Bibliography

1. F. J. Francis, Handbook of Food Colorant Patents, Food and

Nutrition Press, Westport, Conn., 1986.

2. J. D. Houghton, "Haems and Bilins," in G. A. F. Hendry and J. D. Houghton, eds., Natural Food Colorants, Blackie Publishers, Glasgow, Scotland, 1996, pp. 157-196.

COLORANTS: IRIDOIDS

Colorants from saffron have enjoyed good technological success and gustatory appeal, but their high price has led to searches for other sources with the same pigments. It became apparent that the same pigments, but not the flavor, could be obtained in much larger quantities from the fruits of the gardenia or Cape Jasmine plant. The fruits of gardenia, Gardenia jasminoides, contain three major groups of pigments: crocins (see Colorants: carote-noids, Fig. 1), iridoids, and flavonoids. The structures of nine iridoid pigments are shown in Figure 1. This group also comprises a series of flavonoid compounds. The structures of five flavonoids isolated from G. fosbergii are shown

COOCH3 COOH COOH

32C OGI HO ^ OGI H2C 0GI OH

Geniposide Shanzhiside Gardoside

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