Bibliography

1. P. R. Hayes, Food Microbiology and Hygiene, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., Barbing, UK, 1985.

2. A. D. Russell, W. B. Hugo, and E. A. J. Ayliffe, eds., Principles and Practice of Disinfection, and Sterilization, Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, 1982.

3. C. R. Phillips, "Gaseous Sterilization," in S. S. Block, ed., Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, 2nd. ed., Lea and Fe-biger, Philadelphia, 1977.

4. J. R. Trueman, "The Halogens" in W. B. Hugo, ed., Inhibition and Destruction of the Microbial Cell, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1971, pp. 137-183.

5. M. A. Bernarde et al., "Efficiency of Chlorine Dioxide as a Bactericide," Appl. Microbiol. 13, 776-780(1965).

6. J. J. Merianos, "Quaternary Ammonium Antimicrobial Compounds," in S. S. Block, ed., Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, 4th ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 225-255.

7. CFR, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Parts 178.10051010, Office of Federal Register, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, April 1998.

8. G. R. Dychdala and J. A. Lopes, "Surface Active Agents: Acid-Anionic Compounds," in S. S. Block, ed., Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, 4th ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 256-262.

9. S. S. Block, "Peroxygen Compounds," in S. S. Block, ed., Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, 4th ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 167-181.

10. F. J. Turner, "Hydrogen Peroxide and Other Oxidant Disinfectants" in S. S. Block, ed., Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, 3rd ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1983. Penn., 1983, pp. 240-250.

11. N. A. Klapes and D. Vesley, "Vapor-phase Hydrogen Peroxide as a Surface Decontaminant and Sterilant," Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 503-506 (1990).

12. M. G. C. Baldry, "The Bactericidal, Fungicidal and Sporocidal Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid," J. Appl. Bad. 54, 417-423 (1983).

13. M. G. C. Baldry and J. A. L. Fraser, "Disinfection with Per-oxygens," in K. R. Payne, ed., Industrial Biocides, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1988, pp. 91-116.

14. R. F. Prindle, "Phenolic Compounds," in S. S. Block, ed., Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, 3rd ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1983, pp. 197-224.

15. R. A. Chilcote et al., "Hexachlorophene Storage in a Burn Patient Associated with Encephalopathy," Pediatrics 59, 457459 (1977).

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17. H. C. Stecker, "The Salicylanides and Carbanilides" in S. S. Block, ed., Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, 2nd ed., Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1977, pp. 282-300.

18. H. Jackson and M. Woodbine, "The Effect of Sublethal Heat Treatment on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus," J. Appl. Bad. 26, 152-158 (1963).

19. M. E. Stiles and L. D. Witter, "Thermal Inactivation, Heat Injury and Recovery of Staphylcoccus aureus" J. Dairy Sei. 48, 677-681 (1965).

20. L. A. Roth, M. E. Stiles, and L. F. L. Clegg, "Reliability of Selective Media for the Enumeration and Estimation of Escherichia coli," Can. Inst. Food Sei. Tech. J. 6, 230-234 (1973).

21. B. Croshaw, "Disinfectant Testing—With Particular Reference to the Rideal-Walker and Kelsey-Sykes Tests," in C. H. Collins et al., ed. Disinfectants: Their Use and Evaluation of Effectiveness, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1981, pp. 1-15.

22. R. M. Blood, J. S. Abbiss, and B. Jarvis, "Assessment of Two Methods for Testing Disinfectants and Sanitizers for Use in the Meat Processing Industry," in C. H. Collins et al., eds., Disinfectants: Their Use and Evaluation of Effectiveness, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1981, pp. 17-31.

23. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed., AOAC, Arlington, Va., Vol. 1, 1990, pp. 135-142.

24. G. A. J. Ayliffe, J. R. Babb, and Ha. A. Lilly, 'Tests for Hand Disinfection," in C. H. Collins et al., eds., Disinfectants: Their Use and Evaluation of Effectiveness, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1981, pp. 37-44.

25. A. Z. Sheena and M. E. Stiles, "Efficacy of Germicidal Hand Wash Agents in Hygienic Hand Disinfection," J. Food Protection 45, 713-720 (1982).

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27. A. Z. Sheena and M. E. Stiles, "Efficacy of Germicidal Hand Wash Agents Against Transient Bacteria Inoculated Onto Hands," J. Food Protection 46, 722-727 (1983).

28. A. Z. Sheena and M. E. Stiles, "Low Concentration Iodophor for Hand Hygiene,"«/. Hygiene 94, 269-277 (1985).

David A. Evans University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts

DISTILLATION: TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING

Although the use of distillation dates back in recorded history to about 50 bc the first truly industrial exploitation of this separation process did not occur until the 12th century, when it was used in the production of alcoholic beverages. By the 16th century, distillation also was being used in the manufacture of vinegar, perfumes, oils, and other such products.

As recently as 200 years ago, distillation stills were small, of the batch type, and usually operated with little or no reflux. With experience, however, came new developments. Tray columns appeared on the scene in the 1820s, along with feed preheating and the use of internal reflux. By the latter part of that century, considerable progress had been made by Hausbrand in Germany and Sorel in France, who developed mathematical relations that turned distillation from an art into a well-defined technology-

Distillation today is a widely used operation in the petroleum, chemical petrochemical, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. It is important not only for the development of new products but also in many instances for the recovery and reuse of volatile liquids. Pharmaceutical manufacturers, for example, use large quantities of solvents, most of which can be recovered by distillation with a substantial savings in cost and a reduction in pollution.

Although one of the most important unit operations, distillation unfortunately is also one of the most energy-intensive operations. It easily is the largest consumer of energy in petroleum and petrochemical processing and as such, must be approached with conservation in mind. It is a specialized technology in which the correct design of equipment is not always a simple task.

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