1. J. D. Dziezak, "Single- and Twin-Screw Extruders in Food Processing," Food Technol. 43, 164 (1989).

2. L. P. B. M. Janssen, Twin Screw Extrusion, Elsevier Science, New York, 1978.

3. P. Linko, P. Colonna, and C. Mercier, "High-Temperature, Short-Time Extrusion Cooking," in Y. Pomeranz, ed., Advances in Cereal Science and Technology, Vol. IV, AACC, St. Paul, Minn., 1981, pp. 143-235.

4. J. M. Harper, Extrusion of Foods, Vol. I & II, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1981.

5. F. G. Martelli, Twin-Screw Extruders, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1983.

6. B. W. Hauck and G. R. Huber, "Single Screw vs Twin Screw Extrusion," Cereal Foods World 34, 930 (1989).

7. W. Wiedmann, and E. Strobel, "Technical and Economic Advantages of Extrusion Cooking," Technische Mitteilungen Krupp 2, 95 (1987).

8. M. G. Fitton, "Extruded Starches—Product Analysis, Structure and Properties," in G. O. Philips, D. J. Wedlock, and P. A. Williams, eds., Gums and Stabilizers for the Food Industry 3, Elsevier Applied Science, New York, 1985, pp. 213-220.

9. R. Daniels, Modern Breakfast Cereal Processes, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1970.

10. M. H. Gutcho, Prepared Snack Foods, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1973.

11. M. H. Gutcho, Textured Foods and Allied Products, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1973.

Figure 2. Schematic diagram of fully intermeshing counter- and corotating extruder screws, (a) Counterrotating screws and (b) corotating screws.

12. M. H. Gutcho, Textured Food Products, Noyés Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1977.

13. M. H. Gutcho, Textured Protein Foods, Noyés Data Corporation, Park Ridge, N.J., 1977.

14. O. B. Smith, "Extrusion Cooking of Corn Flours and Starches as Snacks, Breadings, Croutons, Breakfast Cereals, Pastas, Food Thickeners, and Additives," in G. E. Inglett, ed., Maize: Recent Progress in Chemistry and Technology, Academic Press, New York, 1982, pp. 193-219.

15. J. L. Rossen, and R. C. Miller, "Food extrusion," Food Technol. 27, 46 (1973).

16. J. M. Harper, "Food Extruders and Their Applications," in C. Mercier, P. Linko, and J. M. Harper, eds., Extrusion Cooking, AACC, St. Paul, Minn., 1989, pp. 1-15.

17. J. Fichtali and F. R. van de Voort, "Fundamental and Practical Aspects of Twin Screw Extrusion," Cereal Foods World 34,921 (1989).

Fu-hung Hsieh University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri

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