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2. P. Fellows, "Membrane Concentration," in P. Fellows, ed., Food Processing Technology, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, London, 1988, pp. 148-158.

3. S. Sourirajan, Reverse Osmosis, Academic Press, New York, 1970.

4. T. Matsuura and S. Sourirajan, Advances in Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration, National Research Council Canada Publ., Ottawa, Canada, 1989.

5. M. Cheryan, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Handbook, Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, Pa., 1997.

6. R. E. Resting, Synthetic Polymeric Membranes, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971.

7. R. L. Riley, G. R. Hightower, and C. R. Lyons, "Preparation, Morphology, and Transport Properties of Composite Reverse Osmosis Membranes for Seawater Desalination," in H. K. Longsdale and H. E. Podall, eds., Reverse Osmosis Membrane Research, Plenum Press, New York, 1972, pp. 437-456.

8. T. Matsuura, Synthetic Membranes and Membrane Separation Processes, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994.

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10. D. R. Lloyd and T. B. Meluch, "Selection and Evolution of Membrane Materials for Liquid Separations," in D. R. Lloyd, ed., Materials Science of Synthetic Membranes, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985, pp. 47-79.

11. J. E. Cadotte, "Evolution of Composite Reverse Osmosis Membranes," in D. R. Lloyd, ed., Materials Science of Synthetic Membranes, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1985, pp. 273-294.

12. F. V. Kosikowski, "Membrane Separations in Food Processing," in W. C. McGregor, ed., Membrane Separations in Biotechnology, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1986, pp. 201-254.

13. J. D. Mannapperuma, "Design and Performance Evaluation of Membrane Systems," in K J. Valentas, E. Rotstein, and R. P. Singh, eds., Handbook of Food Engineering Practice, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997, pp. 167-209.

14. H. R. Chapman et al., "Use of Milk Concentrated by Ultrafiltration for Making Hard Cheese, Soft Cheese and Yogurt," J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 27, 151-155 (1974).

15. F. L. Davies, P. A. Shankar, and H. M. Underwood, "The Use of Milk Concentrated by Reverse Osmosis for the Manufacture of Yogurt," J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 30, 23-28 (1977).

16. D.J. Phillips, "Application of Membrane Processing to Cheese Manufacture," in R. W. Field and J. A. Howell, eds., Process Engineering in the Food Industry, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1989, pp. 249-258.

17. J. Abbot et al., "Application of Reverse Osmosis to the Manufacture of Dried Whole Milk and Skim Milk," J. Dairy Res. 46, 663-672 (1979).

18. A. Bundgaard, "Hyperfiltration of Skim Milk for Ice Cream Manufacture," Dairy Ind. 39, 119-122 (1974).

19. F. V. Kosikowski, "Low Lactose Yogurts and Milk Beverages by Ultrafiltration," J. Dairy Sei. 62, 41-46 (1979).

20. D. Serpa Alverez, M. Bennasar, and B. De la Fuente, "Application of Ultrafiltration to the Manufacture of Sweetened Condensed Milk," Le Lait 59, 376-386 (1979).

21. G. Morgensen, "Production and Properties of Yogurt and Ymer Made from Ultrafiltered Milk," Desalination 35, 213222 (1980).

22. P. H. Ferguson, "Membrane Processing in the Food and Dairy Industries," in R. W. Field and J. A. Howell, eds., Process Engineering in the Food Industry, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1989, pp. 237-247.

23. T. I. Hedrick, "Reverse Osmosis and Ultrafiltration in the Food Industry: Review," Drying Technol. 2, 329-352 (1984).

24. P. Chakraborty, "Functional Properties of Coconut Protein Isolate by Ultrafiltration," in M. Le Maguer and P. Jelen, eds., Food Engineering and Process Applications, Vol. 2, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1986, pp. 305-315.

25. J. T. Lawhon et al., "Production of Protein Isolates and Concentrates from Oilseed Flour Extracts Using Industrial Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis Systems," J. Food Sei. 42, 389-394 (1977).

26. O. Omosaiye and M. Cheryan, "Ultrafiltration of Soybean Water Extracts: Processing Characteristics and Yields," J. Food Sei. 44, 1027-1031 (1979).

27. N. Devereux and M. Hoare, "Membrane Recovery of Soluble and of Precipitated Soya Proteins," in M. Le Maguer and P. Jelen, eds., Food Engineering and Process Applications, Vol. 2, Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1986.

28. Y. Tzeng, L. L. Diosady, and L. J. Rubin, "Preparation of Rape-seed Protein Isolate by Sodium Hexametaphosphate Extraction, Ultrafiltration, Diafiltration, and Ion-Exchange,"</. Food Sei. 53, 1537-1541 (1988).

29. H. G. Ang, W. L. Kwik, and C. K. Lee, "Ultrafiltration Studies of Foods: Part 1—The Removal of Undesirable Components in Soymilk and the Effects on the Quality of the Spray-Dried Powder," Food Chem. 20, 183-199 (1986).

30. E. S. K. Chian and M. A. Aschauer, "Effect of Freezing Soybean Whey upon the Performance of Ultrafiltration Process," in G. F. Bennett, ed., Industrial Waste Water Treatment, AIChE Symp. Ser., No. 144, 1974, pp. 163-169.

31. J. T. Lawhon, et al., "Fractionation and Recovery of Cottonseed Whey Constitutes by Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis," Cereal Chem. 52, 34-41 (1975).

32. S. D. Cunningham, C. M. Cater, and K. F. Mattil, "Cottonseed Protein Modification in an Ultrafiltration Cell," J. Food Sei. 43, 1477-1480 (1978).

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41. F. Chou, R. C. Wiley, and D. V. Schlimme, "Reverse Osmosis and Flavor Retention in Apple Juice Concentration," J. Food Sei. 56, 484-487 (1991).

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Fu-hung Hsieh

University of Missouri Columbia, Missouri


Food and foodservice equipment research and development for the Army, Navy Air Force, Marine Corps and the Defense Logistics Agency is conducted at the U.S. Army Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center in Natick, Massachusetts. Since 1970, Natick has served as the executive agent for the Department of Defense Food Program, conducting research, development and engineering to meet the unique feeding needs of the Armed Forces through a combination of in-house and contractual efforts.

Research and Development conducted under the DOD Food Program can generally be divided into two categories: Technology Base and Military Service Requirements. Technology Base efforts encompass research in areas of known or anticipated technology gaps that impede solution of current problems or development of future systems to meet military feeding needs. Military Service Requirements are recognized, validated needs identified by one or more of the Services and generally address known current deficiencies or needs contemplated in the next three to seven years.

The DOD Food and Nutrition Research and Engineering Board (FNREB), consisting of representatives of each of the four military Services and other involved organizations, functions as a board of directors, providing direction to Natick in formulation of the DOD Food Program. The FNREB meets annually to prioritize the projects, including initiation of effort on new requirements identified by the Services during the preceding year and revalidation of the need for continuation of ongoing work.

Each Service maintains a full-time representative at Natick as a member of the Joint Technical Staff (JTS). These representatives provide military guidance to the Natick scientists relative to their Services' projects and provide liaison between Natick personnel and the military community. They assist in matters such as organizing field tests and provide a communication link between the item developer (Natick) and the customers, the military planners and men and women in the field, aboard ships and on aircraft. The JTS members represent the FNREB on day-to-day actions and participate fully in all aspects of the DOD Food Program formulation and execution.

The annual program, formulated and prioritized as described above, is executed in three Natick elements, the Food Engineering Directorate, the Soldier Science Directorate and the Advanced Systems Concepts Directorate, whose specific functions are summarized below.

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