1. F. W. Billmeyer, Jr., and M. Saltzman, Principles of Color Technology, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1981.

2. D. B. Judd and G. Wyszecki, Color in Business, Science, and Industry John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1963.

3. R. S. Hunter, The Measurement of Appearance, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1975, pp. 44, 81, 167.

4. J. B. Hutchings, Food Colour and Appearance, Blackie Academic & Professional, Glasgow, Scotland, 1994.

5. R. G. Kuehni, Color: An Introduction to Practice and Principles, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997.

6. F. J. Francis, "Colour and Appearances as Dominating Sensory Properties of Foods," in, G. G. Birch, J. G. Brennan, and K. J. Parker, eds., Sensory Properties of Foods, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., Barking, UK, 1977, p. 27.

7. E. A. Gullett, F. J. Francis, and F. M. Clydesdale, "Colorimetry of Foods: Orange Juice," Journal of Food Science 37, 389 (1972).

8. D. B. MacDougall, "Colour in Meat" in G. G. Birch, J. G. Brennan, and K. J. Parker, eds., Sensory Properties of Foods, Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 1977, p. 59.

9. F. J. Francis, "Color Analysis," in S. S. Nielson, ed., Food Analysis, 2nd ed., Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998, pp. 599-612.

10. F. J. Francis, "Color Measurement and Interpretation," in D. Y. C. Fung and R. F. Matthews, eds., Instrumental Methods for Quality Assurance in Foods, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, 1991, pp. 189-210.

11. F. J. Francis and F. M. Clydesdale, Food Colorimetry: Theory and Applications, AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Conn., 1975.

12. D. B. MacDougall, "Instrumental Assessment of the Appearance of Foods," in A. A. Williams and R. K. Atkin, eds., Sensory Quality in Foods and Beverages, Ellis Horwood Ltd., 1983, p. 121.

13. F. M. Clydesdale and F. J. Francis, "Color Measurement of Foods. 28. The Measurement of Meat Color," Food Product Development 5, 87 (1971).

14. B. A. Eagerman, F. M. Clydesdale, and F. J. Francis, "Determination of Fresh Meat Color by Objective Methods," Journal of Food Science 42, 707 (1977).

15. A. A. Williams, C. R. Baines, and M. S. Finnie, "Optimization of Colour in Commercial Port Blends," Journal of Food Technology 21, 451 (1986).

16. Institute of Food Technologists' Expert Panel on Food Safety & Nutrition and the Committee on Public Information, Food Colors. Scientific Status Summary, Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, 111., 1980.

17. D. Blenford, "Natural Food Colours," Food Flavourings, Ingredients and Processing 7, 19 (1985).

18. J. A. Maga, "Influence of Color on Taste Thresholds," Chemical Senses and Flavor 1, 115 (1974).

19. R. M. Pangborn and B. Hansen, "The Influence of Color on Discrimination of Sweetness and Sourness in Pear-Nectar," American Journal of Psychology 76, 315 (1963).

20. J. Johnson and F. M. Clydesdale, "Perceived Sweetness and Redness in Colored Sucrose Solutions," Journal of Food Science 47, 747 (1982).

21. J. L. Johnson, E. Dzendolet, R. Damon, M. Sawyer, and F. M. Clydesdale, "Psychophysical Relationships Between Perceived Sweetness and Color in Cherry-Flavored Beverages," J. Food Protect. 45, 601 (1982).

22. S. R. Gifford and F. M. Clydesdale, "The Psychophysical Relationship Between Color and Sodium Chloride Concentrations in Model Systems," Journal of Food Protection 49, 977 (1986).

23. C. M. Christensen, "Effects of Color on Aroma, Flavor and Texture Judgements of Foods," Journal of Food Science 48, 787 (1983).

24. C. N. DuBose, A. V. Cardello, and O. Mailer, "Effects of Colorants and Flavorants on Identification, Perceived Flavor Intensity, and Hedonic Quality of Fruit-Flavored Beverages and Cake," Journal of Food Science 45, 1393 (1980).

25. A. A. Williams, S. P. Langron, C. F. Timberlake, and J. Bakker, "Effect of Colour on the Assessment of Ports," Journal of Food Technology 19, 659 (1984).

26. K. W. McNutt, M. E. Powers, and A. E. Sloan, "Food Colors, Flavors and Safety: A Consumer Viewpoint," Food Technology 40, 72 (1986).

F. J. Francis Editor-in-Chief University of Massachusetts Amhert, Massachusetts

See also Colorants section.

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