1. G. M. Trout, Homogenized Milk, Michigan State College Press, East Lansing, Mich., 1950.

2. W. Clayton, The Theory of Emulsions and Their Technical Treatment, 2nd ed., J. & A. Churchill, London, United Kingdom, 1928.

3. U.S. Pat. 756,953 (April 12, 1904), Auguste Gaulin.

4. F. J. Doan, "Changes in the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Milk as a Result of Homogenization," American Milk Review 54 (June 1954).

5. F. J. Doan and C. H. Minster, "The Homogenization of Milk and Cream," Pennsylvania State College Bull. 287, School of Agriculture and Experiment Station, 1933.

6. T. L. Henshaw, "Reciprocating Pumps," Chemical Eng. 104 (Sept. 1981).

7. C. C. Loo and W. M. Carleton, "Further Studies of Cavitation in the Homogenization of Milk Products," J. Dairy Sei. 36,64 (1953).

8. A. A. McKillop et al., "The Cavitation Theory of Homogenization," J. Dairy Sei. 38, 273 (1955).

9. L. W. Phipps, "Action of the High Pressure Homogenizer," Bienn. Rev. Natl. Inst. Res. Dairy, 61 (1976).

10. P. Walstra, "Formation of Emulsions," in P. Becher, ed., Encyclopedia of Emulsion Technology, Vol. 1, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1983, p. 67.

11. H. Mulder and P. Walstra, The Milk Fat Globule, PUDOC (Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation), Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1974.

12. H. G. Kessler, Food Engineering and Dairy Technology, Verlag A. Kessler, Freising, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981.

13. L. H. Rees, "The Theory and Practical Application of Homogenization," J. Soc. Dairy Technol. 21, 172 (1968).

14. W. D. Pandolfe, "Effect of Dispersed and Continuous Phase Viscosity on Droplet Size of Emulsions Generated by Homogenization," J. Disp. Sei. and Technol. 2, 459 (1981).

15. P. Walstra, "Preliminary Note on the Mechanism of Homogenization," Neth. Milk Dairy J. 23, 290 (1969).

16. H. A. Kurzhals, "Untersuchungen Über die PhysikalischTechnischen Vorgänge Biem Homogenisieren von Milch in Hochdruck-Homogenisier-Maschinen," Ph.D. dissertation, Technical University Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany, 1977.

17. L. W. Phipps, "Cavitation and Separated Flow in a Single Homogenizing Valve and Their Influence on the Break-up of Fat Globules in Milk," J. Dairy Res. 41, 1-8 (1974).

18. U.S. Pat. 5,749,650 (May 12, 1998), R. R. Kinney, W. D. Pandolfe and R. D. Ferguson (to APV Homogenizer Group).

19. W. D. Pandolfe, "Development of the New Gaulin Micro-Gap Homogenizing Valve," J. Dairy Sei. 65, 2035 (1982).

20. U.S. Pat. 4,383,769 (May 17, 1983), W. D. Pandolfe and H. Graglia (to APV Gaulin, Inc.).

21. M. E. Cano-Ruiz and R. L. Richter, "Effect of Homogenization Pressure on the Milk Fat Globule Membrane Proteins," J. Dairy Sei. 80, 2732-2739 (1997).

22. W. D. Pandolfe and S. F. Masucci, "Rapid Spectroturbidimetric Analysis," American Laboratory 40 (Aug. 1984).

William D. Pandolfe APV Americas-Homogenizers Wilmington, Massachusetts

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