1. Agricultural Statistics 1997 Handbook, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Madrid, Spain, 1998.

2. Facts and Figures of the Spanish Agro-Food Sector in 1998, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Madrid, Spain, 1999.

3. The Spanish Food Industry in 1998, Spanish Federation of Foods and Beverages Industries, Madrid, Spain, 1999.

4. Food Consumption Panel in 1998, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, Madrid, Spain, 1999.

5. FAIR Agriculture and Fisheries, Food Projects Synopses, Directorate General XII, European Commission, Office of Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1998.

M. Nunez M. Medina

National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and

Technology (INIA) Madrid, Spain


COMMERCIAL FOOD PROCESSING Environment and Structure

Switzerland is a country with an area of 41,293 km2; its population was 7.08 million in 1996. It is entirely surrounded by land, has no natural resources, and, except for agricultural and forestry products, does not produce any raw material.

Currently, domestic agricultural production is providing 50 to 55% of the total energy that is consumed as food. Thus a considerable share of raw material for food processing and of processed foods is imported. The self-subsistence of Swiss agriculture varies from food group to food group. Consumption of Swiss products is reaching 100% for dairy products and is around 90% for potatoes; 80% for bread wheat, meat, and pome and stone fruits; 40% for eggs and crystal sugar; and 20% for vegetable oils.

In spite of the high dependence on food imports, the Swiss food and beverage industry has been able to develop into one of the most important industrial sectors of the national economy (see Table 1). Part of this success has been due to the strong presence of Switzerland on the export market (see Table 2) not only with traditional products such as chocolate and cheese but also with food additives (eg, flavors and vitamins) and other auxiliary

Table 1. Total Expenditure for Food and Beverages in Switzerland


Swiss francs (billions)

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