1. M. J. Lynch and W. C. Griffin, "Food Emulsions," in K. J. Lissant, ed., Emulsions and Emulsion Technology, Marcel Dek-ker, New York, 1974, p. 249.

3. N. King, The Milk Fat Globule Membrane, Commonwealth Agr. Bureau, Farnham Royal, Bucks, United Kingdom, 1955.

4. N. Krog, "Food Emulsifiers," in S. Friberg, ed., Food Emulsions, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1976, pp. 67-139.

8. German Patent 530187 (May 15, 1930), Hansea Muhle, A.G.

9. W. Duck, Pennsylvania Manufacturing Conference Progress Report 10, Pennsylvania Manufacturing Confectioners Association, Lancaster, Pa., 1955.

10. N. Easton et al., J. Food Technol. 6, 21 (1952).

11. W. H. Knightly and J. W. DuRoss, Proceedings of the 19th Annual Production Conference, Pennsylvania Manufacturing Confectioners Assn. (Sect. 15), Lancaster, Pa., 1965.

12. U.S. Patent 2,132,393-2,132,398 (October 11, 1938), N. S. Goeth, A. S. Richardson, and V. M. Votaw (to Proctor and Gamble).

13. U.S. Patent 2,132,406 (October 11, 1938), A. K. Epstein and B. R. Harris (to Proctor and Gamble).

14. W. H. Knightly, "Surface Active Lipids in Foods," Society of Chemical Industry Monograph 32, 141-157 (1968).

15. I. S. Shepherd and R. W. Yoell, "Cake Emulsions," in S. Friberg, ed., Food Emulsions, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1976, pp. 270-273.

16. J. J. Wren, "Surface Active Lipids in Foods," Society of Chemical Industry Monograph 32, 158-170 (1968).

17. N. Krog, "The Effect of Various Mesomorphic Phases of Monoglyceride-Water Systems in Starch Products," Paper No. 268, AACC-ACS, 1968 Joint Meeting, Washington D.C., March 31-April 4, 1968.

18. H. F. DePew and S. W. Dyer, Creamery and Milk Plant Monthly 14, 87 (1925).

19. D. A. Pettee, Ice Cream Manufacturing 2, 56 (1929).

20. C. C. Walts and C. D. Dahle, J. Agric. Res. 47,967-977 (1933).

21. C. D. Dahle and D. V. Josephson, Ice Cream Review 20, 60 (1937).

22. G. C. North, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1931.

23. U.S. Patent 2,065,398 (Dec. 22, 1936), W. D. Roth (to Industrial Patents Corp.).

25. W. H. Knightly, Ice Cream Trade Journal 55, 24 (1959).

26. U.S. Patent 3,124,464 (March 10, 1964), W. H. Knightly and G. P. Lensack (to Atlas Chemical Industries, Inc.).

27. J. B. Boussingault, Annals of Chemistry and Physics 36, 470 (1852).

29. N. Krog and B. N. Jensen, J. Food Technol. 5, 77 (1970).

30. N. Krog et al., Cereal Foods World 34, 281-285 (1989).

31. O. K. Chung, C. C. Tsen, and R. J. Robinson, Cereal Chem. 58, 220 (1981).

32. W. H. Knightly, "Lecithin in Baking Applications," in B. F. Szuhaj, ed., Lecithins—Sources, Manufacture and Uses, American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, 111., 1989, pp. 174-196.

William H. Knightly

Emulsion Technology, Inc.

Wilmington, Delaware

See also Emulsifiers, stabilizers, and thickeners.

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