1. B. W. Halstead, Poisonous and Venomous Marine Animals of the World, 2nd rev. ed., Darwin Press, Princeton, N.J., 1988.

2. United States Centers for Disease Control, Foodborne Disease Surveillance Annual Summaries, US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Geo.

3. E. P. Ragelis, ed., Seafood Toxins, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1984.

5. D. G. Baden, "Brevetoxins: Unique Polyether Dinoflagellate Toxins," FASEB Journal 3, 1807-1817 (1989).

6. W. H. Hemmert, "The Public Health Implications of Gymno-dinium breve Red Tides, A Review of the Literature and Recent Events," in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellate Blooms, Boston, Mass., Nov. 46, 1974.

7. D. V. Subba Rao, M. A. Quillian, and R. Pocklington. "Domoic Acid—A Neurotoxic Amino Acid Produced by the Marine Diatom Nitzschia pungens in Culture," Canadian Journal of Fish. Aquatic Science 45, 2076-2079 (1988).

8. T. Yasumoto, T. Oshima, W. Sugaware, Y. Fukuyo, H. Oguri, T. Igarashi, and N. Fujita. "Identification of Dinophysis fortii as the Causative Organism of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning," Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Sci. Fish. 46, 1405-1411 (1980).

9. E. Stammon, D. A. Segar, and P. G. Davis, "A Preliminary Assessment of the Potential for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning in the Northeast United States," NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OMA 34, Rockville, Md., 1987.

10. T. Yasumoto, I. Nakajima, R. Bagnis, and R. Adachi. "Finding of a Dinoflagellate as a Likely Culprit of Ciguatera," Bulletin of the Japanese Society Sci. Fish. 43, 1021-1026 (1977).

11. H. Dymsza et al., "Poisonous Marine Animals," in H. D. Graham, ed., The Safety of Foods, 2nd ed., Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1980, pp. 625-651.

12. U. Simidu, T. Noguchi, D. F. Hwang, Y. Shida, and K. Hashimoto. "Marine Bacteria which Produce Tetrodotoxin,"Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53, 1714-1715 (1987).

13. J. J. Sullivan and W. T. Iwaoka, "High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Toxins Associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning," Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 66, 297-303 (1983).

14. S. L. Taylor, J. Y. Hui, and D. E. Lyons, Ref. 3, pp. 417-430.

15. S. L. Hu and C. Y. Kao, "The pH Dependence of the Tetrodo-toxin-Blockade of the Sodium Channel and Implications for Toxin Binding," Toxicon 24, 25-31 (1986).

16. E. F. McFarren, "Assay and Control of Marine Biotoxins," Food Technology 25, 234-244 (1971).

17. S. Hall and Y. Shimizu, "Toxin Analysis and Assay Methods," in D. M. Anderson, A. W. White, and D. G. Baden, eds., Toxic Dinoflaggelates, Elsevier, New York, pp. 545-548.

18. E. L. Bryan, "Epidemiology of Foodborne Diseases Transmitted by Fish, Shellfish and Marine Crustaceans in the United States, 1970-1978," Journal of Food Protection 43, 859-876 (1980).

19. J. M. Hughes and M. H. Merson, "Current Concepts, Fish and Shellfish Poisoning," Medical Intelligence 93, 1117-1120 (1976).

20. J. L. C. Wright, "Dealing with Seafood Toxins: Present Approaches and Future Options," Food Research International 28, 347-358 (1995).

21. K. A. Steidinger, "Some Taxonomic and Biologic Aspects of Toxic Dinoflagellates," in I. R. Falconer, ed., Algal Toxins in Seafood and Drinking Water, Academic Press, San Diego, Cal., 1993, pp. 1-28.

22. H. P. van Egmond et al., "Paralytic and Diarrhoeic Shellfish Poisons: Occurrence in Europe, Toxicity, Analysis and Regulation," Journal of Natural Toxins 2, 41-83 (1993).

23. S. S. Bates et al., "Pennate Diatom Nitzchia pungens as the Primary Source of Domoic Acid, A Toxin in Shellfish from Eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada," Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46, 1203-1215 (1989).

24. T. Aune and M. Yndestad, "Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning," in I. R. Falconer, ed., Algal Toxins in Seafood and Drinking Water, Academic Press, San Diego, Cal., 1993, pp. 87104.

25. Y. Oshima, S. Blackburn, and G. M. Hallegraff, "Comparative Study on Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Profile of the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenateum from Three Different Countries," Marine Biology 95, 217-220 (1993).

26. E. C. D. Todd, "Domoic Acid and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning—A Review," Journal of Food Protection 56, 69-83 (1993).

27. B. Bartholomew et al., "Scombrotoxic Fish Poisoning in Britain: Features of Over 250 Suspected Incidents Between 1976 and 1986," Epidemiological Infections 99, 775-782 (1986).

28. J. D. Chin et al., Screening for Okadaic Acid, A New Probe for the Study of Cellular Regulation," TIBS 15, 98-100 (1995).

29. E. Usleber, E. Schneider, and G. F. Terplan, "Direct Enzyme Immunoassay in Microtitration Plate and Test Strip Format for the Detection of Saxitoxin in Shellfish," Letters in Applied Microbiology 13, 275-277 (1991).

30. U.S. Patent 4,816,392 (March 28, 1989), Y. Hokama.

31. Food and Drug Administration, National Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations, Part I, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., 1988.

See also Toxicants, natural.

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