2. M. C. Bourne, Food Texture and Viscosity: Concept and Measurement, Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Fla., 1982.

4. A. S. Szczesniak and E. L. Kahn, J. Texture Studies 2, 280 (1971).

5. J. D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1980.

6. J. R. Van Wazer, J. W. Lyons, K. Y. Kim, and R. E. Colwell, Viscosity and Flow Measurement: A Laboratory Handbook of Rheology, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1963.

7. A. Kramer and A. S. Szczesniak, eds., Texture Measurements of Foods, Reidel Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1973.

8. P. Sherman, ed., Food Texture and Rheology, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1979.

9. H. H. Friedman, J. E. Whitney, and A. S. Szczesniak, J. Food Sci. 28, 390 (1963).

10. A. S. Szczesniak, M. A. Brandt, and H. H. Friedman, J. Food Sci. 28, 397 (1963).

12. A. S. Szczesniak, J. Texture Studies 6, 5 (1975).

13. B. E. Proctor, S. Davison, G. J. Malecki, and M. Welch, Food Technol. 9, 471 (1955).

15. I. Tinoco, Jr., K. Sauer, and J. C. Wang, Physical Chemistry: Principles and Applications in Biological Sciences, Prentice Hall Press, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1978.

16. H. R. Moskowitz, ed., Food Texture: Instrumental and Sensory Measurement, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1987.

17. M. Peleg and E. B. Bagley, eds., Physical Properties of Foods, AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Conn., 1983.

18. J. M. deMan, P. W. Voisey, V. F. Rasper, and D. W. Stanley, eds., Rheology and Texture in Food Quality, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1976.

19. H. Faridi and J. M. Faubion, eds., Fundamentals of Dough Rheology, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Minn., 1986.

David N. Holcomb

Kraft General Foods Technology

Glenview, Illinois

Marvin A. Tung

Technical University of Nova Scotia

Halifax, Nova Scotia


SALAD OILS. See Fats and oils: properties, processing technology, and commerical shortenings.

SALMONELLA. See Foodborne diseases. SANITIZERS. See Disinfectants. SAUSAGES

Sausages are a diverse group of foods made from ground or comminuted meats, salt and spices. They originated during prehistoric times when our ancestors discovered that addition of salt and drying would delay spoilage. Adding various spices improved palatability and stuffing them into intestines enhanced convenience. Homer mentions sausages in the Odyssey and the word, sausage, come from Latin meaning salted or meat preserved by salting. Over the centuries virtually every culture developed distinctive sausages depending on their live stock, spices, climate, and culture. The European origin of most of our sausages is indicated by the city names associated with them: Bologna, Genoa, Braunschweig, and Thüringen. Dried sausages originated in southern Europe where warm climates required a more spoilage-resistant sausage. Northern Europeans, having a cooler climate, created cooked and summer sausages. Americans contributed Lebanon bologna and the popularization of the hot dog.

Sausages are an excellent source of high quality proteins. In addition, they contribute iron, zinc, and B vitamins, particularly folic acid, B6 and B12. Controversy has existed over the addition of nitrite and possible subsequent formation of nitrosamines, sodium content and fat levels, especially saturated fats.

Americans manufactured 6.0 billion pounds of sausages in 1987, 10% of the total amount of all red meats. Frankfurters amounted to 1.5 billion pounds, bologna 640 million, uncooked cured sausages 24 million, dried and semi-dried 445 million, liver sausages 96 million, loaf products 1.3 billion, and other sausage and loaf products 1.0 billion pounds. Poultry based luncheon meats totaled 151 million pounds and poultry frankfurters were 280 million pounds.

Classification of sausages is not clear cut because of the many variations in materials, spices and processes used. Meat is ground or finely chopped (comminuted) and mixed with salt and spices. It may have curing salts added and may then be stuffed, smoked, cooked, fermented, or dried. The United States Department of Agriculture classifies sausages as fresh; uncooked-smoked; cooked-smoked; cooked; dry/semi-dry; and luncheon meats, loaves, and jellied products.

Fresh sausages are made from uncured (no nitrate or nitrite added) meats, usually pork. They are ground and mixed with salt and spices, then stuffed into chubs, natural casings or manufactured casings. They have a limited shelf-life even when refrigerated and must be cooked before serving.

Uncooked-smoked sausages (country-style sausage and kielbasa) are usually cured, require refrigeration for preservation and are cooked before serving.

Cooked-smoked sausages (frankfurters and bologna) are cured and cooked in casings inside a smokehouse. When properly refrigerated they have a long storage life and do not require final cooking by the consumer.

Cooked sausages (liver sausage and Braunschweiger) may be cured and are usually comminuted, seasoned, stuffed, and cooked. They are generally consumed cold.

Dry/semi-dry sausages utilize bacteria to ferment sugars into lactic acid. This increases the sausages' acidity and contributes to their characteristic flavor and to their bacterial preservation. They are then dried to varying extents. These sausages do not need cooking before serving. Semi-dried sausages (summer sausages, cervelat, thuringer) need refrigeration for optimal storage. Dry sausages (hard salami, Genoa salami and pepperoni) need little or no refrigeration. Lebanon bologna is fermented and smoked but not appreciably dried.

The category of luncheon meats encompasses a wide variety of popular products. Typically a mixture of chopped meats with extenders and other ingredients is processed into a loaf form. Pimento loaf, olive loaf, and honey loaf are examples. Also included in this group are sandwich spreads, which are cooked, soft mixtures packaged in chubs. Jellied products, such as jellied tongue, souse and head cheese, consist of chunks of cooked and cured meats held in a loaf form by gelatin.


Beef and pork are the primary meats, but goat and sheep are used by several cultures and fish sausages are consumed in the Orient. Poultry luncheon meats and frankfurters are increasing in popularity. Skeletal muscle has the highest binding and water holding properties compared to other meats and non-meat extenders. Other meats (lips, tripe, cardiac muscle), variety meats (tongue, livers, pork stomachs, etc) and mechanically deboned meats must be labelled if used. Pork trimmings and back-fat are important ingredients, because too little fat results in a dry, unpalatable product. Maximum levels of fat for different sausages are regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture; for example, frankfurters must have less than 30% fat.


Salt is necessary for extracting the meat proteins to bind fat and water and to form the sausages' texture. Salt also contributes to the sausages' flavor and retards microbio

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