Bibliography

Adapted from W. J. Wolfe, "Soybeans and Other Oilseeds." ECT, 3rd ed., Vol. 21, p. 407. Refer to the original document for specific reference citation.

1. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkai-shi 15, 290 (1968).

2. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 18, 969 (1970).

3. Journal of the American Chemical Society 45, 876 (1968).

5. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 68, 224 (1976).

6. Journal of the American Chemical Society 54, 150 (1977).

8. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 51, 67A (1974). GENERAL REFERENCES

R. L. Anderson and W. J. Wolf, "Compositional Changes in Trypsin Inhibitors, Phytic acid, Saponins and Isoflavones Related to Soybean Processing," J. Nutrition 125, 5815-5885 (1995). D. R. Erickson, Practical Handbook of Soybean Processing and Utilization, American Oil Chemists' Press, Champaign, 111., 1995.

W. J. Huei and P. A. Murphy, "Mass Balance Study of Isoflavones During Soybean Processing," J. Ag. and Food Chem. 44,23772383 (1996)

S. H. Lence, D. J. Hayes, and W. H. Meyers, "Futures Markets and Marketing Firms: The U.S. Soybean-Processing Industry," Amer. J. Ag. Econ. 74, 716-725 (1992). H. Miyamura, Y. Takenaka, and T. Takenaka, "Fibrinolytic Activity of Akara Fermented by Bacillus subtilis. II. The Utility of Akara, A By-Product of the Soybean Processing Industry," J. Jap. Soc. for Food Sci. and Technol. 45, 100-107 (1998). Z. L. Nikolov et al., "Potential Applications for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Separations in Soybean Processing," Developments in Food Sci. 29, 595-616 (1992). G. A. Sulebele, "Soybean Processing Industry, An Update," Indian

Food Industry 10, 23-26 (1991). L. Thomas and A. Hohn, "Beneficial Use of Enzymes in Soybean ProcessingFood Marketing and Technol. 11,14,16,18(1997).

American Food and Nutrition Center Cutten, California

SPICES AND HERBS: NATURAL EXTRACTIVES

The importance of herbs and spices in flavor and color applications cannot be overstated, but there are shortcomings as well. The natural extractives of spices and herbs are designed to overcome many of the difficulties inherent in the use of whole or ground plant material in food and flavor applications.

The aroma and flavor produced by the use of plant material varies, depending not only on the variety and source of the raw material, but also on the growing conditions and weather patterns of a given year. This variability makes the consistent application in food products very difficult. In addition, flavor components in plant tissue are unstable, leading to a decrease in quality due to volatility losses, oxidation, isomerization, hydrolysis, and other chemical changes. Plant tissue can also support molds and other types of undesirable microbial contamination.

Spices and herbs require storage under regulated conditions, such as refrigeration, that will minimize deterioration with time. Given the large bulk volume, this can be an expensive proposition. Extractives of spices and herbs are highly concentrated, which simplifies storage conditions and greatly decreases the amount of additive needed in product formulations. They are more stable in terms of flavor strength and have lower microbiological activity.

The biggest advantage of extractives versus dried spices, however, is the increased control of the flavoring agents. A more consistent flavoring agent is available due to the quality control of the extraction process. A broader range of flavor effects is made possible by blending or further processing of the extractives. Natural extractives are divided into essential oils, oleoresins, and products made from these.

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