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2. D. C. Georgala, "The Bacterial Flora of the Skin ofNorth Sea Cod," Journal of General Microbiology 18, 84-91 (1958).

3. J. Liston, "Qualitative Variations in the Bacterial Flora of Flatfish," Journal of General Microbiology 15, 305-314 (1956).

4. J. M. Shewan, "Some Bacteriological Aspects of Handling, Processing and Distribution of Fish," J Roy. Sanit. Inst. 59, 394-421 (1949).

5. J. M. Shewan, "The Microbiology of Sea-Water Fish," in G. Borgstrom, ed., Fish as Food, Vol. 1. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando, Fla., 1961.

6. P. Baumann, M. Doudoroff, and R. Y. Stanier, "A Study of the Moraxella Group. I. Genus Moraxella and the Neisseria catarrhalis Group," Journal of Bacteriology 95,58-73 (1968).

7. P. Baumann, M. Doudoroff, and R. Y. Stanier, "A Study of the Moraxella Group. II. Oxidative-Negative Species (Genus Acinetobacter)," Journal of Bacteriology 95, 1520-1541 (1968).

8. G. L. Gilardi, "Morphological and Biochemical Differentiation of Achromobacter and Moraxella (DeBord's Tribe Mi-neae)," Applied Microbiology 16, 33-38 (1968).

9. J. Liston, "A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of the Bacterial Flora of Skate and Lemon Sole Trawled in the North Sea," Ph.D. dissertation. Aberdeen University, Aberdeen, U.K. 1955.

10. B. R. Botta, B. E. Squires, and J. Johnson, "Effect of Bleeding, Gutting Procedures on the Sensory Quality of Fresh Raw Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)," Canadian Institute of Food Technology Journal 19, 186 (1986).

11. R. M. Brian and D. R. Ward, "Microbiology of Finflsh and Finfish Processing," in D. R. Ward and C. R. Hackney, eds., Microbiology of Marine Food Products, Van Nostrand Reinhold, Co., Inc., New York.

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14. J. J. Connell, Control of Fish Quality, Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, UK, 1975.

15. R. Nichelson II, Seafood Quality Control—Boats and Fish Houses: Processing Plant, Marine Advisory Bulletins, Texas A & M University, Texas, 1972.

16. J. A. Dassow, "Handling Fresh Fish," in M. E. Stansoy, ed., Industrial Fishery Technology, Robert Krieger, New York, 1976.

17. T. Chai, "Studies on the Bacterial Flora of Fish Pen Slime," M. S. Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1970.

18. T. Chai, "Usefulness of Electrophoretic Pattern of Cell Envelope Protein as a Taxonomic Tool for Fish Hold Slime Moraxella Species." Applied Environmental Microbiology 42, 351-356 (1981).

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20. T. Chai, Fishery Bacteriology, Joint Commission Rural Reconstruction, Taipei, Taiwan, 1979.

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22. D. G. James. "The Prospects for Fish for the Undernourished Food and Nutrition," FAO 12, 20-27 (1986).

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26. J. Liston, "Microbiology in Fishery Science," in J. J. Connel, ed., Advances in Fish Science and Technology, Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, UK, 1980.

27. E. A. Fieger and A. F. Novak, "Microbiology of Shellfish Deterioration," in Ref. 5.

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31. O. B. Williams et al., "The Bacteriology of Gulf Coast Shrimp. II. Qualitative Observations on the External Flora," Texas J. Sci. 4, 53-54 (1952).

32. M. Green, "Bacteriology of Shrimp. II. Quantitative Studies of Freshly Caught and Iced Shrimp," Food Res. 14, 372-383 (1949).

33. L. L. Campbell, Jr., and O. B. Williams, "The Bacteriology of Gulf Coast Shrimp. IV. Bacteriological, Chemical, and Organoleptic Changes with Ice Storage," Food Technology 6, 125-126(1952).

34. B. F. Cobb et al., "Effect of Ice Storage upon the Free Amino Acid Contents of Tails of White Shrimp (Panaeus satiferus)," Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 22, 1052-1056 (1974).

35. C. Vanderzant, E. Roz, and R. Nickelson, "Microbial Flora of Gulf of Mexico and Pond Shrimp," J. Milk Food Technol. 33, 346-350 (Aug. 1970).

36. G. Finne, "Enzymatic Ammonia Production in Penaied Shrimp Held on Ice," in R. E. Martin and co-eds., Chemistry & Biochemistry of Marine Food Products, AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Conn., 1982.

37. H. S. Tubiash, R. K. Sizemore, and R. R. Colwell, "Bacterial Flora of the Hemolymph of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapi-dus: Most Probable Numbers," Applied Microbiology 29, 388-392 (1975).

38. R. K Sizemore et al., "Bacterial Flora of the Hemolymph of the Blue Crab. Callinectes sapidus: Numerical taxonomy," Applied Environmental Microbiology 29, 393-399 (1975).

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40. N. A. Cox and R. T. Lovell, "Identification and Characterization of the Microflora and Spoilage Bacteria in Freshwater Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii," Journal of Food Science 38, 679-681 (1973).

41. R. J. Miget, "Microbiology of Crustacean Processing: Shrimp, Crawfish, Prawns," in Ref. 11.

42. D. W. Cook, "Microbiology of Bivalve Molluskan Shellfish," in Ref. 11.

43. D. W. Cook, "Fate of Euteric Bacteria in Estuarine Sediments and Oysters Feces," J. Miss. Acad. Sci. 29, 71-76 (1984).

44. A. R. Murchelano and J. L. Bishop, "Bacteriological Study of Laboratory-Reared Juvenile American Oysters (Crassostrea virginica)," J. Muertebr. Pathol. 14, 321-327 (1975).

45. T. Chai et al., "Comparison of Microbiological Quality between Soft-Shell Clams and Growing Waters," Journal of Applied Environmental Microbiology, submitted.

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54. D. W. Cook and R. D. Eilender, "Relaying to Decrease the Concentration of Oyster-Associated Pathogens," J. Food Prot. 49, 196-202 (Mar. 1986).

55. G. H. Fleet, "Oyster Depuration—A Review," Food Tech. Aust. 30, 444-454 (1978).

56. G. J. Vasconcelos and J. S. Lee, "Microbial Flora of Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas) Subjected to Ultraviolet-Irradiated Seawater"Applied Microbiology 23, 11-16 (1972).

57. J. G. Metealf et al., "Bioaccumulation and Depuration of Enteroviruses by the Soft-Shelled Clam, Mya arenaria," Applied Environmental Microbiology 38, 275-282 (1979).

58. G. P. Richards, "Outbreaks of Shellfish-Associated Interic Virus Illness in the United States: Requisite for Development of Viral Guidelines," J. Food Prot. 48, 815 (1985).

59. K. L. Parkin and W. D. Brown, "Preservation of Seafood with Modified Atmospheres," in Ref. 36.

60. G. J. Banwart, Basic Food Microbiology, AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Conn., 1979.

61. K. Schroder et al., "Psychrotrophic Lactobacillus plantarum from Fish and Its Ability to Produce Antibiotic Substance," in J. J. Connell, ed., Advances in Fish Science and Technology, Fishing News Books Ltd., Surrey, UK, 1980.

62. P. H. Calcott and R. A. Macleod, "Survival of Escherichia coli from Freeze-Thaw Damage: A Theoretical and Practical Study," Canadian Journal of Microbiology 20, 671-681

63. P. H. Calcott et al., "The Effect of Cooling and Warm Rates on the Survival of a Variety of Bacteria," Canadian Journal of Microbiology 22, 106-109 (1976).

64. S. W. Weagant et al., "The Incidence of Listeria species in Frozen Seafood Products," J. Food Prot. 51, 655-657 (1988).

65. R. Digirolamo et al., "Survival of Virus in Chilled, Frozen, and Processed Oysters," Applied Microbiology 20, 58-63

66. H. C. Johnson and J. Liston, "Sensitivity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to Cold in Oysters, Fillets and Crabmeat," Journal of Food Science 38, 437-441 (1973).

67. N. Neufeld, "Influence of Bacteriological Standards on the Quality of Inspected Fisheries Products," in R. Kreuzer, ed., Fish Inspection and Quality Control, Fishing News Ltd., London, 1971.

68. B. S. Pan, "Low Moisture Fishery Products," in J-L. Chuang, B. S. Pan, and G-C. Chen, eds., Fishery Products of Taiwan, JCRR Fisheries Series 25B, Taipei, Taiwan, 1977.

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70. E. L. Elliot, "Microbiological Quality of Alaska Pollock Ser-imi." in D. E. Kramer and J. Liston, eds., Developments in Food Sciences: Seafood Quality Determination, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1987.

71. J. R. Matches et al., "Microbiology of Surimi-Based Products," in Ref. 70.

72. R. R. Cockey and T. Chai, "Microbiology of Crustacea Processing: Crabs," in Ref. 11.

73. J. S. Lee and D. K. Pfeifer, "Microbiological Characteristics of Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister)," Applied Microbiology 30, 72-78 (1975).

74. J. W. Duersch, M. W. Paparella, and R. R. Cockey, Processing Recommendation for Pasteurization Meat from the Blue Crabs, Marine Products Laboratory, University of Maryland, Crisfield, Md., 1981.

75. F. A. Phillips and J. T. Peeler, "Bacteriological Survey of the Blue Crab Industry," Applied Microbiology 24, 958-966 (1972).

76. M. W. Paparella, Information Tips 78-4, Marine Products Laboratory, University of Maryland, Crisfield, Md., 1978.

77. J. Pace, R. R. Cockey, and T. Chai, "Sources of Spoilage of Pasteurized Crabmeat," Proceedings of the Interstate Seafood Seminars, 314-323 (Oct. 1989).

78. R. R. Cockey and T. Chai, "Quik-Pik Machine Processing of Crabmeat and Quality Control," Proceedings of the Interstate Seafood Seminars 1990.

79. R. R. Cockey, "Bacteriological Assessment of Machine Picked Meat of the Blue Crabs," J. Food Prot. 43, 172-174 (1980).

80. M. A. Benarde and R. A. Littleford, "Antibiotic Treatment of Crab and Oyster Meats," Applied Microbiology 5, 368-372 (1957).

82. R. R. Cockey and M. C. Tatro, "Survival Studies with Spores of Clostridium botulinum Type E in Pasteurized Meat of the Blue Crabs Callinectes sapidus," Applied Microbiology 27, 629-633 (1974).

83. Maryland State Department of Health, Regulations Governing Crabmeat, Maryland State Department of Health, Baltimore, Sept. 3, 1957.

84. D. A. Kautter et al., "Incidence of CI. botulinum in Crabmeat from the Blue Crabs," Applied Microbiology 28, 722 (Oct. 1974).

85. R. K. Lynt et al., "Thermal Death Time of Clostridium botulinum Type E in Meat of the Blue Crabs," Journal of Food Science 42, 1022-1025 (1977).

86. R. K. Lynt, D. Kautter, and H. Solomon, "Differences and Similarities among Proteolytic and Nonproteolytic Strains of Clostridium botulinum A, B, E, and F: A Review," J. Food Prot. 45, 466-474 (Apr. 1982).

87. D. R. Ward et al., Thermal Processing Pasteurization Manual, Department of Food Science and Technology. VPI State University, Blacksburg, Va., 1982.

88. E. Tanikawa and S. Poka, "Heat Processing of Shellfish," in G. Borgstrom, ed., Fish as Food, Vol. IV. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Fla., 1965.

89. M. W. Eklund, "Significance of Clostridium botulinum in Fishery Products Preserved Short of Sterilization," Food Technology 36, 107-115 (Dec. 1982).

90. F. Huand and C. E. Hebard, Proceedings of Engineering and Economics of the Oyster Steaming Shucking Process, VPI & SU, Hampton, Va., 1980.

91. T. Chai, J. Pace, and T. Cossaboom, "Extension of Shelf-Life of Oysters by Pasteurization in Flexible Pouches," Journal of Food Science 49, 331-333 (Feb. 1984).

92. J. Pace, C. Y. Wu, and T. Chai, "Bacterial Flora in Pasteurized Oysters after Refrigerated Storage," Journal of Food Science 53, 325-327 (Feb. 1988).

93. G. G. Giddings, "Radiation Processing of Fishery Products," Food Technology 38, 61-6, 94-97 (1984).

94. J. J. Licciardello and L. J. Ronsivalli, "Irradiation of Seafoods," in Ref. 36.

95. J. D. Quinn et al., "The Inactivation of Infection and Intoxication Microorganisms by Irradiation in Seafood," in FAO/ IAEA, eds., Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation, IAEA, Vienna, 1967.

96. J. J. Licciardello, D. L. Dentremont, and R. C. Lundstrom, "Radio-Resistance of Some Bacterial Pathogens in Soft-Shell Clams (Mya arenaria) and mussels (Mytilus edulis)," J. Food Prot. 52, 407-411 (1989).

97. C. W. Hung and B. S. Pan, "Effect of Gamma Irradiation Dosage on Frozen Shrimp," Proceedings of the Atlantic Fisheries Technology Conference and International Symposium of Fisheries Technology, Boston, Mass., 1985.

98. G. Hobbs, "Clostridium botulinum in Irradiated Fish," Fd. Irrad. Inf. 7, 39-54 (1977).

99. A. Hobbs, "Toxin production by Clostridium botulinum Type E in Fish," in Ref. 97.

100. T. Miura et al., "Radiosensitivity of Type E Botulinum Toxin and Its Protection by Proteins, Nucleic Acids and Some Related Substances," in Ref. 97.

101. Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food, Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Committee Report, WHO Technological Report Series 604-FAO, Food and Nutrition Series 6, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1977.

102. R. B. Read, Jr., and J. G. Bradshaw, "¡'-Irradiation of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B," Applied Microbiology 15, 603-605 (1967).

103. R. Sullivan et al., "Inactivation of Thirty Viruses by Gamma Radiation," Applied Microbiology 22, 61-65 (1971).

104. T. Miura et al., "Radiosensitivity of Type E Botulinum Toxin and Its Protection by Proteins, Nucleic Acids, and Some Related Substances," in M. Herzberg, ed., Proceedings of the First United States—Japan Conference on Toxic Microorganisms, USDI, Washington, D.C., 1970.

105. E. F. Reben et al., "Biological Evaluation of Protein Quality of Radiation-Pasteurized Haddock, Flounder and Crab," Journal of Food Science 33, 335-337 (1968).

106. R. O. Brook et al., "Preservation of Fresh Unfrozen Fishery Products by Low-Level Radiation. V. The Effects of Radiation Pasteurization on Amino Acids and Vitamins in Haddock Fillets," Food Technology 20, 99-102 (1966).

107. J. W. Slavin et al., "The Quality and Wholesomeness of Radiation-Pasteurized Marine Products with Particular Reference to Fish Fillets," Iso. Radiat. Technol. 3, 365-381 (1966).

108. L. J. Ronsivalli et al., Study of Irradiated Pasteurized Fishery Products, Maximum Shelf Life Study. B. Radiation Chemistry, U.S. Atomic Commission Contract No. AT(49-

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109. B. L. Middlebrooks et al., "Effects on Storage Time and Temperature on the Microflora and Amine Development in Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus)." Journal of Food Science 53, 1024-1029 (1988).

110. J. H. Skala, E. L. McGown, and P. P. Waring, 'Wholesomeness of Irradiated Foods," J. Food Prot. 50, 150-160 (Feb. 1987).

111. C. R. Hackney and A. Dicharry, "Seafood-Borne Bacterial Pathogens of Marine Origin," Food Technology 42, 104-109 (Mar. 1988).

112. S. R. Rippey and T. L. Verber, Shellfish Borne Disease Outbreaks, FDA. Shellfish Sanitation Branch. Northeast Technical Services Unit, Davisville, R.I., 1986.

113. J. M. Janda et al., "Current Perspectives on the Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Clinically Significant Vibrio spp.," Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1, 245-267 (1988).

114. M. J. Alter et al., "Sporatic Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis: Frequency and Epidemiology in an Urban U.S. Population," Journal of Infectious Diseases 145, 886-893 (1982).

115. P. Blake, "Vibrio on the Half Shells; What the Walrus and the Carpenter Didn't Know," Annals of Internal Medicine 99, 558-559 (1987).

116. L. R. Beuchat, "Vibrio parahemolyticus: Public Health Significance." Food Technology 36, 80-92 (1982).

117. T. Fujino. "International Symposium on Vibrio parahaemo-lyticus" Saikon Publishing Co., Tokyo, Japan, 1974.

118. J. Sakurai, A. Matsuzaki, and T. Miwatani, "Purification and Characterization of Thermostable Direct Hemolysin of V. parahaemolyticus," Infection and Immunity 8, 775-780 (1973).

119. L. R. Beuchat, "Interacting Effects of pH. Temperature, and Salt Concentration on Growth and Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus," Applied Microbiology 25, 844-846 (May 1973).

120. D. Covert and M. Woodburn. "Relationship of Temperature and Sodium Chloride Concentration to the Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Broth and Fish Homogenate," Applied Microbiology 23, 321-325 (Feb. 1972).

121. D. Golmintz, R. C. Simpson, and D. L. Dubrow, "Effect of Temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artificially Contaminated Seafood," Developments in Industrial Microbiology 15, 288 (1974).

122. C. Vanderzant and R. Nickelson, "Survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Shrimp Tissue under Various Environmental Conditions," Applied Microbiology 23,34-37 (Jan. 1972).

123. K. Venkateswaran et al., "Characterization of Toxigenic Vibrio Isolated from the Freshwater Environment of Hiroshima, Japan," Applied Environmental Microbiology 55,2613-2618 (Oct. 1989).

124. R. R. Colwell and J. Kaper, "Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and Other Vibrios: Occurrence and Distribution in Chesapeake Bay," Science 198, 394-396 (1978).

125. G. Spite, D. Brown, and R. Twedt, "Isolation of One Enter-opathogenic, Kanagawa-Positive Strain of V. parahaemolyticus from Seafood Implicated in Acute Gastroenteritic," Applied Environmental Microbiology 35,1226-1227 (1978).

126. R. M. Twedt and D. F. Brown, "V. parahaemolyticus: Infection or Toxicosis?" J. Milk Food Technol. 36,129-134 (1973).

127. T. Honda et al., "Identification of Lethal Toxin with the Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Produced by V. parahaemolyticus, and Some Physiochemical Properties of the Purified Toxin," Infection and Immunity 13, 133-139 (1976).

128. J. Oliver, "Vibrio: On Increasingly Troublesome Genus," Diagn. Med. 8, 43-49 (1985).

129. R. Delmore and P. Crisley, "Thermal Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Clam Homogenate," Journal of Food Science 41, 899-902 (1979).

130. L. R. Beuchat and R. E. Worthington, "Relationships Between Heat Resistance and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition of Vibrio parahaemolyticus." Applied Environmental Microbiology 31, 389-394 (Mar. 1976).

131. R. P. Delmore, Jr., and F. D. Crisley, "Thermal Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Clam Homogenate," J. Food Prot. 42, 131-134 (1979).

132. R. Sakazaki, "Vibrio Infections," in H. Rieman and F. Bryon, eds., Foodborne Infection and Intoxication, Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Fla., 1979.

133. J. Morris and R. Black, "Cholera and Other Vibrioses in the United States," New England Journal of Medicine 312,343350 (1985).

134. Centers for Disease Control, "Cholera in Louisiana— Update," Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report 35, 687 (1986).

135. L. Shultz et al., "Determination of the Thermal Death Time of Vibrio cholerae in Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus)," J. Food Prot. 49, 4-6 (Jan. 1984).

136. J. Oliver, R. Warner, and D. Cleland, "Distribution of Vibrio vulnificus and Other Lactose Fermenting Vibrios in the Marine Environment," Applied Environmental Microbiology 45, 985-987 (1983).

137. R. Tilton and R. Ryan, "Clinical and Ecological Characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus in the Northeastern United States," Diagnostic Microbiology Infectious Disease 6, 109-117 (1987).

138. J. Oliver et al., "Bioluminescence in a Strain of the Human Pathogenic Bacterium Vibrio vulnificus," Applied Environmental Microbiology 52, 1209-1221 (1986).

139. G. Sakagrechi, "Botulism," in Ref. 132.

140. L. Smith, Botulism: The Organism, Its Toxins, the Disease. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, 111., 1977.

141. J. Simunovic, J. Oblinger, and J. Adams, "Potential for Growth of Nonproteolytic Types of Clostridium botulinum in Pasteurized Meat Products. A Review." J. Food Prot. 48, 265-276 (Mar. 1985).

142. NCA. Thermal Destruction of Type E Clostridium botulinum, NCA Research Foundation. Washington, D.C., 1973.

143. G. Hobbs, "Clostridium botulinum and Its Importance in Fishery Products," Acfo. Food Res. 22, 135-156(1976).

144. A. Emodi and R. Lechowich, "Low Temperature Growth of Type E. Clostridium botulinum Spores. I. Effect of Sodium Chloride and pH," Journal of Food Science 34, 78-81 (1969).

145. M. Miller and S. Koburger, "Plesiomonas shigelloides: An Opportunistic Food and Waterborne Pathogen," J. Food Prot. 48, 449-457 (May 1985).

146. C. P. Gerba, "Viral Disease Transmission by Seafoods," Food Technology 42, 99-103 (1988).

147. M. C. O'Mahony et al., "Epidemic Hepatitis A from Cockles," Lancet 1, 518-520 (1983).

148. W. Stille et al., "Oyster-Transmitted Hepatitis," Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 97, 145 (1972).

149. Centers for Disease Control, Annual Summary of Foodborne Diseases, CDC. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga., 1979-1986.

150. S. L. Taylor, "Marine Toxins of Microbial Origin," Food Technology 42, 94-98 (1988).

151. MCCFP. National Research Council. An Evaluation of the Role of Microbiological Criteria for Foods and Food Ingredients. National Academic Press, Washington, D.C., 1985.

152. E. S. Garrett III. "Microbiological Standards, Guidelines, and Specifications and Inspection of Seafood Products," Food Technology 42, 90-93 (1988).

153. International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. Microorganisms in Foods. 2. Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications. ICMFS, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1978.

154. International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, Microorganisms in Foods. 1. Their Significance and Methods of Enumeration, ICMFS. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1978.

155. International Committee on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, Microorganisms in Foods. 2. Sampling for Microbiological Analysis: Principles and Specific Applications. ICMFS, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1986.

156. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Recommended International Code of Practice for Shrimps or Prawns, Joint FAO/ WHO, Rome, Italy, 1980.

157. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Recommended International Code of Practice for Frozen Fish, Joint FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy, 1980.

158. National Academy of Sciences, An Evaluation of the Role of Microbiological Criteria for Foods and Food Ingredients, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1985.

Tuu-jyi Chai University of Maryland Cambridge, Maryland

See also Microbiology of foods.

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