1. Codex Alimentarius, International Code of Practice for the Processing and Handling of Quick-Frozen Foods, U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, 1964.

2. R. Fuller, ed., A Practical Guide to the Cold Chain from Factory to Consumer, European Union FAIR Programme Concerted Action (CT96-1180), Leeds, United Kingdom, 1997.

3. C.J. Kennedy and G. P. Archer, eds., Maximising Quality and Stability of Frozen Foods, European Union FAIR Programme Concerted Action (CT96-1180), Leeds, United Kingdom, 1997.

4. A. F. Harvey, "Mechanical Handling," in C. V. J. Dellino, ed., Cold and Chilled Storage Technology, 2nd ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1997, p. 249.

5. Office of Technology Assessment, Open Shelf-Life Dating of Food, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1989.

6. Recommendations for the Processing and Handling of Frozen Foods, 3rd. ed., International Institute of Refrigeration, Paris, 1985.

7. Food Stability Survey, Vol. 2, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

8. Frozen Food Code, Association of Food and Drug Officials of the United States, 1961.

9. J. D. Selman, "Time-Temperature Indicators," in M. L. Roo-ney, ed., Active Food Packaging, Blackie Academic and Professional, London, 1995, p. 215.

10. B. Fu and T. P. Labuza, "Shelf-Life Testing: Procedures and Prediction Methods," in M. C. Erikson and Y.-C. Hung, eds., Quality in Frozen Food, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1997, p. 377.

11. P. S. Taoukis, B. Fu, and T. P. Labuza, "Time-Temperature Indicators," Food Technol. 45, 70-72 (1991).

12. P. Toursel, "La Puce, un Saut dans la Chaine du Froid," Process No. 1130, Paris, 1997.

13. R. P. Singh and J. H. Wells, "Use of Time-Temperature Indicators to Monitor Quality of Frozen Hamburger," Food Technol. 39, 42-50 (1985).

14. R. P. Singh and J. P. Wells, "Monitoring Quality Changes in Frozen Strawberries with Time-Temperature Indicators," Int. J. Refrig. 10, 296-300 (1987).

15. R. M. George and R. Shaw, "A Food Industry Specification for Defining the Technical Standard and Procedures for the Evaluation of Temperature and Time-Temperature Indicators," Technical Manual No. 35, Campden Food and Drink Research Association, United Kingdom, 1992.

16. British Standard 7908, "Packaging—Temperature and Time-Temperature Indicators—Performance Specification and Reference Testing," British Standards Institute, London, 1999.

Hugh Symons

Kingston Upon Thames, England

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