1. J. C. Wootton et al., "The Role of Emulsifiers in the Incorporation of Air into Layer Cake Batter Systems," Cereal Chem. 44, 333-343 (1967).

2. C. E. Stauffer, "The Interfacial Properties of Some Propylene Glycol Monoesters," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 27, 625-633 (1968).

3. H. Birnbaum, "The Monoglycerides: Manufacture, Concentration, Derivatives and Applications," Bakers Digest 55, 6-18 (1981).

4. W. H. Knightly, "Surfactants in Baked Foods: Current Practice and Future Trends," Cereal Foods World 33, 405-412 (1988).

5. D. T. Rusch, "Emulsifiers: Uses in Cereal and Bakery Foods," Cereal Foods World 26, 111-115 (1981).

6. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 8th ed., AACC, St. Paul, Minn., 1983, Method 58-45.

7. D. I. Hartnett, "Cake Shortenings," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 54, 557-560 (1977).

8. V. K. Babayan, "Polyglycerol Esters: Unique Additives for the Bakery Industry," Cereal Foods World 27, 510-512 (1982).

9. C. E. Walker, "Food Applications of Sucrose Esters," Cereal Foods World 29, 286-289 (1984).

10. B. A. Brachfeld, J. J. Geminder, and C. P. Hetzel, "Sodium Stearyl Fumarate: A New Dough Improver," Bakers Digest 40, 53-58, 86 (1966).

11. J. B. Lauridsen, "Food Surfactants, Their Structure and Polymorphism," AOCS Short Course on Physical Chemistry of Fats and Oils, May 11-14,1986, Hawaii.

12. W. J. Wolf and D. J. Sessa, "Lecithin," in M. S. Peterson and A. H. Johnson, eds., Encyclopedia of Food Technology and Food Science, AVI Publishing, Westport, Conn., 1978, pp. 461467.

13. C. R. Scholfield, "Composition of Soybean Lecithin," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58, 889-892 (1981).

14. B. F. Szuhaj, "Lecithin Production and Utilization," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 258A-261A (1983).

15. W. Van Nieuwenhuyzen, "Lecithin Production and Properties," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 53, 425-427 (1976).

16. J. Stanley, "Production and Utilization of Lecithin," in K. S. Markley, ed., Soybeans and Soybean Products, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1951, pp. 593-647.

17. O. L. Brekke, "Oil Degumming and Soybean Lecithin," in D. R. Erickson et al., eds., Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization, American Soybean Association, St. Louis, Mo., 1980, pp. 71-88.

Clyde E. Stauffer Technical Food Consultants Cincinnati, Ohio

See also Emulsifier technology in foods.

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