Bibliography

1. O. Isler, "Introduction," in O. Isler, ed., Carotenoids, Birkhau-ser Verlag, Basel, 1971, pp. 11-27.

2. P. Karrer and E. Jucker, Carotenoids, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 1948.

3. Plenary and Session Lectures, First International Symposium on Carotenoids Other Than Vitamin A-l, Butterworth, London, 1967, p. 278.

4. Plenary and Session Lectures, Second International Symposium on Carotenoids Other Than Vitamin A, Butterworth, Kent, United Kingdom, 1969.

5. Plenary and Session Lectures, Third International Symposium on Carotenoids Other Than Vitamin A, Butterworth, Kent, United Kingdom, 1973, p. 130.

6. B. L. C. Weeden, ed., Plenary and Session Lectures, Fourth International Symposium on Carotenoids—4, Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1976, p. 243.

7. T. W. Goodwin, ed., Plenary and Session Lectures, Fifth International Symposium on Carotenoids—5, Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1979, p. 886.

8. G. Britton and T. W. Goodwin, eds., Plenary and Session Lectures, Sixth International Symposium on Carotenoids—6, Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1982.

9. G. Britton, ed., Plenary and Session Lectures, Seventh International Symposium on Carotenoids—7. Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1985.

10. N. I. Krinsky, M. M. Mathews-Roth, and R. F. Taylor, Carotenoids, Plenum, New York, 1989.

11. J. C. Bauernfeind, ed., Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors. Technological and Nutritional Applications, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1981, p. 938.

12. J. C. Bauernfiend, ed., Vitamin A Deficiency and Its Control, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1986, p. 530.

13. H. Gerster, "Anticarcinogenic Effect of Common Carotenoids," Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 63, 93-121 (1993).

14. Anonymous, "Tentative Rules for the Nomenclature of Carotenoids," in O. Isler, ed., Carotenoids, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 1971, pp. 851-864.

15. "Nomenclature of Carotenoids (Rules Approved 1974)," Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 41, 406-431 (1975).

16. H. Pfander, Key to Carotenoids, Birkhauser, Boston, Mass., 1987.

17. J. W. Porter and R. E. Lincoln, "I. Lycopersicon Selections Containing a High Content of Carotenes and Colorless Polyenes: II. The Mechanism of Carotene Biosynthesis," Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 27, 390-403 (1950).

18. H. K. Lichtenthaler et al., "Biosynthesis of Isoprenoids in Higher Plant Chloroplasts Proceeds via a Mevalonate-Independent Pathway," FEBS Lett. 400, 271-274 (1997).

19. G. Britton, "Biosynthesis of Carotenoids," in T. W. Goodwin, ed., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments, Vol. 1,2nd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1976, pp. 202-327.

20. L. C. Raymundo, A. E. Griffiths, and K. L. Simpson, "Effect of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) on the Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in Detached Tomatoes," Phytochemistry 6, 1527-1532 (1967).

21. L. C. Raymundo, A. E. Griffiths, and K. L. Simpson, "Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in the Tomato Fruit," Phytochemistry 9, 1239-1245 (1970).

22. M. Elahi et al., "Effect of CPTA Analogs and Other Nitrogenous Compounds on the Biosynthesis of the Carotenoids in Phycomyces blakesleeanus Mutants," Phytochemistry 14,133381 (1975).

23. R. J. H. Williams, G. Britton, and T. W. Goodwin, "Biosynthesis of Cyclic Carotenes," Biochem. J. 105, 99-105 (1967).

24. R. E. Tefft, T. W. Goodwin, and K. L. Simpson, "Aspects of the Stereospecificity of Torularhodin Biosynthesis," Biochem. J. 117, 921-927 (1970).

25. S.-I. Huang, Ph.D. Thesis, "Inhibitory Effects of Cellulose and Nonprovitamin A Carotenoids on Beta-Carotene Utilization in Rats," University of Rhode Island, 1995.

26. T. W. Goodwin, The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, Vol. 1, 2nd. ed., Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1980, p. 377.

27. J. Ostrander et al., "Sensory Testing of Pen Reared Salmon and Trout," J. Food Sei. 41, 386-390 (1975).

28. T. Kamata and K. L. Simpson, "Study of Astaxanthin Diester Extracted from Adonis aestivalis," Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 86, 587-596 (1987).

29. R. S. Harris, "Effects of Agricultural Practices on the Composition of Foods," in R. S. Harris and E. Karmas, eds., Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing, 2nd ed., AVI Publishing, Westport, Conn., 1957, pp. 33-57.

30. L. C. Raymundo, C. O. Chichester, and K. L. Simpson, "Light Dependent Carotenoid Synthesis in the Tomato Fruit," J. Agric. Food Chem. 24, 59-64 (1976).

31. C. N. Villegas et al., "The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Biosynthesis of Carotenoids in the Tomato Fruit," Plant Physiol. 50, 694-697 (1972).

32. B. H. Davies, "Analytical Methods—Carotenoids," in T. W. Goodwin, ed., Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments, Vol. 2, 2nd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1976, pp. 38165.

33. E. DeRitter and A. E. Purcell, "Carotenoid Analytical Methods," in J. C. Bauernfiend, ed., Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors Technological and Nutritional Applications, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1981, pp. 915-823.

34. S. E. Gebhardt, E. R. Elkins, and J. Humphrey, "Comparison of Two Methods of Determining the Vitamin A of Clingstone Peaches," J. Agric. Food Chem. 25, 628-631 (1977).

35. D. B. Rodriguez-Amaya, "Assessment of Provitamin A Contents of Foods—The Brazilian Experience," J. Food Composition and Analysis 9, 96-230 (1998).

36. K. L. Simpson, "Chemical Changes in Natural Food Pigments," in T. Richardson and J. W. Finley, eds., Chemical Changes in Food During Processing, AVI Publishing, Westport, Conn., 1985, pp. 409-441.

37. L. Wenhong et al., "Rapid Determination of Blood Serum Retinol by Reverse Phase Open Column Chromatography," Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 63, 82-86 (1993).

38. M. M. Mathews-Roth et al., "Beta-Carotene as a Photoprotec-tive Agent in Erythropoietic Protoporphyria," AT. Engl. J. Med. 282,1231-1234 (1970).

39. R. Peto et al., "Can Dietary B-Carotene Materially Reduce Human Cancer Rates?" Nature (London) 290,201-208 (1981).

40. M. M. Mathews-Roth, "Carotenoids and Cancer Prevention— Experimental and Epidemiological Studies," Pure Appl. Chem. 51, 717-722 (1985).

Kenneth L. Simpson University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island

See also Colorants: carotenoids.

CENTRIFUGES: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS

Centrifuges are used widely in food processing to separate liquids from solids, liquids from liquids, and even to separate two immiscible liquids from the accompanying solids. Centrifuges can be blanketed with inert gas and operate under high temperatures and pressures, as well as discharge centrate under pressure to retard foam and oxidation. They rinse the mother liquor from solids. They can be cleaned in place, and some can be steam sterilized. Centrifuges may also be used to separate large particles from similar small particles when they are operated as classifiers.

Centrifuges were first used in the 1880s to separate milk from cream. They use rotational acceleration to separate heavier phases from lighter phases, similar to a gravity-settling basin. The separating force is measured in units called g's, which are units of acceleration; 1 g = 980 cm/s.2

Centrifuges usually generate at least 1,200 g for low-speed machines and up to 63,000 g for small tubular centrifuges. From a process standpoint, a higher g force results in a higher capacity for a given centrifuge; capacity is measured by volume throughput, degree of solids concentration, clarity of the liquid, and entrainment of one phase in another. Also, because the length of time the fluid is held under high g affects the separation, the volume of

Not recommended o Not applicable 0

G Force High flow rate Solids dryness High solids rate Low solids rate Liquid capacity Thickening Abrasion resistance Rinse efficiency Antifoam Pressure/sealing Continuous Operator attention

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