opposite of stale (3); (3) a seafood that is the opposite of stale (4); (4) seafood that arrived at the store at a particular time (5); and (5) raw product that has not progressed beyond a certain degree of microbiological or chemical degradation (6). Depending on which definition is used, it may be very difficult to objectively determine if a specific seafood is actually "fresh." However, when freshness is defined in terms of the sensory characteristics (appearance, flavor, odor, and/or texture) of the specific seafood being evaluated, it is very possible to objectively determine the freshness of that seafood. A seafood of optimum freshness would be one that possesses the characteristics concerning appearance, flavor, odor, and/or texture that are normally associated with that particular seafood product or species, that is, it is caught at the best time of year; caught in the best location; caught by the best method; and handled, processed, prepared, and served in the best manner.

Seafood freshness is considered an extremely important factor in determining overall quality of a particular seafood item (7-9). Depending on the particular seafood item being purchased (eg, chilled, frozen, or canned), the buyer may or may not be able to readily determine the freshness of that seafood item. However, each user determines, either consciously or unconsciously, the freshness (characteristics regarding appearance, flavor, odor, and/or texture) of each

129. D. E. Kramer et al., data presented at the 4th International Congress on Engineering and Food, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, July, 1985.

130. V. M. Creelman and N. Tomlinson, "Inosine in the Muscle of Pacific Salmon Stored in Ice," J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 17, 449-451 (1960).

131. S. Ehira and H. Uchiyama, "Determination of Fish Freshness Using the K Value and Comments on Some Other Biochemical Changes in Relation to Freshness," in D. E. Kramer and J. Liston, eds., Seafood Quality Determination, Elsevier Science Publishing, New York, 1987, pp. 185-207.

132. H. A. Bremner et al., "Nucleotide Catabolism: Influence on the Storage Life of Tropical Species of Fish from the North West Shelf of Australia," J. Food Sei. 53, 6-11 (1988).

133. D. H. Greene and E. I. Bernatt-Byrne, "Adenosine Triphosphate Catabolites as Flavor Compounds and Freshness Indicators in Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma)," J. Food Sei. 55, 257-258 (1990).

134. S. Konosu, "The Taste of Fish and Shellfish," in J. C. Boud-reau, ed., Food Taste Chemistry ACS Symposium Series 115, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1979, pp. 185-203.

135. S. Konosu and Y. Maeda, "Muscle Extracts of Aquatic Animals. IV. Distribution of Nitrogenous Constituents in the Muscle Extracts of an Abalone, Haliotis gigantea discus Reeve," Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sei. Fish. 27, 251-254 (1961).

136. K. Endo, M. Hujita, and W. Simidu, "Studies on Muscle of Aquatic Animals. Free Amino Acids, Trimethylamine oxide, and Betaine in Squids," Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sei. Fish. 28, 833836 (1962).

137. N. R. Reddy et al., "Characterization and Utilization of Dehydrated Wash Waters from Clam Processing Plants as Flavoring Agents," J. Food. Sei. 54, 55-59, 182 (1989).

138. W. Hashida, T. Mouri, and I. Shiga, "Application of 5'-Ribonucleotides to Canned Seafoods," Food Teehnol. 22, 1436-1441 (1968).

139. R. E. Martin, W. H. Doyle, and J. R. Brooker, "Toward and Improved Seafood Nomenclature System," Mar. Fish. Rev. 45, 1-20 (1983).

140. J. G. Kapsalis, "Consumer and Instrumental Edibility Measures for Grouping of Fish Species," Final Report, National Technical Information Service, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va., 1980.

141. A. V. Cardello et al., "Sensory Methodology for the Classification of Fish According to Edibility Characteristics," Le-bensm. Wiss. und Teehnol. 16, 190-194(1983).

142. F. J. King et al., "Consumer and Instrumental Edibility Measures for Grouping Fish Species," in J. J. Connell, ed., Advances in Fish Science and Technology, Fishing News (Books), Ltd., London, 1980.

143. S. E. Cairncross and L. Sjostrom, "Flavor Profiles—New Approach to Flavor Problems," Food Teehnol. 4,308-311 (1950).

144. J. F. Caul, "The Profile Method of Flavor Analysis," E. M. Mrak and G. F. Stewart, eds., in Advances in Food Research, Academic Press, New York, 1957.

145. A. V. Cardello et al., "Sensory Evaluation of the Texture and Appearance of 17 Species of North Atlantic Fish," J. Food Sei. 47, 1818-1823 (1982).

146. F. M. Sawyer, A. V. Cardello, and P. A. Prell, "Consumer Evaluation of the Sensory Properties of Fish," J. Food Sei. 53, 12-18, 24 (1988).

147. H. C. Romesburg, Cluster Analysis for Researchers, VanNos-trand Reinhold, New York, 1984.

148. C. J. Coombs, A Theory of Data, Wiley, New York, 1964.

149. L. Engelman, "Cluster Analysis of Cases," in W. J. Dixon and M. B. Brown, eds., Biomedical Computer Programs, P-Services, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 1977.

150. National Marine Fisheries Service, Our Living Oceans. The Economic Status of U.S. Fisheries, Technical Memorandum. NMFS F/SPO-22, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1996.

151. National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries of the United States, 1996, U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1997.

152. H. M. Johnson et al., 1998 Annual Report on the United States Seafood Industry, 6th ed., H. M. Johnson and Associates, Bellevue, Wash., 1998.

John C. Wekell Harold J. Barnett

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Seattle, Washington

See also Sensory science: principles and applications.

SEAFOOD: SENSORY EVALUATION AND FRESHNESS

The term fresh seafood refers to a concept, not a distinct object or a specified actuality. Therefore it has many different definitions, such as (1) seafood that has never been frozen, cooked, cured, or otherwise preserved (1,2); (2) seafood that has the characteristics of being newly harvested and is not the opposite of stale (3); (3) a seafood that is the opposite of stale (4); (4) seafood that arrived at the store at a particular time (5); and (5) raw product that has not progressed beyond a certain degree of microbiological or chemical degradation (6). Depending on which definition is used, it may be very difficult to objectively determine if a specific seafood is actually "fresh." However, when freshness is defined in terms of the sensory characteristics (appearance, flavor, odor, and/or texture) of the specific seafood being evaluated, it is very possible to objectively determine the freshness of that seafood. A seafood of optimum freshness would be one that possesses the characteristics concerning appearance, flavor, odor, and/or texture that are normally associated with that particular seafood product or species, that is, it is caught at the best time of year; caught in the best location; caught by the best method; and handled, processed, prepared, and served in the best manner.

Seafood freshness is considered an extremely important factor in determining overall quality of a particular seafood item (7-9). Depending on the particular seafood item being purchased (eg, chilled, frozen, or canned), the buyer may or may not be able to readily determine the freshness of that seafood item. However, each user determines, either consciously or unconsciously, the freshness (characteristics regarding appearance, flavor, odor, and/or texture) of each seafood item as it is consumed (9). Thus, the degree to which the freshness of a seafood item meets the user's expectations will greatly affect whether the user will purchase that seafood item again (9-12).

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment